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GRP gastrin releasing peptide [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

Gene ID: 2922, updated on 15-Apr-2019

Summary

Official Symbol
GRPprovided by HGNC
Official Full Name
gastrin releasing peptideprovided by HGNC
Primary source
HGNC:HGNC:4605
See related
Ensembl:ENSG00000134443 MIM:137260
Gene type
protein coding
RefSeq status
REVIEWED
Organism
Homo sapiens
Lineage
Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
Also known as
BN; GRP-10; proGRP; preproGRP
Summary
This gene encodes a member of the bombesin-like family of gastrin-releasing peptides. The encoded preproprotein is proteolytically processed to generate two peptides, gastrin-releasing peptide and neuromedin-C. These peptides regulate numerous functions of the gastrointestinal and central nervous systems, including release of gastrointestinal hormones, smooth muscle cell contraction, and epithelial cell proliferation. These peptides are also likely to play a role in human cancers of the lung, colon, stomach, pancreas, breast, and prostate. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants, at least one of which encodes a preproprotein that is proteolytically processed. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2016]
Expression
Low expression observed in reference dataset See more
Orthologs

Genomic context

See GRP in Genome Data Viewer
Location:
18q21.32
Exon count:
5
Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
109 current GRCh38.p12 (GCF_000001405.38) 18 NC_000018.10 (59219188..59230774)
105 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 18 NC_000018.9 (56887400..56898003)

Chromosome 18 - NC_000018.10Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene SEC11 homolog C, signal peptidase complex subunit Neighboring gene signal recognition particle 19kDa pseudogene Neighboring gene retina and anterior neural fold homeobox Neighboring gene complexin 4

Genomic regions, transcripts, and products

Expression

  • Project title: HPA RNA-seq normal tissues
  • Description: RNA-seq was performed of tissue samples from 95 human individuals representing 27 different tissues in order to determine tissue-specificity of all protein-coding genes
  • BioProject: PRJEB4337
  • Publication: PMID 24309898
  • Analysis date: Wed Apr 4 07:08:55 2018

Bibliography

GeneRIFs: Gene References Into FunctionsWhat's a GeneRIF?

Pathways from BioSystems

  • Class A/1 (Rhodopsin-like receptors), organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Class A/1 (Rhodopsin-like receptors), organism-specific biosystemRhodopsin-like receptors (class A/1) are the largest group of GPCRs and are the best studied group from a functional and structural point of view. They show great diversity at the sequence level and ...
  • G alpha (q) signalling events, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    G alpha (q) signalling events, organism-specific biosystemThe classic signalling route for G alpha (q) is activation of phospholipase C beta thereby triggering phosphoinositide hydrolysis, calcium mobilization and protein kinase C activation. This provides ...
  • GPCR downstream signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    GPCR downstream signaling, organism-specific biosystemG protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are classically defined as the receptor, G-protein and downstream effectors, the alpha subunit of the G-protein being the primary signaling molecule. However, it h...
  • GPCR ligand binding, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    GPCR ligand binding, organism-specific biosystemThere are more than 800 G-protein coupled receptor (GPCRs) in the human genome, making it the largest receptor superfamily. GPCRs are also the largest class of drug targets, involved in virtually all...
  • Gastric acid production, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Gastric acid production, organism-specific biosystemGastric acid forms a protective buffer against pathogenic agents. It is also essential in the digestion of the food. The stomach wall is protected to the high acidity by a mucus layer and bicarbonate...
  • Gastrin-CREB signalling pathway via PKC and MAPK, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Gastrin-CREB signalling pathway via PKC and MAPK, organism-specific biosystemGastrin is a hormone whose main function is to stimulate secretion of hydrochloric acid by the gastric mucosa, which results in gastrin formation inhibition. This hormone also acts as a mitogenic fac...
  • Incretin synthesis, secretion, and inactivation, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Incretin synthesis, secretion, and inactivation, organism-specific biosystemIncretins are peptide hormones produced by the gut that enhance the ability of glucose to stimulate insulin secretion from beta cells in the pancreas. Two incretins have been identified: Glucagon-lik...
  • Metabolism of proteins, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Metabolism of proteins, organism-specific biosystemProtein metabolism comprises the pathways of translation, post-translational modification and protein folding.
  • Peptide hormone metabolism, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Peptide hormone metabolism, organism-specific biosystemPeptide hormones are cleaved from larger precursors in the secretory system (endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, secretory granules) of the cell. After secretion peptide hormones are modified and...
  • Peptide ligand-binding receptors, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Peptide ligand-binding receptors, organism-specific biosystemThese receptors, a subset of the Class A/1 (Rhodopsin-like) family, all bind peptide ligands which include the chemokines, opioids and somatostatins.
  • Signal Transduction, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signal Transduction, organism-specific biosystemSignal transduction is a process in which extracellular signals elicit changes in cell state and activity. Transmembrane receptors sense changes in the cellular environment by binding ligands, such a...
  • Signaling by GPCR, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signaling by GPCR, organism-specific biosystemG protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs; 7TM receptors; seven transmembrane domain receptors; heptahelical receptors; G protein-linked receptors [GPLR]) are the largest family of transmembrane receptors i...
  • Synthesis, secretion, and inactivation of Glucagon-like Peptide-1 (GLP-1), organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Synthesis, secretion, and inactivation of Glucagon-like Peptide-1 (GLP-1), organism-specific biosystemIn L cells of the intestine the transcription factors TCF-4 (TCF7L2) and Beta-catenin form a heterodimer and bind the G2 enhancer of the Proglucagon gene GCG,activating its transcription to yield Pro...

