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    VEGFA vascular endothelial growth factor A [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

    Gene ID: 7422, updated on 7-Jul-2024

    Summary

    Official Symbol
    VEGFAprovided by HGNC
    Official Full Name
    vascular endothelial growth factor Aprovided by HGNC
    Primary source
    HGNC:HGNC:12680
    See related
    Ensembl:ENSG00000112715 MIM:192240; AllianceGenome:HGNC:12680
    Gene type
    protein coding
    RefSeq status
    REVIEWED
    Organism
    Homo sapiens
    Lineage
    Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
    Also known as
    VPF; VEGF; MVCD1; L-VEGF
    Summary
    This gene is a member of the PDGF/VEGF growth factor family. It encodes a heparin-binding protein, which exists as a disulfide-linked homodimer. This growth factor induces proliferation and migration of vascular endothelial cells, and is essential for both physiological and pathological angiogenesis. Disruption of this gene in mice resulted in abnormal embryonic blood vessel formation. This gene is upregulated in many known tumors and its expression is correlated with tumor stage and progression. Elevated levels of this protein are found in patients with POEMS syndrome, also known as Crow-Fukase syndrome. Allelic variants of this gene have been associated with microvascular complications of diabetes 1 (MVCD1) and atherosclerosis. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described. There is also evidence for alternative translation initiation from upstream non-AUG (CUG) codons resulting in additional isoforms. A recent study showed that a C-terminally extended isoform is produced by use of an alternative in-frame translation termination codon via a stop codon readthrough mechanism, and that this isoform is antiangiogenic. Expression of some isoforms derived from the AUG start codon is regulated by a small upstream open reading frame, which is located within an internal ribosome entry site. The levels of VEGF are increased during infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), thus promoting inflammation by facilitating recruitment of inflammatory cells, and by increasing the level of angiopoietin II (Ang II), one of two products of the SARS-CoV-2 binding target, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). In turn, Ang II facilitates the elevation of VEGF, thus forming a vicious cycle in the release of inflammatory cytokines. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2020]
    Annotation information
    Note: This gene has been reviewed for its involvement in coronavirus biology, and is involved in cytokine storm inflammatory response.
    Expression
    Broad expression in thyroid (RPKM 146.9), prostate (RPKM 69.5) and 21 other tissues See more
    Orthologs
    NEW
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    Try the new Transcript table

    Genomic context

    See VEGFA in Genome Data Viewer
    Location:
    6p21.1
    Exon count:
    9
    Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
    RS_2023_10 current GRCh38.p14 (GCF_000001405.40) 6 NC_000006.12 (43770211..43786487)
    RS_2023_10 current T2T-CHM13v2.0 (GCF_009914755.1) 6 NC_060930.1 (43599724..43616002)
    105.20220307 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 6 NC_000006.11 (43737946..43754224)

