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CXCL1 C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 1 [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

Gene ID: 2919, updated on 30-Apr-2024


Official Symbol
CXCL1provided by HGNC
Official Full Name
C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 1provided by HGNC
Primary source
See related
Ensembl:ENSG00000163739 MIM:155730; AllianceGenome:HGNC:4602
Gene type
protein coding
RefSeq status
Homo sapiens
Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
Also known as
This antimicrobial gene encodes a member of the CXC subfamily of chemokines. The encoded protein is a secreted growth factor that signals through the G-protein coupled receptor, CXC receptor 2. This protein plays a role in inflammation and as a chemoattractant for neutrophils. Aberrant expression of this protein is associated with the growth and progression of certain tumors. A naturally occurring processed form of this protein has increased chemotactic activity. Alternate splicing results in coding and non-coding variants of this gene. A pseudogene of this gene is found on chromosome 4. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2014]
Annotation information
Note: This gene has been reviewed for its involvement in coronavirus biology, and is involved in immune response or antiviral activity.
Biased expression in spleen (RPKM 42.1), urinary bladder (RPKM 38.5) and 12 other tissues See more
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Genomic context

Exon count:
Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
RS_2023_10 current GRCh38.p14 (GCF_000001405.40) 4 NC_000004.12 (73869393..73871308)
RS_2023_10 current T2T-CHM13v2.0 (GCF_009914755.1) 4 NC_060928.1 (77213030..77214945)
105.20220307 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 4 NC_000004.11 (74735110..74737025)

Chromosome 4 - NC_000004.12Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene pro-platelet basic protein pseudogene 1 Neighboring gene platelet factor 4 variant 1 Neighboring gene heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A1 pseudogene 55 Neighboring gene C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 1 pseudogene 1

Genomic regions, transcripts, and products


  • Project title: HPA RNA-seq normal tissues
  • Description: RNA-seq was performed of tissue samples from 95 human individuals representing 27 different tissues in order to determine tissue-specificity of all protein-coding genes
  • BioProject: PRJEB4337
  • Publication: PMID 24309898
  • Analysis date: Wed Apr 4 07:08:55 2018


GeneRIFs: Gene References Into Functions

What's a GeneRIF?


EBI GWAS Catalog

Genome-wide and gene-based association studies of anxiety disorders in European and african american samples.
EBI GWAS Catalog
Host-microbe interactions have shaped the genetic architecture of inflammatory bowel disease.
EBI GWAS Catalog

HIV-1 interactions

Replication interactions

Interaction Pubs
HIV-1 infected clinical samples have plasma extracellular vesicles that contain elevated CCL1 (I309), IGFBP1, CCL5 (RANTES), GMCSF, ANG, ADIPOQ (ACRP30), CSF3 (GCSF), CXCL1 (GRO), ICAM1, IL2RA, IL6R, TNFRSF1A, and TIMP1 when compared to healthy donors PubMed

Protein interactions

Protein Gene Interaction Pubs
Envelope surface glycoprotein gp120 env HIV-1 IIIB Env (gp120) upregulates production of TNF (TNF-a), IL-17A, CCL2 (MCP1), CCL5 (RANTES), IL6, IL10, CXCL8 (IL8), CXCL1 (GRO-a), and CCL1 (I309) in stimulated monocyte derived macrophages PubMed
env HIV-1 gp120-treated vaginal epithelial cells show upregulation of CXCL1 expression as compared to untreated control PubMed
env In endometrial epithelium-derived cells, gp120 from CCR5-tropic HIV-1 increases the release of monocytes/chemokines-attracting chemokines (IL-8 and GRO) and proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-beta and IL-1alpha) PubMed
env Production of the C-X-C chemokine growth-regulated oncogene alpha (GRO-alpha) is markedly stimulated by CXCR4-tropic HIV-1; HIV-1 gp120 engagement of CXCR4 initiates the stimulation of GRO-alpha production, which is blocked by antibodies to CXCR4 PubMed
Envelope transmembrane glycoprotein gp41 env A synthetic peptide corresponding to the immunosuppressive domain (amino acids 574-592) of HIV-1 gp41 inhibits activation of PBMCs and upregulates the expression of CXCL1 in peptide-treated PBMCs PubMed
Nef nef HIV-1 Nef specifically incorporates CSF2, PPBP (NAP2), CCL5, TNF, FAS, CXCL1, IL12B, MIF and OSM into plasma extracellular vesicles from HIV-1 infected patient samples PubMed
Tat tat Microarray analysis indicates HIV-1 Tat-induced upregulation of chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 1 (CXCL1) in primary human brain microvascular endothelial cells PubMed
tat HIV-1 Tat upregulates the expression of chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 1 (CXCL1) in human primary T cells PubMed

Go to the HIV-1, Human Interaction Database

Pathways from PubChem


Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

General gene information


Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

Function Evidence Code Pubs
enables CXCR chemokine receptor binding IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
enables chemokine activity IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
enables enzyme activator activity TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
enables growth factor activity TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
enables protein binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
enables signaling receptor binding TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
Component Evidence Code Pubs
located_in extracellular region TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
is_active_in extracellular space IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
located_in specific granule lumen TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
located_in tertiary granule lumen TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info

General protein information

Preferred Names
growth-regulated alpha protein
C-X-C motif chemokine 1
GRO1 oncogene (melanoma growth stimulating activity, alpha)
GRO1 oncogene (melanoma growth-stimulating activity)
MGSA alpha
chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 1 (melanoma growth stimulating activity, alpha)
fibroblast secretory protein
melanoma growth stimulating activity, alpha
melanoma growth stimulatory activity alpha
neutrophil-activating protein 3

NCBI Reference Sequences (RefSeq)

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RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. NM_001511.4NP_001502.1  growth-regulated alpha protein precursor

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001502.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Transcript Variant: This variant (1) encodes the functional protein.
    Source sequence(s)
    AC092438, BM554448, BM996663
    Consensus CDS
    P09341, Q9UCR7
    ENSP00000379110.3, ENST00000395761.4
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    Chemokine_CXC; 1 of 4 subgroup designations based on the arrangement of the two N-terminal cysteine residues; includes a number of secreted growth factors and interferons involved in mitogenic, chemotactic, and inflammatory activity; many members contain an RCxC motif ...


  1. NR_046035.2 RNA Sequence

    Status: REVIEWED

    Transcript Variant: This variant (2) uses an alternate splice site, compared to variant 1. This variant is represented as non-coding because the use of the 5'-most expected translational start codon, as used in variant 1, renders the transcript a candidate for nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD).
    Source sequence(s)
    AC092438, BG121608, BM996663, X12510

RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: GCF_000001405.40-RS_2023_10

The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

Reference GRCh38.p14 Primary Assembly


  1. NC_000004.12 Reference GRCh38.p14 Primary Assembly

    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

Alternate T2T-CHM13v2.0


  1. NC_060928.1 Alternate T2T-CHM13v2.0

    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)