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    CYCS cytochrome c, somatic [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

    Gene ID: 54205, updated on 26-Jun-2024

    Summary

    Official Symbol
    CYCSprovided by HGNC
    Official Full Name
    cytochrome c, somaticprovided by HGNC
    Primary source
    HGNC:HGNC:19986
    See related
    Ensembl:ENSG00000172115 MIM:123970; AllianceGenome:HGNC:19986
    Gene type
    protein coding
    RefSeq status
    REVIEWED
    Organism
    Homo sapiens
    Lineage
    Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
    Also known as
    CYC; HCS; THC4
    Summary
    This gene encodes a small heme protein that functions as a central component of the electron transport chain in mitochondria. The encoded protein associates with the inner membrane of the mitochondrion where it accepts electrons from cytochrome b and transfers them to the cytochrome oxidase complex. This protein is also involved in initiation of apoptosis. Mutations in this gene are associated with autosomal dominant nonsyndromic thrombocytopenia. Numerous processed pseudogenes of this gene are found throughout the human genome.[provided by RefSeq, Jul 2010]
    Expression
    Broad expression in heart (RPKM 66.9), colon (RPKM 54.4) and 24 other tissues See more
    Orthologs
    NEW
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    Genomic context

    See CYCS in Genome Data Viewer
    Location:
    7p15.3
    Exon count:
    3
    Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
    RS_2023_10 current GRCh38.p14 (GCF_000001405.40) 7 NC_000007.14 (25118656..25125260, complement)
    RS_2023_10 current T2T-CHM13v2.0 (GCF_009914755.1) 7 NC_060931.1 (25253926..25260530, complement)
    105.20220307 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 7 NC_000007.13 (25158275..25164879, complement)

    Chromosome 7 - NC_000007.14Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene gasdermin E Neighboring gene translation initiation factor IF-2-like Neighboring gene ATAC-STARR-seq lymphoblastoid silent region 18019 Neighboring gene ATAC-STARR-seq lymphoblastoid active region 25754 Neighboring gene ATAC-STARR-seq lymphoblastoid silent region 18018 Neighboring gene ATAC-STARR-seq lymphoblastoid silent region 18020 Neighboring gene Sharpr-MPRA regulatory region 12520 Neighboring gene ATAC-STARR-seq lymphoblastoid active region 25755 Neighboring gene ATAC-STARR-seq lymphoblastoid active region 25756 Neighboring gene MPRA-validated peak6442 silencer Neighboring gene H3K27ac-H3K4me1 hESC enhancer GRCh37_chr7:24834361-24834866 Neighboring gene H3K27ac-H3K4me1 hESC enhancer GRCh37_chr7:24834867-24835372 Neighboring gene NANOG hESC enhancer GRCh37_chr7:24841903-24842404 Neighboring gene CDK7 strongly-dependent group 2 enhancer GRCh37_chr7:24865671-24866870 Neighboring gene ATAC-STARR-seq lymphoblastoid active region 25757 Neighboring gene oxysterol binding protein like 3 Neighboring gene ATAC-STARR-seq lymphoblastoid active region 25758 Neighboring gene ATAC-STARR-seq lymphoblastoid active region 25759 Neighboring gene ATAC-STARR-seq lymphoblastoid active region 25760 Neighboring gene small nuclear ribonucleoprotein polypeptide C pseudogene 19 Neighboring gene H3K4me1 hESC enhancer GRCh37_chr7:24990225-24990724 Neighboring gene ATAC-STARR-seq lymphoblastoid active region 25761 Neighboring gene H3K27ac-H3K4me1 hESC enhancer GRCh37_chr7:25010975-25011630 Neighboring gene ATAC-STARR-seq lymphoblastoid silent region 18022 Neighboring gene ATAC-STARR-seq lymphoblastoid silent region 18021 Neighboring gene ATAC-STARR-seq lymphoblastoid active region 25762 Neighboring gene H3K4me1 hESC enhancer GRCh37_chr7:25068437-25068938 Neighboring gene H3K4me1 hESC enhancer GRCh37_chr7:25098668-25099168 Neighboring gene ATAC-STARR-seq lymphoblastoid active region 25763 Neighboring gene ATAC-STARR-seq lymphoblastoid active region 25764 Neighboring gene ATAC-STARR-seq lymphoblastoid active region 25766 Neighboring gene ATAC-STARR-seq lymphoblastoid active region 25767 Neighboring gene ATAC-STARR-seq lymphoblastoid active region 25765 Neighboring gene H3K27ac hESC enhancer GRCh37_chr7:25163804-25164348 Neighboring gene H3K27ac hESC enhancer GRCh37_chr7:25164349-25164892 Neighboring gene ATAC-STARR-seq lymphoblastoid active region 25768 Neighboring gene uncharacterized LOC124901603 Neighboring gene sperm microtubule inner protein 4 Neighboring gene uncharacterized LOC124901602 Neighboring gene ATAC-STARR-seq lymphoblastoid silent region 18023 Neighboring gene ATAC-STARR-seq lymphoblastoid silent region 18024 Neighboring gene uncharacterized LOC105375191 Neighboring gene H3K4me1 hESC enhancer GRCh37_chr7:25227953-25228454