    Chromosome 6 - NC_000006.12Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene RNA polymerase I and III subunit C Neighboring gene uncharacterized LOC124901320 Neighboring gene H3K27ac-H3K4me1 hESC enhancer GRCh37_chr6:43670641-43671626 Neighboring gene NANOG-H3K4me1 hESC enhancer GRCh37_chr6:43674891-43675733 Neighboring gene ATAC-STARR-seq lymphoblastoid active region 24614 Neighboring gene Sharpr-MPRA regulatory region 12588 Neighboring gene ATAC-STARR-seq lymphoblastoid active region 24615 Neighboring gene EXOSC8 pseudogene 1 Neighboring gene H3K4me1 hESC enhancer GRCh37_chr6:43726130-43726666 Neighboring gene H3K4me1 hESC enhancer GRCh37_chr6:43728022-43728522 Neighboring gene H3K4me1 hESC enhancer GRCh37_chr6:43728523-43729023 Neighboring gene H3K4me1 hESC enhancer GRCh37_chr6:43732509-43733010 Neighboring gene ATAC-STARR-seq lymphoblastoid silent region 17241 Neighboring gene H3K27ac hESC enhancers GRCh37_chr6:43738373-43739138 and GRCh37_chr6:43739139-43739904 Neighboring gene H3K27ac-H3K4me1 hESC enhancer GRCh37_chr6:43739905-43740670 Neighboring gene H3K27ac-H3K4me1 hESC enhancer GRCh37_chr6:43740671-43741436 Neighboring gene Sharpr-MPRA regulatory region 8365 Neighboring gene uncharacterized LOC105375070 Neighboring gene ATAC-STARR-seq lymphoblastoid active region 24617 Neighboring gene H3K4me1 hESC enhancer GRCh37_chr6:43766999-43767583 Neighboring gene ATAC-STARR-seq lymphoblastoid active region 24618 Neighboring gene Sharpr-MPRA regulatory region 5169 Neighboring gene ATAC-STARR-seq lymphoblastoid active region 24619 Neighboring gene ATAC-STARR-seq lymphoblastoid active region 24620 Neighboring gene uncharacterized LOC105375069 Neighboring gene H3K27ac-H3K4me1 hESC enhancer GRCh37_chr6:43818433-43819079 Neighboring gene H3K27ac-H3K4me1 hESC enhancer GRCh37_chr6:43819080-43819726 Neighboring gene H3K4me1 hESC enhancer GRCh37_chr6:43819727-43820373 Neighboring gene long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 2537

    Genomic regions, transcripts, and products

    Expression

    • Project title: HPA RNA-seq normal tissues
    • Description: RNA-seq was performed of tissue samples from 95 human individuals representing 27 different tissues in order to determine tissue-specificity of all protein-coding genes
    • BioProject: PRJEB4337
    • Publication: PMID 24309898
    • Analysis date: Wed Apr 4 07:08:55 2018

    Bibliography

    GeneRIFs: Gene References Into Functions

    What's a GeneRIF?

    Phenotypes

    Associated conditions

    Description Tests
    Microvascular complications of diabetes, susceptibility to, 1
    MedGen: C2676832 OMIM: 603933 GeneReviews: Not available
    Compare labs

    Copy number response

    Description
    Copy number response
    Triplosensitivity

    No evidence available (Last evaluated 2023-08-23)

    ClinGen Genome Curation Page
    Haploinsufficency

    Little evidence for dosage pathogenicity (Last evaluated 2023-08-23)

    ClinGen Genome Curation PagePubMed

    EBI GWAS Catalog

    Description
    A genome-wide association study for coronary artery disease identifies a novel susceptibility locus in the major histocompatibility complex.
    EBI GWAS Catalog
    A meta-analysis of thyroid-related traits reveals novel loci and gender-specific differences in the regulation of thyroid function.
    EBI GWAS Catalog
    Common variants near FRK/COL10A1 and VEGFA are associated with advanced age-related macular degeneration.
    EBI GWAS Catalog
    Discovery and refinement of loci associated with lipid levels.
    EBI GWAS Catalog
    Genome-wide association analyses identify 18 new loci associated with serum urate concentrations.
    EBI GWAS Catalog
    Genome-wide trans-ancestry meta-analysis provides insight into the genetic architecture of type 2 diabetes susceptibility.
    EBI GWAS Catalog
    Identification of cis- and trans-acting genetic variants explaining up to half the variation in circulating vascular endothelial growth factor levels.
    EBI GWAS Catalog
    Meta-analysis identifies 13 new loci associated with waist-hip ratio and reveals sexual dimorphism in the genetic basis of fat distribution.
    EBI GWAS Catalog
    Meta-analysis of genome-wide association data and large-scale replication identifies additional susceptibility loci for type 2 diabetes.
    EBI GWAS Catalog
    New loci associated with kidney function and chronic kidney disease.
    EBI GWAS Catalog
    Novel loci for adiponectin levels and their influence on type 2 diabetes and metabolic traits: a multi-ethnic meta-analysis of 45,891 individuals.
    EBI GWAS Catalog
    Seven new loci associated with age-related macular degeneration.
    EBI GWAS Catalog
    Sex-stratified genome-wide association studies including 270,000 individuals show sexual dimorphism in genetic loci for anthropometric traits.
    EBI GWAS Catalog

