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    CD81 CD81 molecule [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

    Gene ID: 975, updated on 11-Jul-2021

    Summary

    Official Symbol
    CD81provided by HGNC
    Official Full Name
    CD81 moleculeprovided by HGNC
    Primary source
    HGNC:HGNC:1701
    See related
    Ensembl:ENSG00000110651 MIM:186845
    Gene type
    protein coding
    RefSeq status
    REVIEWED
    Organism
    Homo sapiens
    Lineage
    Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
    Also known as
    S5.7; CVID6; TAPA1; TSPAN28
    Summary
    The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the transmembrane 4 superfamily, also known as the tetraspanin family. Most of these members are cell-surface proteins that are characterized by the presence of four hydrophobic domains. The proteins mediate signal transduction events that play a role in the regulation of cell development, activation, growth and motility. This encoded protein is a cell surface glycoprotein that is known to complex with integrins. This protein appears to promote muscle cell fusion and support myotube maintenance. Also it may be involved in signal transduction. This gene is localized in the tumor-suppressor gene region and thus it is a candidate gene for malignancies. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2014]
    Expression
    Ubiquitous expression in endometrium (RPKM 241.8), fat (RPKM 237.1) and 25 other tissues See more
    Orthologs
    NEW
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    Genomic context

    See CD81 in Genome Data Viewer
    Location:
    11p15.5
    Exon count:
    10
    Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
    109.20210514 current GRCh38.p13 (GCF_000001405.39) 11 NC_000011.10 (2376180..2397402)
    105.20201022 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 11 NC_000011.9 (2397410..2418627)

    Chromosome 11 - NC_000011.10Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene CD81 antisense RNA 1 Neighboring gene ribosomal protein L26 pseudogene 30 Neighboring gene uncharacterized LOC105376520 Neighboring gene nonconserved acetylation island sequence 93 enhancer Neighboring gene tumor suppressing subtransferable candidate 4 Neighboring gene transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily M member 5

    Genomic regions, transcripts, and products

    Expression

    • Project title: HPA RNA-seq normal tissues
    • Description: RNA-seq was performed of tissue samples from 95 human individuals representing 27 different tissues in order to determine tissue-specificity of all protein-coding genes
    • BioProject: PRJEB4337
    • Publication: PMID 24309898
    • Analysis date: Wed Apr 4 07:08:55 2018

    Bibliography

    GeneRIFs: Gene References Into Functions

    What's a GeneRIF?

    HIV-1 interactions

    Replication interactions

    Interaction Pubs
    HIV-1 infection (VSV-G pseudotyped) of CEMT4 T cells downregulates plasma membrane expression of CD81 PubMed

    Protein interactions

    Protein Gene Interaction Pubs
    Envelope surface glycoprotein gp120 env Tetraspanin proteins, such as CD9, CD63, CD81, CD82, and CD231, are incorporated on the membrane of released virions in an HIV-1 envelope protein (Env)-independent manner and have the potential to inhibit HIV-1 Env-mediated infection PubMed
    env Overexpression of CD81 and CD9 renders cells less susceptible to HIV-1 gp120/gp41-mediated syncytia formation; antibodies raised against CD9 and CD81 enhance syncytia formation PubMed
    env CD81 localizes to endosome compartments and is incorporated into the viral envelope of macrophage-derived HIV-1 particles PubMed
    Envelope surface glycoprotein gp160, precursor env HIV-1 Env co-localizes with the lipid raft marker CD55 or the tetraspanin CD81 in HeLa P4-R5 cells PubMed
    Nef nef HIV-1 Nef is detected in detergent-insoluble AChE+/CD81 low/TSG101 low exosomes, but not in detergent-soluble AChE-/CD81 high/TSG101 high exosomes in Nef-transfected 293T cells PubMed
    nef Both HIV-1 Nef and Vpu downregulate the cell surface expression of CD81 (TSPAN28) PubMed
    nef HIV-1 Nef increases the production of exosomes, which form at the plasma membrane and co-localizes with plasma membrane-associated proteins ICAM1, CD81, and Lck in Jurkat PubMed
    Pr55(Gag) gag Co-localization of HIV-1 Gag virus-like particles in THP-1/CD169YF cells is reduced within CD81+ compartments, but enhanced within CD63+ or LAMP1+ compartments PubMed
    gag HIV-1 Gag proteins co-localize with CD63 and CD81 in intracellular exosomes PubMed
    gag HIV-1 Gag recruits and traps CD81 to Gag assembly sites at the plasma membrane PubMed
    gag HIV-1 Gag P99A mutation reduces its co-localization with tetraspanin-enriched microdomain marker CD81 and lipid raft marker CD59 PubMed
    gag Tetherin co-localizes with HIV-1 Gag in CD81- and CD63-enriched intracellular virus-containing compartments in macrophages, and that a separate population of tetherin is located in the TGN PubMed
    gag In the absence of Vpu, Env accumulates extensively within clathrin-coated endosomal structures, including the viral proteins Gag and MA; the tetraspanins CD63 and CD81; the adaptor protein complex AP-3; and AIP1/ALIX, a cellular cofactor for viral budding PubMed
    Vpu vpu HIV-1 Vpu co-localizes with CD81 in HIV-1-infected CEMss T cells PubMed
    vpu Both HIV-1 Nef and Vpu downregulate the cell surface expression of CD81 (TSPAN28) PubMed
    capsid gag Infection of monocyte-derived macrophages with HIV-1 redistributes viperin from ER into foci, which significantly co-localizes with p24 and CD81 PubMed
    matrix gag In the absence of Vpu, Env accumulates extensively within clathrin-coated endosomal structures, including the viral proteins Gag and MA; the tetraspanins CD63 and CD81; the adaptor protein complex AP-3; and AIP1/ALIX, a cellular cofactor for viral budding PubMed