    Genomic regions, transcripts, and products

    Expression

    • Project title: HPA RNA-seq normal tissues
    • Description: RNA-seq was performed of tissue samples from 95 human individuals representing 27 different tissues in order to determine tissue-specificity of all protein-coding genes
    • BioProject: PRJEB4337
    • Publication: PMID 24309898
    • Analysis date: Wed Apr 4 07:08:55 2018

    Bibliography

    GeneRIFs: Gene References Into Functions

    What's a GeneRIF?

    Phenotypes

    Associated conditions

    Description Tests
    Thrombocytopenia 4
    MedGen: C2677608 OMIM: 612004 GeneReviews: Not available
    Compare labs

    EBI GWAS Catalog

    Description
    Genome-wide association study of the rate of cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease.
    EBI GWAS Catalog

    HIV-1 interactions

    Replication interactions

    Interaction Pubs
    Knockdown of cytochrome c, somatic (CYCS) by siRNA inhibits HIV-1 replication in HeLa P4/R5 cells PubMed

    Protein interactions

    Protein Gene Interaction Pubs
    Envelope surface glycoprotein gp120 env PDGF protects neurons from gp120-induced cytotoxicity through an increased phosphorylation of both GSK-3beta and Bad, the downregulation of the proapoptotic protein Bax, and inhibition of gp120-induced release of mitochondrial cytochrome C PubMed
    env Apoptosis induced by HIV-1 gp120/gp41 is involved in the translocation of cytochrome c and apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) from mitochondria to an extra-mitochondrial localization and in the dissipation of the mitochondrial transmembrane potential PubMed
    env Treatment of cerebrocortical cultures with HIV-1 gp120 results in increased caspase-3 proteolytic activity, mitochondrial release of cytochrome c, and neuronal apoptosis PubMed
    Envelope surface glycoprotein gp160, precursor env Treatment of CD4+ cells with HIV-1 gp160 causes intracellular calcium increase followed by the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria; association of BAD with Bcl-xL is observed, and a portion of BAD is dephosphorylated after gp160 induction PubMed
    Nef nef eEF1A/Nef complexes contain tRNAs and block stress-induced apoptosis in monocyte-derived macrophages through tRNA binding to cytochrome c PubMed
    Tat tat HIV-1 Tat induces apoptosis of human blood-retinal barrier-associated cells by downregulation of BCL2 and upregulation of BAK, BAX, and cytochrome c in a dose-dependent manner PubMed
    tat HIV-1 Tat-induced PARP cleavage during mitotic arrest occurs downstream of Tat-induced cytochrome c release during mitotic arrest in CD4+ T-lymphocytes PubMed
    tat FasL-induced release of cytochrome c and activation of caspase-9 are inhibited in HIV-1 Tat101-expressing Jurkat cells due to high stability of the mitochondrial inner membrane electrochemical potential PubMed
    tat Both HIV-1 Tat 47-59 and FITC-labeled Tat 47-59 peptides upregulate gene expression of cytochrome c, somatic (CYCS) in U-937 macrophages PubMed
    tat HIV-1 Tat (specifically, amino acids 38-72), enhances tubulin polymerization and triggers the mitochondrial pathway to induce T cell apoptosis as shown in vitro by the release of cytochrome c from isolated mitochondria PubMed
    Vpr vpr HIV-1 Vpr induces downregulation of the Bcl-xl protein, upregulation of the Bax expression, and the cytochrome c release from the mitochondria in multidrug-resistant human colorectal cancer cells PubMed
    vpr Overproduction of EEF2 blocks HIV-1 Vpr-induced cell death both in fission yeast and human cells, suppresses caspase 9 and caspase 3-mediated apoptosis induced by Vpr, and reduces cytochrome c release induced by Vpr PubMed