    HIV-1 interactions

    Protein interactions

    Protein Gene Interaction Pubs
    Envelope surface glycoprotein gp120 env HIV-1 gp120 modulates expression of the cytokines IL1beta, IL3, IL6, IL10, IL13, IL15, IFNbeta2A, IFNgamma, IFNomega, TNFalpha, VEGF, VEGF B, and LIF in PBMCs and MDMs PubMed
    Nef nef HIV-1 Nef synergizes with IL-6 to enhance vascular tube formation, cell proliferation, VEGF expression, and phosphorylated AKT activation in human umbilical vein endothelial cells PubMed
    nef HIV-1 Nef increases expression of both VEGF and its transcriptional regulator, hypoxia-inducible factor 2alpha (HIF-2alpha), in a Src kinase-and Stat3-dependent manner PubMed
    Tat tat HIV-1 Tat increases permeability of human glomerular endothelial cells by activating Rho-A, pMLC, and c-Src pathways, which involves VEGF-A or FGF-2. PubMed
    tat VEGF can compete with HIV-1 Tat chemotactic activity in Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) cells, indicating Tat may cooperate with VEGF in activation of VEGFR-2 on KS precursor spindle and endothelial cells and contribute to the aggressiveness of AIDS-KS lesions PubMed
    tat HIV-1 Tat upregulates VEGFA (VEGF) expression in HUVEC and EA.hy926 cells PubMed
    tat HIV-1 Tat upregulates members of the PDGF/VEGF growth factor family (PDGFA, VEGFA,VEGFB, VEGFC) in mammary epithelial cells PubMed
    tat HIV-1 Tat enhances vIL-6-induced angiogenesis and tumorigenesis of fibroblasts and human endothelial cells, which correlates with upregulation of CD31, CD34, SMA, VEGF, b-FGF, and cyclin D1 expression PubMed
    tat HIV-1 Tat enhances Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus vIL-6-induced cell proliferation, cellular transformation, vascular tube formation, and VEGF production in tumor cells PubMed
    tat HIV-1 Tat inhibits the differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to endothelial cells by downregulating the expression of VEGF-induced endothelial markers such as Flt-1, KDR and vWF PubMed
    tat The chemokine like region of HIV-1 Tat (amino acids 24-51) induces the release of angiogenic factors, including vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), an effect linked to Tat induced angiogenesis PubMed
    Vpu vpu HIV-1 Vpu-expressing U937 monocytes coculture with LX2 stellate cells to upregulate expression of profibrogenic markers COL-1, PCT, SMA-1, VEGF, and MMP2, which is inhibited by MIF treatment PubMed

    Go to the HIV-1, Human Interaction Database

    Pathways from PubChem

    Interactions

    Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

    General gene information

    Markers

    Clone Names

    • MGC70609

    Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

    Function Evidence Code Pubs
    enables chemoattractant activity IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
     
    enables chemoattractant activity IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    enables chemoattractant activity ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    enables cytokine activity IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    enables cytokine activity ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    enables extracellular matrix binding IC
    Inferred by Curator
    more info
    PubMed 
    enables fibronectin binding IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    enables growth factor activity IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
     
    enables growth factor activity IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    enables growth factor activity ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    enables heparin binding IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    enables heparin binding IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    enables identical protein binding IPI
    Inferred from Physical Interaction
    more info
    PubMed 
    enables platelet-derived growth factor receptor binding IPI
    Inferred from Physical Interaction
    more info
    PubMed 
    enables protein binding IPI
    Inferred from Physical Interaction
    more info
    PubMed 
    enables protein homodimerization activity ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    enables receptor ligand activity IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    enables receptor ligand activity IPI
    Inferred from Physical Interaction
    more info
    PubMed 
    enables transmembrane receptor protein tyrosine kinase activator activity IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    enables vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1 binding IPI
    Inferred from Physical Interaction
    more info
    PubMed 
    enables vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 binding IPI
    Inferred from Physical Interaction
    more info
    PubMed 
    enables vascular endothelial growth factor receptor binding IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
     
