U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Format

Send to:

Choose Destination
    • Showing Current items.

    TXN thioredoxin [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

    Gene ID: 7295, updated on 17-Jun-2024

    Summary

    Official Symbol
    TXNprovided by HGNC
    Official Full Name
    thioredoxinprovided by HGNC
    Primary source
    HGNC:HGNC:12435
    See related
    Ensembl:ENSG00000136810 MIM:187700; AllianceGenome:HGNC:12435
    Gene type
    protein coding
    RefSeq status
    REVIEWED
    Organism
    Homo sapiens
    Lineage
    Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
    Also known as
    TRX; TRDX; TRX1; TXN1; Trx80
    Summary
    The protein encoded by this gene acts as a homodimer and is involved in many redox reactions. The encoded protein is active in the reversible S-nitrosylation of cysteines in certain proteins, which is part of the response to intracellular nitric oxide. This protein is found in the cytoplasm. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2011]
    Expression
    Ubiquitous expression in esophagus (RPKM 218.4), colon (RPKM 150.6) and 24 other tissues See more
    Orthologs
    NEW
    Try the new Gene table
    Try the new Transcript table

    Genomic context

    See TXN in Genome Data Viewer
    Location:
    9q31.3
    Exon count:
    5
    Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
    RS_2023_10 current GRCh38.p14 (GCF_000001405.40) 9 NC_000009.12 (110243810..110256507, complement)
    RS_2023_10 current T2T-CHM13v2.0 (GCF_009914755.1) 9 NC_060933.1 (122413340..122426045, complement)
    105.20220307 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 9 NC_000009.11 (113006090..113018787, complement)

    Chromosome 9 - NC_000009.12Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene uncharacterized LOC105376217 Neighboring gene H3K4me1 hESC enhancer GRCh37_chr9:112969108-112969608 Neighboring gene H3K4me1 hESC enhancer GRCh37_chr9:112969609-112970109 Neighboring gene chromosome 9 open reading frame 152 Neighboring gene ATAC-STARR-seq lymphoblastoid active region 28784 Neighboring gene ATAC-STARR-seq lymphoblastoid silent region 20173 Neighboring gene ATAC-STARR-seq lymphoblastoid silent region 20174 Neighboring gene MED14-independent group 3 enhancer GRCh37_chr9:113019051-113020250 Neighboring gene uncharacterized LOC107987114 Neighboring gene Neanderthal introgressed variant-containing enhancer experimental_104724 Neighboring gene uncharacterized LOC124902246 Neighboring gene P300/CBP strongly-dependent group 1 enhancer GRCh37_chr9:113040078-113041277 Neighboring gene thioredoxin domain containing 8 Neighboring gene uncharacterized LOC124902245

    Genomic regions, transcripts, and products

    Expression

    • Project title: HPA RNA-seq normal tissues
    • Description: RNA-seq was performed of tissue samples from 95 human individuals representing 27 different tissues in order to determine tissue-specificity of all protein-coding genes
    • BioProject: PRJEB4337
    • Publication: PMID 24309898
    • Analysis date: Wed Apr 4 07:08:55 2018

    Bibliography

    GeneRIFs: Gene References Into Functions

    What's a GeneRIF?

    HIV-1 interactions

    Replication interactions

    Interaction Pubs
    HIV-1 assembly incorporates TXN (Trx1) and TXNRD1 (TrxR1) into viral particles PubMed