    retropepsin gag-pol HIV-1 PR interacts with mitochondrial proteins VDAC, cytochrome c, TOM22, and Bax in HeLa cells PubMed
    gag-pol HIV-1 protease directly cleaves and activates procaspase 8 in T cells, which is associated with cleavage of BID, mitochondrial release of cytochrome c, activation of the downstream caspases 9 and 3, and cleavage of DFF and PARP PubMed

    Go to the HIV-1, Human Interaction Database

    Pathways from PubChem

    Interactions

    Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

    General gene information

    Markers

    Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

    Function Evidence Code Pubs
    enables electron transfer activity IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    enables heme binding TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    enables metal ion binding IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    enables protein binding IPI
    Inferred from Physical Interaction
    more info
    PubMed 
    Component Evidence Code Pubs
    part_of apoptosome IPI
    Inferred from Physical Interaction
    more info
    PubMed 
    located_in cytosol IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    located_in cytosol IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    located_in cytosol TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    located_in mitochondrial inner membrane TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    is_active_in mitochondrial intermembrane space IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
     
    located_in mitochondrial intermembrane space IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    located_in mitochondrial intermembrane space TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    located_in mitochondrion HDA PubMed 
    located_in mitochondrion IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    located_in nucleus HDA PubMed 
    located_in nucleus IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
     
    part_of respirasome IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     

    NCBI Reference Sequences (RefSeq)

    NEW Try the new Transcript table

    RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

    These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

    These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

    Genomic

    1. NG_023438.1 RefSeqGene

      Range
      5001..11711
      Download
      GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics), LRG_876

    mRNA and Protein(s)

    1. NM_018947.6NP_061820.1  cytochrome c

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_061820.1

      Status: REVIEWED

      Source sequence(s)
      AC007487, AI365318, BC024216, DB447825
      Consensus CDS
      CCDS5393.1
      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      A4D166, B2R4I1, P00001, P99999, Q6NUR2, Q6NX69, Q96BV4
      UniProtKB/TrEMBL
      C9JFR7, G4XXL9
      Related
      ENSP00000307786.2, ENST00000305786.7
      Conserved Domains (1) summary
      COG3474
      Location:1103
      Cyc7; Cytochrome c2 [Energy production and conversion]

    RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: GCF_000001405.40-RS_2023_10

    The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

    Reference GRCh38.p14 Primary Assembly

    Genomic

    1. NC_000007.14 Reference GRCh38.p14 Primary Assembly

      Range
      25118656..25125260 complement
      Download
      GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

    Alternate T2T-CHM13v2.0

    Genomic

    1. NC_060931.1 Alternate T2T-CHM13v2.0

      Range
      25253926..25260530 complement
      Download
      GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)