    enables vascular endothelial growth factor receptor binding IPI
    Inferred from Physical Interaction
    more info
    PubMed 
    Process Evidence Code Pubs
    involved_in VEGF-activated neuropilin signaling pathway ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    involved_in angiogenesis IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in apoptotic process IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    involved_in artery morphogenesis ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    involved_in bone trabecula formation IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    acts_upstream_of_or_within branching involved in blood vessel morphogenesis IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in branching involved in blood vessel morphogenesis IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in camera-type eye morphogenesis ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    involved_in cardiac muscle cell development ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    involved_in cardiac vascular smooth muscle cell development ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    involved_in cell maturation ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    involved_in cell migration involved in sprouting angiogenesis IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in cell-cell adhesion IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    acts_upstream_of_or_within cellular response to hypoxia IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in cellular response to hypoxia IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in cellular response to vascular endothelial growth factor stimulus IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in cellular stress response to acid chemical IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in commissural neuron axon guidance ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    involved_in coronary artery morphogenesis ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    involved_in coronary vein morphogenesis ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    involved_in dopaminergic neuron differentiation ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    involved_in endothelial cell chemotaxis IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in endothelial cell proliferation IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    involved_in epithelial cell differentiation ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    involved_in epithelial cell maturation IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    involved_in eye photoreceptor cell development ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    involved_in heart morphogenesis ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    involved_in homeostasis of number of cells within a tissue IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    involved_in in utero embryonic development ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    involved_in induction of positive chemotaxis IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
     
    involved_in induction of positive chemotaxis NAS
    Non-traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in kidney development ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    involved_in lactation ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    involved_in lung development ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    involved_in lung vasculature development IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    involved_in lymph vessel morphogenesis ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    involved_in lymphangiogenesis IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    involved_in macrophage differentiation IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in mammary gland alveolus development ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    involved_in mesoderm development ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    involved_in monocyte differentiation IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in motor neuron migration ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    involved_in negative regulation of adherens junction organization IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in negative regulation of apoptotic process IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in negative regulation of blood-brain barrier permeability IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in negative regulation of cell-cell adhesion mediated by cadherin IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in negative regulation of cysteine-type endopeptidase activity involved in apoptotic process IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in negative regulation of epithelial to mesenchymal transition IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    involved_in negative regulation of establishment of endothelial barrier IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in negative regulation of fat cell differentiation IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    involved_in negative regulation of gene expression IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in negative regulation of gene expression IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    acts_upstream_of negative regulation of miRNA transcription NAS
    Non-traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in negative regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in nervous system development TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in neuroblast proliferation IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    involved_in outflow tract morphogenesis ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    involved_in ovarian follicle development ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    involved_in positive chemotaxis IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive chemotaxis ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    involved_in positive regulation of MAPK cascade IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of angiogenesis IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
     
    involved_in positive regulation of angiogenesis IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of angiogenesis IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of axon extension involved in axon guidance ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    involved_in positive regulation of blood vessel endothelial cell migration IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of blood vessel endothelial cell migration IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of blood vessel endothelial cell proliferation involved in sprouting angiogenesis IGI
    Inferred from Genetic Interaction
    more info
    PubMed 
    acts_upstream_of positive regulation of blood vessel endothelial cell proliferation involved in sprouting angiogenesis IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of branching involved in ureteric bud morphogenesis ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    involved_in positive regulation of canonical NF-kappaB signal transduction NAS
    Non-traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of cell adhesion IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of cell division IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    involved_in positive regulation of cell migration IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of cell migration involved in sprouting angiogenesis IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of cell migration involved in sprouting angiogenesis IGI
    Inferred from Genetic Interaction
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of cell migration involved in sprouting angiogenesis IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of cell population proliferation IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of cell population proliferation IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of cell proliferation by VEGF-activated platelet derived growth factor receptor signaling pathway IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of cold-induced thermogenesis ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of endothelial cell chemotaxis IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of endothelial cell chemotaxis by VEGF-activated vascular endothelial growth factor receptor signaling pathway IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of endothelial cell migration IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of endothelial cell proliferation IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
     
