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    RSAD2 radical S-adenosyl methionine domain containing 2 [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

    Gene ID: 91543, updated on 11-Apr-2024

    Summary

    Official Symbol
    RSAD2provided by HGNC
    Official Full Name
    radical S-adenosyl methionine domain containing 2provided by HGNC
    Primary source
    HGNC:HGNC:30908
    See related
    Ensembl:ENSG00000134321 MIM:607810; AllianceGenome:HGNC:30908
    Gene type
    protein coding
    RefSeq status
    REVIEWED
    Organism
    Homo sapiens
    Lineage
    Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
    Also known as
    SAND; cig5; vig1; cig33
    Summary
    The protein encoded by this gene is an interferon-inducible antiviral protein that belongs to the S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM) superfamily of enzymes. The protein plays a role in cellular antiviral response and innate immune signaling. Antiviral effects result from inhibition of viral RNA replication, interference in the secretory pathway, binding to viral proteins and dysregulation of cellular lipid metabolism. The protein has been found to inhibit both DNA and RNA viruses, including influenza virus, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) and Zika virus. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2020]
    Annotation information
    Note: This gene has been reviewed for its involvement in coronavirus biology, and is involved in immune response or antiviral activity.
    Expression
    Ubiquitous expression in spleen (RPKM 6.0), lung (RPKM 5.3) and 24 other tissues See more
    Orthologs
    NEW
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    Genomic context

    See RSAD2 in Genome Data Viewer
    Location:
    2p25.2
    Exon count:
    7
    Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
    RS_2023_10 current GRCh38.p14 (GCF_000001405.40) 2 NC_000002.12 (6865885..6898239)
    RS_2023_10 current T2T-CHM13v2.0 (GCF_009914755.1) 2 NC_060926.1 (6887387..6919736)
    105.20220307 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 2 NC_000002.11 (7017908..7038370)

    Chromosome 2 - NC_000002.12Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene CDK7 strongly-dependent group 2 enhancer GRCh37_chr2:6913298-6914497 Neighboring gene uncharacterized LOC105373404 Neighboring gene OCT4-NANOG hESC enhancer GRCh37_chr2:6946605-6947167 Neighboring gene Sharpr-MPRA regulatory region 11536 Neighboring gene negative regulator of interferon response Neighboring gene ATAC-STARR-seq lymphoblastoid silent region 11120 Neighboring gene ATAC-STARR-seq lymphoblastoid active region 15245 Neighboring gene ATAC-STARR-seq lymphoblastoid silent region 11121 Neighboring gene cytidine/uridine monophosphate kinase 2 Neighboring gene ATAC-STARR-seq lymphoblastoid active region 15247 Neighboring gene ATAC-STARR-seq lymphoblastoid active region 15246 Neighboring gene ATAC-STARR-seq lymphoblastoid silent region 11122 Neighboring gene ReSE screen-validated silencer GRCh37_chr2:7064883-7065296 Neighboring gene glycosaminoglycan regulatory associated long non-coding RNA Neighboring gene ring finger protein 144A Neighboring gene Sharpr-MPRA regulatory region 7309 Neighboring gene MED14-independent group 3 enhancer GRCh37_chr2:7113462-7114661 Neighboring gene H3K27ac hESC enhancer GRCh37_chr2:7157299-7157798 Neighboring gene Sharpr-MPRA regulatory region 7427/13434 Neighboring gene Sharpr-MPRA regulatory region 3683 Neighboring gene uncharacterized LOC101929452

    Genomic regions, transcripts, and products

    Expression

    • Project title: HPA RNA-seq normal tissues
    • Description: RNA-seq was performed of tissue samples from 95 human individuals representing 27 different tissues in order to determine tissue-specificity of all protein-coding genes
    • BioProject: PRJEB4337
    • Publication: PMID 24309898
    • Analysis date: Wed Apr 4 07:08:55 2018

    Bibliography

    GeneRIFs: Gene References Into Functions

    What's a GeneRIF?