    Go to the HIV-1, Human Interaction Database

    Pathways from PubChem

    Interactions

    Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

    General gene information

    Markers

    Homology

    Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

    Function Evidence Code Pubs
    enables MHC class II protein binding IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    enables MHC class II protein complex binding HDA PubMed 
    enables cholesterol binding IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    enables integrin binding IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    enables protein binding IPI
    Inferred from Physical Interaction
    more info
    PubMed 
    enables transferrin receptor binding IPI
    Inferred from Physical Interaction
    more info
    PubMed 
    enables virus receptor activity IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    Process Evidence Code Pubs
    involved_in CD4-positive, alpha-beta T cell costimulation IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in cellular response to low-density lipoprotein particle stimulus ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    involved_in humoral immune response mediated by circulating immunoglobulin IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in immunological synapse formation IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in macrophage fusion IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in myoblast fusion involved in skeletal muscle regeneration ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    involved_in osteoclast fusion ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    involved_in positive regulation of 1-phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase activity IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of B cell proliferation IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of B cell receptor signaling pathway IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of B cell receptor signaling pathway ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    involved_in positive regulation of CD4-positive, alpha-beta T cell proliferation IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of MAPK cascade IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of T cell activation via T cell receptor contact with antigen bound to MHC molecule on antigen presenting cell IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of T cell receptor signaling pathway IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of T-helper 2 cell cytokine production IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of adaptive immune memory response IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of cell population proliferation IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of inflammatory response to antigenic stimulus ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    involved_in positive regulation of peptidyl-tyrosine phosphorylation IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of protein catabolic process in the vacuole IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of protein exit from endoplasmic reticulum IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of receptor clustering IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II IGI
    Inferred from Genetic Interaction
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in protein localization IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in protein localization to lysosome IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in protein localization to plasma membrane IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in protein localization to plasma membrane IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in receptor internalization ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    involved_in receptor-mediated virion attachment to host cell TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in regulation of macrophage migration ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    involved_in regulation of protein stability IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in viral entry into host cell TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 

    General protein information

    Preferred Names
    CD81 antigen
    Names
    26 kDa cell surface protein TAPA-1
    CD81 antigen (target of antiproliferative antibody 1)
    tetraspanin-28
    tspan-28

    NCBI Reference Sequences (RefSeq)

    NEW Try the new Transcript table

    RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

    These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

    These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

    Genomic

    1. NG_023386.1 RefSeqGene

      Range
      3861..25103
      Download
      GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics), LRG_142

    mRNA and Protein(s)

    1. NM_001297649.2NP_001284578.1  CD81 antigen isoform 2

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001284578.1

      Status: REVIEWED

      Description
      Transcript Variant: This variant (2) uses an alternate first exon and initiates translation at an alternate start codon compared to variant 1. The resulting isoform (2) is shorter at the N-terminus compared to isoform 1.
      Source sequence(s)
      AI334163, BC093047, BP323362
      Consensus CDS
      CCDS73240.1
      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      P60033
      UniProtKB/TrEMBL
      E9PJK1
      Related
      ENSP00000431780.1, ENST00000526072.5
      Conserved Domains (1) summary
      cd03151
      Location:42131
      CD81_like_LEL; Tetraspanin, extracellular domain or large extracellular loop (LEL), CD81_like subfamily. Tetraspanins are trans-membrane proteins with 4 trans-membrane segments. Both the N- and C-termini lie on the intracellular side of the membrane. This alignment ...
    2. NM_004356.4NP_004347.1  CD81 antigen isoform 1

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_004347.1

      Status: REVIEWED

      Description
      Transcript Variant: This variant (1) represents the longer transcript and encodes the longer isoform (1).
      Source sequence(s)
      AC129929, BC002978, BG397506, BQ709484, M33680
      Consensus CDS
      CCDS7734.1
      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      P60033
      UniProtKB/TrEMBL
      A0A024RCB7
      Related
      ENSP00000263645.5, ENST00000263645.10
      Conserved Domains (1) summary
      pfam00335
      Location:10226
      Tetraspannin; Tetraspanin family

    RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: Homo sapiens Updated Annotation Release 109.20210514

    The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

    Reference GRCh38.p13 Primary Assembly

    Genomic

    1. NC_000011.10 Reference GRCh38.p13 Primary Assembly

      Range
      2376180..2397402
      Download
      GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

    mRNA and Protein(s)

    1. XM_011520492.2XP_011518794.1  CD81 antigen isoform X1

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for XP_011518794.1

      Related
      ENSP00000432249.1, ENST00000492252.5
      Conserved Domains (2) summary
      cd03151
      Location:106195
      CD81_like_LEL; Tetraspanin, extracellular domain or large extracellular loop (LEL), CD81_like subfamily. Tetraspanins are trans-membrane proteins with 4 trans-membrane segments. Both the N- and C-termini lie on the intracellular side of the membrane. This alignment ...
      pfam00335
      Location:16223
      Tetraspannin; Tetraspanin family
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