    acts_upstream_of_or_within positive regulation of endothelial cell proliferation IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of endothelial cell proliferation IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of endothelial cell proliferation ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    involved_in positive regulation of epithelial cell proliferation ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    involved_in positive regulation of focal adhesion assembly IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of gene expression IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of leukocyte migration TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of lymphangiogenesis IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    involved_in positive regulation of mast cell chemotaxis IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
     
    involved_in positive regulation of neuroblast proliferation ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    involved_in positive regulation of osteoblast differentiation IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    involved_in positive regulation of p38MAPK cascade IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of peptidyl-tyrosine phosphorylation IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of positive chemotaxis IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of protein kinase C signaling IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of protein phosphorylation IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
     
    involved_in positive regulation of protein phosphorylation IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of protein-containing complex assembly IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of receptor internalization IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    NOT involved_in positive regulation of receptor signaling pathway via STAT IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of sprouting angiogenesis IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of sprouting angiogenesis IGI
    Inferred from Genetic Interaction
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of trophoblast cell migration IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor signaling pathway IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of vascular permeability IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in post-embryonic camera-type eye development ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    involved_in primitive erythrocyte differentiation ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    involved_in regulation of cell shape IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in regulation of hematopoietic progenitor cell differentiation IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    acts_upstream_of_or_within regulation of nitric oxide mediated signal transduction IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in response to hypoxia IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
     
    involved_in response to hypoxia IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in retinal ganglion cell axon guidance ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    involved_in sprouting angiogenesis IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
     
    involved_in surfactant homeostasis ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    involved_in tube formation IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in vascular endothelial growth factor receptor signaling pathway IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
     
    involved_in vascular endothelial growth factor receptor signaling pathway IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in vascular endothelial growth factor receptor signaling pathway IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 signaling pathway IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in vascular endothelial growth factor signaling pathway IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
     
    involved_in vascular endothelial growth factor signaling pathway IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in vascular endothelial growth factor signaling pathway NAS
    Non-traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in vascular wound healing IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in vasculogenesis TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in vasodilation IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    Component Evidence Code Pubs
    located_in Golgi apparatus IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    part_of VEGF-A complex IPI
    Inferred from Physical Interaction
    more info
    PubMed 
    located_in adherens junction IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    located_in cell surface IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    located_in cytoplasm IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    located_in endoplasmic reticulum IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    located_in extracellular matrix NAS
    Non-traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    located_in extracellular region TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    is_active_in extracellular space IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
     
    located_in extracellular space IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    located_in extracellular space ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    located_in membrane IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    located_in nucleus IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    located_in platelet alpha granule lumen TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    located_in secretory granule IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 

    General protein information

    Preferred Names
    vascular endothelial growth factor A, long form
    Names
    vascular endothelial growth factor A121
    vascular endothelial growth factor A165
    vascular permeability factor

    NCBI Reference Sequences (RefSeq)

    NEW Try the new Transcript table

    RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

    These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

    These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

    Genomic

    1. NG_008732.1 RefSeqGene

      Range
      4996..21272
      Download
      GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

    mRNA and Protein(s)

    1. NM_001025366.3NP_001020537.2  vascular endothelial growth factor A, long form isoform a

      Status: REVIEWED

      Source sequence(s)
      AF024710, BF700556, BM661679, BU153227, CN256173, DA237741, S85192
      Consensus CDS
      CCDS34457.1
      UniProtKB/TrEMBL
      J3KPA4
      Related
      ENSP00000361125.5, ENST00000372055.9
      Conserved Domains (2) summary
      smart00141
      Location:230312
      PDGF; Platelet-derived and vascular endothelial growth factors (PDGF, VEGF) family
      pfam14554
      Location:364412
      VEGF_C; VEGF heparin-binding domain
    2. NM_001025367.3NP_001020538.2  vascular endothelial growth factor A, long form isoform c