    Protein interactions

    Protein Gene Interaction Pubs
    Envelope surface glycoprotein gp120 env Using specific anti-Trx monoclonal antibody significantly reduces HIV-1 entry and infection in human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs), suggesting Trx plays a great role in HIV-1 infection of MDMs PubMed
    env The ability of thioredoxin, a protein disulfide isomerase (PDI), to reduce the disulfide bond in CD4 is enhanced in the presence of HIV-1 gp120 and thioredoxin also reduces disulfide bonds in gp120 directly in the absence of CD4 PubMed
    env Cleavage of the CD4 domain 2 disulfide bond (Cys130-Cys159) by thioredoxin enhances HIV-1 gp120/gp41-mediated cell-cell fusion and virus entry PubMed
    env Thioredoxin cleaves the gp120 disulfide bond (Cys296-Cys331) in the V3 domain and the cleavage is enhanced by CD4-expressing cells PubMed
    Envelope transmembrane glycoprotein gp41 env Cleavage of the CD4 domain 2 disulfide bond (Cys130-Cys159) by thioredoxin enhances HIV-1 gp120/gp41-mediated cell-cell fusion and virus entry PubMed
    Nef nef HIV-1 Nef stabilizes the association of thioredoxin with ASK1, thereby inhibiting the catalytic activity of ASK1, Fas- and TNFalpha-mediated apoptosis, and activation of c-Jun amino-terminal kinase PubMed

    Go to the HIV-1, Human Interaction Database

    Pathways from PubChem

    Interactions

    Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

    General gene information

    Markers

    Clone Names

    • MGC61975, DKFZp686B1993

    Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

    Component Evidence Code Pubs
    located_in cytoplasm IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    located_in cytosol IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
     
    located_in cytosol TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    located_in extracellular exosome HDA PubMed 
    located_in extracellular region IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    located_in nucleoplasm IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
     
    located_in nucleoplasm TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    located_in nucleus IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 

    General protein information

    Preferred Names
    thioredoxin
    Names
    ADF
    ATL-derived factor
    SASP
    TXN delta 3
    surface-associated sulphydryl protein
    testicular tissue protein Li 199
    thioredoxin delta 3

    NCBI Reference Sequences (RefSeq)

    NEW Try the new Transcript table

    RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

    These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

    These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

    mRNA and Protein(s)

    1. NM_001244938.2NP_001231867.1  thioredoxin isoform 2

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001231867.1

      Status: REVIEWED

      Description
      Transcript Variant: This variant (2) lacks an alternate in-frame exon compared to variant 1. The resulting isoform (2) has the same N- and C-termini but is shorter compared to isoform 1.
      Source sequence(s)
      AF065241, AL158158, AW160756, BC054866, BQ774337
      Consensus CDS
      CCDS59139.1
      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      P10599
      Related
      ENSP00000363639.5, ENST00000374515.9
      Conserved Domains (1) summary
      cl00388
      Location:783
      Thioredoxin_like; Protein Disulfide Oxidoreductases and Other Proteins with a Thioredoxin fold
    2. NM_003329.4NP_003320.2  thioredoxin isoform 1

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_003320.2

      Status: REVIEWED

      Description
      Transcript Variant: This variant (1) represents the longer transcript and encodes the longer isoform (1).
      Source sequence(s)
      AL158158, BC054866, BQ774337
      Consensus CDS
      CCDS35103.1
      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      B1ALW1, O60744, P10599, Q53X69, Q96KI3, Q9UDG5
      UniProtKB/TrEMBL
      H9ZYJ2
      Related
      ENSP00000363641.5, ENST00000374517.6
      Conserved Domains (1) summary
      cd02947
      Location:11102
      TRX_family; TRX family; composed of two groups: Group I, which includes proteins that exclusively encode a TRX domain; and Group II, which are composed of fusion proteins of TRX and additional domains. Group I TRX is a small ancient protein that alter the redox ...

    RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: GCF_000001405.40-RS_2023_10

    The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

    Reference GRCh38.p14 Primary Assembly

    Genomic

    1. NC_000009.12 Reference GRCh38.p14 Primary Assembly

      Range
      110243810..110256507 complement
      Download
      GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

    Alternate T2T-CHM13v2.0

    Genomic

    1. NC_060933.1 Alternate T2T-CHM13v2.0

      Range
      122413340..122426045 complement
      Download
      GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)