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CRH corticotropin releasing hormone [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

Gene ID: 1392, updated on 21-Apr-2019

Summary

Official Symbol
CRHprovided by HGNC
Official Full Name
corticotropin releasing hormoneprovided by HGNC
Primary source
HGNC:HGNC:2355
See related
Ensembl:ENSG00000147571 MIM:122560
Gene type
protein coding
RefSeq status
REVIEWED
Organism
Homo sapiens
Lineage
Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
Also known as
CRF; CRH1
Summary
This gene encodes a member of the corticotropin-releasing factor family. The encoded preproprotein is proteolytically processed to generate the mature neuropeptide hormone. In response to stress, this hormone is secreted by the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus, binds to corticotropin releasing hormone receptors and stimulates the release of adrenocorticotropic hormone from the pituitary gland. Marked reduction in this protein has been observed in association with Alzheimer's disease. Autosomal recessive hypothalamic corticotropin deficiency has multiple and potentially fatal metabolic consequences including hypoglycemia and hepatitis. In addition to production in the hypothalamus, this protein is also synthesized in peripheral tissues, such as T lymphocytes, and is highly expressed in the placenta. In the placenta it is a marker that determines the length of gestation and the timing of parturition and delivery. A rapid increase in circulating levels of the hormone occurs at the onset of parturition, suggesting that, in addition to its metabolic functions, this protein may act as a trigger for parturition. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2015]
Expression
Biased expression in placenta (RPKM 2.8), fat (RPKM 0.8) and 2 other tissues See more
Orthologs

Genomic context

See CRH in Genome Data Viewer
Location:
8q13.1
Exon count:
2
Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
109 current GRCh38.p12 (GCF_000001405.38) 8 NC_000008.11 (66176377..66178645, complement)
105 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 8 NC_000008.10 (67088612..67090846, complement)

Chromosome 8 - NC_000008.11Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene transfer RNA-Tyr (GTA) 5-1 Neighboring gene transfer RNA-Tyr (GTA) 5-2 Neighboring gene tripartite motif containing 55 Neighboring gene uncharacterized LOC112268029 Neighboring gene long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 967

Genomic regions, transcripts, and products

Expression

  • Project title: HPA RNA-seq normal tissues
  • Description: RNA-seq was performed of tissue samples from 95 human individuals representing 27 different tissues in order to determine tissue-specificity of all protein-coding genes
  • BioProject: PRJEB4337
  • Publication: PMID 24309898
  • Analysis date: Wed Apr 4 07:08:55 2018

Bibliography

GeneRIFs: Gene References Into FunctionsWhat's a GeneRIF?

Phenotypes

NHGRI GWAS Catalog

Description
Genome-wide study of gene variants associated with differential cardiovascular event reduction by pravastatin therapy.
NHGRI GWA Catalog

Pathways from BioSystems

  • Alcoholism, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Alcoholism, organism-specific biosystemAlcoholism, also called dependence on alcohol (ethanol), is a chronic relapsing disorder that is progressive and has serious detrimental health outcomes. As one of the primary mediators of the reward...
  • Alcoholism, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Alcoholism, conserved biosystemAlcoholism, also called dependence on alcohol (ethanol), is a chronic relapsing disorder that is progressive and has serious detrimental health outcomes. As one of the primary mediators of the reward...
  • Circadian rythm related genes, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Circadian rythm related genes, organism-specific biosystemThis is currently not a pathway but a list of circadian rhythm related genes and proteins. The source for this information is the gene ontology. The genes and proteins were filtered for "circadian rh...
  • Class B/2 (Secretin family receptors), organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Class B/2 (Secretin family receptors), organism-specific biosystemThis family is known as Family B (secretin-receptor family, family 2) G-protein-coupled receptors. Family B GPCRs include secretin, calcitonin, parathyroid hormone/parathyroid hormone-related peptide...
  • Corticotropin-releasing hormone signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Corticotropin-releasing hormone signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemCorticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) is a neuropeptide secreted abundantly in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, amygdala, cerebral cortex and cerebellum in the central nervous system ...
  • G alpha (s) signalling events, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    G alpha (s) signalling events, organism-specific biosystemThe general function of the G alpha (s) subunit (Gs) is to activate adenylate cyclase, which in turn produces cAMP, leading to the activation of cAMP-dependent protein kinases (often referred to col...
  • GPCR downstream signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    GPCR downstream signaling, organism-specific biosystemG protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are classically defined as the receptor, G-protein and downstream effectors, the alpha subunit of the G-protein being the primary signaling molecule. However, it h...
  • GPCR ligand binding, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    GPCR ligand binding, organism-specific biosystemThere are more than 800 G-protein coupled receptor (GPCRs) in the human genome, making it the largest receptor superfamily. GPCRs are also the largest class of drug targets, involved in virtually all...
  • Long-term depression, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Long-term depression, organism-specific biosystemCerebellar long-term depression (LTD), thought to be a molecular and cellular basis for cerebellar learning, is a process involving a decrease in the synaptic strength between parallel fiber (PF) and...
  • Long-term depression, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Long-term depression, conserved biosystemCerebellar long-term depression (LTD), thought to be a molecular and cellular basis for cerebellar learning, is a process involving a decrease in the synaptic strength between parallel fiber (PF) and...
  • Myometrial Relaxation and Contraction Pathways, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Myometrial Relaxation and Contraction Pathways, organism-specific biosystemThis pathway illustrates signaling networks implicated in uterine muscle contraction at labor and quiescence throughout gestation (pregnancy). The muscle of the uterus, responsible for contractile ac...
  • Rapid glucocorticoid signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    Rapid glucocorticoid signaling, organism-specific biosystem
    Rapid glucocorticoid signaling
  • Signal Transduction, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signal Transduction, organism-specific biosystemSignal transduction is a process in which extracellular signals elicit changes in cell state and activity. Transmembrane receptors sense changes in the cellular environment by binding ligands, such a...
  • Signaling by GPCR, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signaling by GPCR, organism-specific biosystemG protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs; 7TM receptors; seven transmembrane domain receptors; heptahelical receptors; G protein-linked receptors [GPLR]) are the largest family of transmembrane receptors i...