    HIV-1 interactions

    Replication interactions

    Interaction Pubs
    Knockdown of viperin by siRNA leads to enhance HIV-1 replication in HIV-1 infected monocyte-derived macrophages PubMed

    Protein interactions

    Protein Gene Interaction Pubs
    Vif vif HIV-1 Vif downregulates the expression of radical S-adenosyl methionine domain containing 2 (RSAD2) in Vif-expression T cells PubMed
    Vpr vpr HIV-1 Vpr upregulates the gene expression of RSAD2 in human monocyte-derived macrophages PubMed
    Vpu vpu The expression of radical S-adenosyl methionine domain containing 2 is enhanced in Vpu-deficient HIV-1-infected cells as compared to that in wild-type-infected cells PubMed
    capsid gag Infection of monocyte-derived macrophages with HIV-1 redistributes viperin from ER into foci, which significantly co-localizes with p24 and CD81 PubMed

    Go to the HIV-1, Human Interaction Database

    Pathways from PubChem

    Interactions

    Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

    General gene information

    Markers

    Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

    Function Evidence Code Pubs
    enables 4 iron, 4 sulfur cluster binding IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
     
    enables 4 iron, 4 sulfur cluster binding IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    enables lyase activity IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    enables metal ion binding IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    enables protein binding IPI
    Inferred from Physical Interaction
    more info
    PubMed 
    Process Evidence Code Pubs
    involved_in CD4-positive, alpha-beta T cell activation ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    involved_in CD4-positive, alpha-beta T cell differentiation ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    involved_in defense response to virus IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
     
    involved_in defense response to virus IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in innate immune response IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    involved_in negative regulation of protein secretion IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in negative regulation of viral genome replication IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of T-helper 2 cell cytokine production ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    involved_in positive regulation of immune response IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
     
    involved_in positive regulation of toll-like receptor 7 signaling pathway ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    involved_in positive regulation of toll-like receptor 9 signaling pathway ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    involved_in response to virus IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    Component Evidence Code Pubs
    located_in Golgi apparatus IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    is_active_in endoplasmic reticulum IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
     
    located_in endoplasmic reticulum IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    located_in endoplasmic reticulum membrane IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    located_in endoplasmic reticulum membrane TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    located_in fibrillar center IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
     
    located_in lipid droplet ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    located_in mitochondrial inner membrane IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    located_in mitochondrial outer membrane IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    is_active_in mitochondrion IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
     
    located_in mitochondrion IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 

    General protein information

    Preferred Names
    S-adenosylmethionine-dependent nucleotide dehydratase RSAD2
    Names
    cytomegalovirus-induced gene 5 protein
    radical S-adenosyl methionine domain-containing protein 2
    viperin
    virus inhibitory protein, endoplasmic reticulum-associated, interferon-inducible

    NCBI Reference Sequences (RefSeq)

    NEW Try the new Transcript table

    RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

    These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

    These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

    mRNA and Protein(s)

    1. NM_001410702.1NP_001397631.1  S-adenosylmethionine-dependent nucleotide dehydratase RSAD2 isoform 2

      Status: REVIEWED

      Source sequence(s)
      AC017076
      Consensus CDS
      CCDS92710.1
      UniProtKB/TrEMBL
      C9J674
      Related
      ENSP00000406427.2, ENST00000442639.6
    2. NM_080657.5NP_542388.2  S-adenosylmethionine-dependent nucleotide dehydratase RSAD2 isoform 1

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_542388.2

      Status: REVIEWED

      Source sequence(s)
      AC017076, AF442151, BC017969
      Consensus CDS
      CCDS1656.1
      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      Q8WVI4, Q8WXG1
      UniProtKB/TrEMBL
      B2R6Q5
      Related
      ENSP00000371471.3, ENST00000382040.4
      Conserved Domains (2) summary
      cd01335
      Location:78262
      Radical_SAM; Radical SAM superfamily. Enzymes of this family generate radicals by combining a 4Fe-4S cluster and S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) in close proximity. They are characterized by a conserved CxxxCxxC motif, which coordinates the conserved iron-sulfur cluster. ...
      TIGR04278
      Location:13361
      viperin; antiviral radical SAM protein viperin

    RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: GCF_000001405.40-RS_2023_10

    The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

    Reference GRCh38.p14 Primary Assembly

    Genomic

    1. NC_000002.12 Reference GRCh38.p14 Primary Assembly

      Range
      6865885..6898239
      Download
      GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

    Alternate T2T-CHM13v2.0

    Genomic

    1. NC_060926.1 Alternate T2T-CHM13v2.0

      Range
      6887387..6919736
      Download
      GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

    mRNA and Protein(s)

    1. XM_054344503.1XP_054200478.1  S-adenosylmethionine-dependent nucleotide dehydratase RSAD2 isoform X1

      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      Q8WVI4, Q8WXG1