      Status: REVIEWED

      Source sequence(s)
      AF024710, AJ010438, BF700556, BM661679, BU153227, CN256173, DA237741
      Consensus CDS
      CCDS47433.1
      UniProtKB/TrEMBL
      A0A0A0MSI7
      Related
      ENSP00000389864.4, ENST00000413642.8
      Conserved Domains (2) summary
      smart00141
      Location:230312
      PDGF; Platelet-derived and vascular endothelial growth factors (PDGF, VEGF) family
      pfam14554
      Location:341389
      VEGF_C; VEGF heparin-binding domain
    3. NM_001025368.3NP_001020539.2  vascular endothelial growth factor A, long form isoform d

      Status: REVIEWED

      Source sequence(s)
      AB021221, AF024710, BF700556, BM661679, BU153227, CN256173, DA237741
      Consensus CDS
      CCDS34458.1
      UniProtKB/TrEMBL
      H3BLW8
      Related
      ENSP00000361137.4, ENST00000372067.8
      Conserved Domains (2) summary
      smart00141
      Location:230312
      PDGF; Platelet-derived and vascular endothelial growth factors (PDGF, VEGF) family
      pfam14554
      Location:318371
      VEGF_C; VEGF heparin-binding domain
    4. NM_001025369.3NP_001020540.2  vascular endothelial growth factor A, long form isoform e

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001020540.2

      Status: REVIEWED

      Source sequence(s)
      AF024710, AF091352, BF700556, BM661679, BU153227, CN256173, DA237741
      Consensus CDS
      CCDS47435.1
      UniProtKB/TrEMBL
      A0A0A0MSH7
      Related
      ENSP00000388663.3, ENST00000417285.7
      Conserved Domains (2) summary
      smart00141
      Location:230312
      PDGF; Platelet-derived and vascular endothelial growth factors (PDGF, VEGF) family
      pfam14554
      Location:318353
      VEGF_C; VEGF heparin-binding domain
    5. NM_001025370.3NP_001020541.2  vascular endothelial growth factor A, long form isoform f

      Status: REVIEWED

      Source sequence(s)
      AF024710, AF214570, BF700556, BM661679, BU153227, CN256173, DA237741
      Consensus CDS
      CCDS47434.1
      UniProtKB/TrEMBL
      A0A0A0MRQ4
      Related
      ENSP00000361134.5, ENST00000372064.9
      Conserved Domains (1) summary
      smart00141
      Location:230312
      PDGF; Platelet-derived and vascular endothelial growth factors (PDGF, VEGF) family
    6. NM_001033756.3NP_001028928.1  vascular endothelial growth factor A, long form isoform g

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001028928.1

      Status: REVIEWED

      Source sequence(s)
      AF024710, AF430806, BF700556, BM661679, BU153227, CN256173, DA237741
      Consensus CDS
      CCDS47432.1
      UniProtKB/TrEMBL
      A0A0A0MTB2
      Related
      ENSP00000421561.2, ENST00000482630.7
      Conserved Domains (2) summary
      smart00141
      Location:230312
      PDGF; Platelet-derived and vascular endothelial growth factors (PDGF, VEGF) family
      pfam14554
      Location:318365
      VEGF_C; VEGF heparin-binding domain
    7. NM_001171622.2NP_001165093.1  vascular endothelial growth factor A, long form isoform h

      Status: REVIEWED

      Source sequence(s)
      AF024710, BF700556, BM661679, BU153227, CN256173, DA237741, DQ229900
      Consensus CDS
      CCDS55007.1
      UniProtKB/TrEMBL
      A0A0A0MR43
      Related
      ENSP00000317598.7, ENST00000324450.11
      Conserved Domains (1) summary
      smart00141
      Location:230311
      PDGF; Platelet-derived and vascular endothelial growth factors (PDGF, VEGF) family
    8. NM_001171623.2NP_001165094.1  vascular endothelial growth factor A, long form isoform i precursor