Interactions

Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

General gene information

Markers

Homology

Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

Function Evidence Code Pubs
neuropeptide hormone activity IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
signaling receptor binding NAS
Non-traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
Process Evidence Code Pubs
G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
neuropeptide signaling pathway IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of peptide hormone secretion ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
positive regulation of phospholipase C-activating G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
psychomotor behavior IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
regulation of signaling receptor activity IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
response to external biotic stimulus IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
signal transduction NAS
Non-traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
social behavior IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
Component Evidence Code Pubs
extracellular region TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
extracellular space IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
secretory granule lumen ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 

General protein information

Preferred Names
gastrin-releasing peptide
Names
bombesin
neuromedin C
pre-progastrin releasing peptide
prepro-GRP
testicular tissue protein Li 103

NCBI Reference Sequences (RefSeq)

RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. NM_001012512.2NP_001012530.1  gastrin-releasing peptide isoform 2 precursor

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (2) uses an alternate in-frame splice site in the 3' coding region, compared to variant 1, resulting in a shorter protein (isoform 2). This variant has also been identified as "splice isoform 3" and "pro-gastrin releasing peptide type 2". The encoded isoform (2) may undergo proteolytic processing similar to isoform 1.
    Source sequence(s)
    AA989236, BC004488, W01859
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS45877.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P07492
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    A0A140VJM7
    Related
    ENSP00000389696.2, ENST00000420468.6
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    pfam02044
    Location:4154
    Bombesin; Bombesin-like peptide
  2. NM_001012513.2NP_001012531.1  gastrin-releasing peptide isoform 3 preproprotein

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (3) uses an alternate splice site in the coding region, which results in a frameshift and an early stop codon, compared to variant 1. It encodes isoform 3 which has a shorter and distinct C-terminus, compared to isoform 1. This variant has also been identified as "splice isoform 2", "pro-gastrin releasing peptide type 3", and "gastrin-releasing peptide nirs variant 1".
    Source sequence(s)
    AA989236, BC004488, CK903483
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS45878.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P07492
    Related
    ENSP00000434101.1, ENST00000529320.2
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    pfam02044
    Location:4154
    Bombesin; Bombesin-like peptide
  3. NM_002091.5NP_002082.2  gastrin-releasing peptide isoform 1 preproprotein

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_002082.2

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (1) represents the longest transcript and encodes the longest isoform (1). This variant has also been identified as "pro-gastrin releasing peptide type 1".
    Source sequence(s)
    AC067859, BC004488
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS11971.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P07492
    Related
    ENSP00000256857.2, ENST00000256857.7
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    pfam02044
    Location:4154
    Bombesin; Bombesin-like peptide

RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: Homo sapiens Annotation Release 109

The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

Reference GRCh38.p12 Primary Assembly

Genomic

  1. NC_000018.10 Reference GRCh38.p12 Primary Assembly

    Range
    59219188..59230774
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. XM_011525933.2XP_011524235.1  gastrin-releasing peptide isoform X3

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for XP_011524235.1

  2. XM_017025712.1XP_016881201.1  gastrin-releasing peptide isoform X1

  3. XM_017025713.1XP_016881202.1  gastrin-releasing peptide isoform X2

  4. XM_017025714.1XP_016881203.1  gastrin-releasing peptide isoform X4

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