Interactions

Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

General gene information

Markers

Homology

Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

Function Evidence Code Pubs
corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor 1 binding IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor 2 binding IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
hormone activity TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
neuropeptide hormone activity TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
protein binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
signaling receptor binding TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
Process Evidence Code Pubs
G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
adrenal gland development IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
associative learning IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
cellular response to cocaine IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
cellular response to dexamethasone stimulus IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
chemical synaptic transmission TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
diterpenoid metabolic process IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
female pregnancy IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
glucocorticoid biosynthetic process IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
hormone-mediated apoptotic signaling pathway IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
hypothalamus development IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
inflammatory response IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
ion homeostasis IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
learning or memory TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
locomotory exploration behavior IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
long-term synaptic potentiation IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
lung development IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
negative regulation of cell death IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
negative regulation of circadian sleep/wake cycle, REM sleep NAS
Non-traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of gene expression IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
negative regulation of luteinizing hormone secretion IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
negative regulation of norepinephrine secretion IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
negative regulation of systemic arterial blood pressure IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
parturition TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of behavioral fear response IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
positive regulation of cAMP-mediated signaling IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
positive regulation of calcium ion import IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
positive regulation of cell death IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
positive regulation of cell proliferation IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
positive regulation of circadian sleep/wake cycle, wakefulness NAS
Non-traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of corticosterone secretion IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
positive regulation of corticotropin secretion IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of cortisol secretion IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of digestive system process IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
positive regulation of gene expression IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
positive regulation of insulin secretion involved in cellular response to glucose stimulus IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
positive regulation of protein phosphorylation IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
regulation of NMDA receptor activity IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
regulation of serotonin secretion IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
response to corticosterone IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
response to estrogen IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
response to ethanol IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
response to ether IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
response to immobilization stress IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
response to pain IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
signal transduction TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
synaptic transmission, dopaminergic IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
Component Evidence Code Pubs
cytoplasm IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
extracellular region TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
extracellular space IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
perikaryon IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
varicosity IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 

General protein information

Preferred Names
corticoliberin
Names
corticotropin-releasing factor

NCBI Reference Sequences (RefSeq)

RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

Genomic

  1. NG_016127.1 RefSeqGene

    Range
    4819..7087
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. NM_000756.4NP_000747.1  corticoliberin preproprotein

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_000747.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Source sequence(s)
    AC090195, AK075431
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS6188.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P06850
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    A0A0S2Z478
    Related
    ENSP00000276571.3, ENST00000276571.5
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    pfam00473
    Location:157194
    CRF; Corticotropin-releasing factor family

RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: Homo sapiens Annotation Release 109

The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

Reference GRCh38.p12 Primary Assembly

Genomic

  1. NC_000008.11 Reference GRCh38.p12 Primary Assembly

    Range
    66176377..66178645 complement
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)
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