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001165094.1

      Status: REVIEWED

      Source sequence(s)
      AL136131
      Consensus CDS
      CCDS55010.1
      Related
      ENSP00000430479.1, ENST00000523873.5
      Conserved Domains (2) summary
      smart00141
      Location:50132
      PDGF; Platelet-derived and vascular endothelial growth factors (PDGF, VEGF) family
      pfam14554
      Location:184232
      VEGF_C; VEGF heparin-binding domain
    9. NM_001171624.2NP_001165095.1  vascular endothelial growth factor A, long form isoform j precursor

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001165095.1

      Status: REVIEWED

      Source sequence(s)
      AL136131
      Consensus CDS
      CCDS55009.1
      Related
      ENSP00000428321.1, ENST00000520948.5
      Conserved Domains (2) summary
      smart00141
      Location:50132
      PDGF; Platelet-derived and vascular endothelial growth factors (PDGF, VEGF) family
      pfam14554
      Location:167215
      VEGF_C; VEGF heparin-binding domain
    10. NM_001171625.2NP_001165096.1  vascular endothelial growth factor A, long form isoform k precursor

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001165096.1

      Status: REVIEWED

      Source sequence(s)
      AL136131
      Consensus CDS
      CCDS55008.1
      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      P15692
      Related
      ENSP00000430829.1, ENST00000518689.5
      Conserved Domains (2) summary
      smart00141
      Location:50132
      PDGF; Platelet-derived and vascular endothelial growth factors (PDGF, VEGF) family
      pfam14554
      Location:161209
      VEGF_C; VEGF heparin-binding domain
    11. NM_001171626.2NP_001165097.1  vascular endothelial growth factor A, long form isoform VEGF-A precursor

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001165097.1

      Status: REVIEWED

      Source sequence(s)
      AL136131
      Consensus CDS
      CCDS55012.1
      UniProtKB/TrEMBL
      A0A0Y0IMM4
      Related
      ENSP00000429643.1, ENST00000523950.5
      Conserved Domains (2) summary
      smart00141
      Location:50132
      PDGF; Platelet-derived and vascular endothelial growth factors (PDGF, VEGF) family
      pfam14554
      Location:143191
      VEGF_C; VEGF heparin-binding domain
    12. NM_001171627.2NP_001165098.1  vascular endothelial growth factor A, long form isoform m precursor

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001165098.1

      Status: REVIEWED

      Source sequence(s)
      AL136131
      Consensus CDS
      CCDS55011.1
      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      P15692
      Related
      ENSP00000429008.1, ENST00000523125.5
      Conserved Domains (2) summary
      smart00141
      Location:50132
      PDGF; Platelet-derived and vascular endothelial growth factors (PDGF, VEGF) family
      pfam14554
      Location:143173
      VEGF_C; VEGF heparin-binding domain
    13. NM_001171628.2NP_001165099.1  vascular endothelial growth factor A, long form isoform n precursor

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001165099.1

      Status: REVIEWED

      Source sequence(s)
      AL136131
      Consensus CDS
      CCDS55014.1
      UniProtKB/TrEMBL
      A0A0Y0J542
      Related
      ENSP00000361148.4, ENST00000372077.8
      Conserved Domains (1) summary
      smart00141
      Location:50132
      PDGF; Platelet-derived and vascular endothelial growth factors (PDGF, VEGF) family
    14. NM_001171629.2NP_001165100.1  vascular endothelial growth factor A, long form isoform o precursor

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001165100.1

      Status: REVIEWED

      Source sequence(s)
      AL136131
      Consensus CDS
      CCDS55013.1
      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      P15692
      Related
      ENSP00000430002.1, ENST00000518824.5
      Conserved Domains (2) summary
      smart00141
      Location:50132
      PDGF; Platelet-derived and vascular endothelial growth factors (PDGF, VEGF) family
      pfam14554
      Location:143185
      VEGF_C; VEGF heparin-binding domain
    15. NM_001171630.2NP_001165101.1  vascular endothelial growth factor A, long form isoform p precursor

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001165101.1

      Status: REVIEWED

      Source sequence(s)
      AL136131
      Consensus CDS
      CCDS55015.1
      UniProtKB/TrEMBL
      A0A0Y0J542
      Related
      ENSP00000409911.2, ENST00000457104.6
      Conserved Domains (1) summary
      smart00141
      Location:50131
      PDGF; Platelet-derived and vascular endothelial growth factors (PDGF, VEGF) family
    16. NM_001204384.2NP_001191313.1  vascular endothelial growth factor A, long form isoform q precursor

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001191313.1

      Status: REVIEWED

      Source sequence(s)
      AL136131
      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      P15692
      Conserved Domains (1) summary
      smart00141
      Location:50132
      PDGF; Platelet-derived and vascular endothelial growth factors (PDGF, VEGF) family
    17. NM_001204385.2NP_001191314.1  vascular endothelial growth factor A, long form isoform r

      Status: REVIEWED

      Source sequence(s)
      AL136131, BC065522, M27281
      UniProtKB/TrEMBL
      H0YBZ0
      Related
      ENSP00000430594.1, ENST00000519767.5
      Conserved Domains (1) summary
      smart00141
      Location:230312
      PDGF; Platelet-derived and vascular endothelial growth factors (PDGF, VEGF) family
    18. NM_001287044.2NP_001273973.1  vascular endothelial growth factor A, long form isoform s

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001273973.1

      Status: REVIEWED

      Source sequence(s)
      AL136131, BC058855, BC065522, BX442364, HY066915
      Consensus CDS
      CCDS69125.1
      UniProtKB/TrEMBL
      A2A2V4
      Related
      ENSP00000230480.6, ENST00000230480.10
      Conserved Domains (2) summary
      smart00141
      Location:22104
      PDGF; Platelet-derived and vascular endothelial growth factors (PDGF, VEGF) family
      pfam14554
      Location:115163
      VEGF_C; VEGF heparin-binding domain
    19. NM_001317010.2NP_001303939.1  vascular endothelial growth factor A, long form isoform VEGF-Ax precursor

      Status: REVIEWED

      Source sequence(s)
      AL136131
      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      P15692
      Conserved Domains (2) summary
      smart00141
      Location:50132
      PDGF; Platelet-derived and vascular endothelial growth factors (PDGF, VEGF) family
      pfam14554
      Location:143191
      VEGF_C; VEGF heparin-binding domain
    20. NM_003376.6NP_003367.4  vascular endothelial growth factor A, long form isoform b

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_003367.4

      Status: REVIEWED

      Source sequence(s)
      AF024710, BF700556, BM661679, BU153227, CN256173, DA237741, M27281
      Consensus CDS
      CCDS4907.2
      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      B5BU86, H0Y2S8, H0Y407, H0Y414, H0Y462, H0Y8N2, H3BLW7, O60720, O75875, P15692, Q074Z4, Q16889, Q5UB46, Q6P0P5, Q96KJ0, Q96L82, Q96NW5, Q9H1W8, Q9H1W9, Q9UH58, Q9UL23
      UniProtKB/TrEMBL
      A0A0A0MSI7
      Related
      ENSP00000500082.3, ENST00000672860.3
      Conserved Domains (2) summary
      smart00141
      Location:230312
      PDGF; Platelet-derived and vascular endothelial growth factors (PDGF, VEGF) family
      pfam14554
      Location:347395
      VEGF_C; VEGF heparin-binding domain

    RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: GCF_000001405.40-RS_2023_10

    The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

    Reference GRCh38.p14 Primary Assembly

    Genomic

    1. NC_000006.12 Reference GRCh38.p14 Primary Assembly

      Range
      43770211..43786487
      Download
      GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

    Alternate T2T-CHM13v2.0

    Genomic

    1. NC_060930.1 Alternate T2T-CHM13v2.0

      Range
      43599724..43616002
      Download
      GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)