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    LTF lactotransferrin [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

    Gene ID: 4057, updated on 11-Jun-2021

    Summary

    Official Symbol
    LTFprovided by HGNC
    Official Full Name
    lactotransferrinprovided by HGNC
    Primary source
    HGNC:HGNC:6720
    See related
    Ensembl:ENSG00000012223 MIM:150210
    Gene type
    protein coding
    RefSeq status
    REVIEWED
    Organism
    Homo sapiens
    Lineage
    Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
    Also known as
    LF; HLF2; GIG12; HEL110
    Summary
    This gene is a member of the transferrin family of genes and its protein product is found in the secondary granules of neutrophils. The protein is a major iron-binding protein in milk and body secretions with an antimicrobial activity, making it an important component of the non-specific immune system. The protein demonstrates a broad spectrum of properties, including regulation of iron homeostasis, host defense against a broad range of microbial infections, anti-inflammatory activity, regulation of cellular growth and differentiation and protection against cancer development and metastasis. Antimicrobial, antiviral, antifungal and antiparasitic activity has been found for this protein and its peptides. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2014]
    Expression
    Biased expression in bone marrow (RPKM 1214.2), salivary gland (RPKM 176.0) and 2 other tissues See more
    Orthologs
    NEW
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    Genomic context

    See LTF in Genome Data Viewer
    Location:
    3p21.31
    Exon count:
    22
    Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
    109.20210514 current GRCh38.p13 (GCF_000001405.39) 3 NC_000003.12 (46435645..46485234, complement)
    105.20201022 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 3 NC_000003.11 (46477136..46526724, complement)

    Chromosome 3 - NC_000003.12Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 2009 Neighboring gene C-C motif chemokine receptor like 2 Neighboring gene receptor transporter protein 3 Neighboring gene leucine rich repeat containing 2 Neighboring gene LRRC2 antisense RNA 1

    Genomic regions, transcripts, and products

    Expression

    • Project title: HPA RNA-seq normal tissues
    • Description: RNA-seq was performed of tissue samples from 95 human individuals representing 27 different tissues in order to determine tissue-specificity of all protein-coding genes
    • BioProject: PRJEB4337
    • Publication: PMID 24309898
    • Analysis date: Wed Apr 4 07:08:55 2018

    Bibliography

    GeneRIFs: Gene References Into Functions

    What's a GeneRIF?

    Phenotypes

    Associated conditions

    Description Tests
    Genome-wide association study implicates PARD3B-based AIDS restriction.
    GeneReviews: Not available
    Genome-Wide Association Study of CSF Levels of 59 Alzheimer's Disease Candidate Proteins: Significant Associations with Proteins Involved in Amyloid Processing and Inflammation.
    GeneReviews: Not available

    HIV-1 interactions

    Replication interactions

    Interaction Pubs
    HIV-1 is inhibited by TNC (tenascin C), MUC1, and LTF (lactoferrin) as shown through neutralization assays in TZM-bl cells PubMed

    Protein interactions

    Protein Gene Interaction Pubs
    Envelope surface glycoprotein gp120 env Native lactoferrin (LF) and acylated LF from milk strongly bind to the V3 domain of the HIV-1 envelope protein gp120, resulting in inhibition of the virus-cell fusion and entry of the virus in CD4+ cells PubMed
    reverse transcriptase gag-pol A peptide derived from human lactoferricin inhibits HIV-1 RT activity in a dose-dependent manner PubMed

    Go to the HIV-1, Human Interaction Database

    Pathways from PubChem

    Interactions

    Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

    General gene information

    Markers

    Homology

    Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

    Function Evidence Code Pubs
    enables DNA binding IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    enables cysteine-type endopeptidase inhibitor activity IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    enables heparin binding IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    enables iron ion binding IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    enables lipopolysaccharide binding IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    enables protein binding IPI
    Inferred from Physical Interaction
    more info
    PubMed 
    enables protein serine/threonine kinase activator activity IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    enables serine-type endopeptidase activity IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    Process Evidence Code Pubs
    involved_in amyloid fibril formation TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    involved_in antibacterial humoral response IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in antibacterial humoral response IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in antifungal humoral response IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in antimicrobial humoral immune response mediated by antimicrobial peptide IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in antimicrobial humoral response TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    involved_in bone morphogenesis IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in defense response to Gram-negative bacterium IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in humoral immune response TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in innate immune response in mucosa IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in iron ion transport IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in killing of cells of other organism IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in killing of cells of other organism IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in membrane disruption in other organism IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in negative regulation by host of viral process IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in negative regulation of ATPase activity IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in negative regulation of apoptotic process ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    involved_in negative regulation of cysteine-type endopeptidase activity IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in negative regulation of lipopolysaccharide-mediated signaling pathway IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in negative regulation of osteoclast development ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    involved_in negative regulation of single-species biofilm formation in or on host organism IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in negative regulation of tumor necrosis factor (ligand) superfamily member 11 production ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    involved_in negative regulation of viral genome replication IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in negative regulation of viral process IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in neutrophil degranulation TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    involved_in ossification IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    involved_in positive regulation of I-kappaB kinase/NF-kappaB signaling IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of NF-kappaB transcription factor activity IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of bone mineralization involved in bone maturation ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    involved_in positive regulation of chondrocyte proliferation IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of osteoblast differentiation IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of osteoblast proliferation IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of protein serine/threonine kinase activity IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of toll-like receptor 4 signaling pathway IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in proteolysis IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    involved_in regulation of cytokine production IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in regulation of tumor necrosis factor production IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in retina homeostasis HEP PubMed 
    involved_in siderophore-dependent iron import into cell TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    Component Evidence Code Pubs
    located_in cell surface IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    located_in cytoplasm IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    is_active_in early endosome IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
    PubMed 
    located_in extracellular exosome HDA PubMed 
    located_in extracellular region TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    located_in extracellular space HDA PubMed 
    is_active_in extracellular space IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
    PubMed 
    located_in extracellular space IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    located_in nucleus HDA PubMed 
    located_in phagocytic vesicle lumen TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    is_active_in plasma membrane IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
    PubMed 
    part_of protein-containing complex IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    is_active_in recycling endosome IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
    PubMed 
    located_in secretory granule IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    located_in specific granule IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    located_in specific granule lumen TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    located_in tertiary granule lumen TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     

    General protein information

    Preferred Names
    lactotransferrin
    Names
    epididymis luminal protein 110
    growth-inhibiting protein 12
    kaliocin-1
    lactoferricin
    lactoferroxin
    neutrophil lactoferrin
    talalactoferrin
    NP_001186078.1
    NP_001308050.1
    NP_001308051.1
    NP_002334.2

    NCBI Reference Sequences (RefSeq)

    NEW Try the new Transcript table

    RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

    These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

    These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

    Genomic

    1. NG_023257.2 RefSeqGene

      Range
      25330..54590
      Download
      GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

    mRNA and Protein(s)

    1. NM_001199149.2NP_001186078.1  lactotransferrin isoform 2

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001186078.1

      Status: REVIEWED

      Description
      Transcript Variant: This variant (2, also known as delta LF) represents use of an alternate promoter and initiates translation at a downstream start codon compared to variant 1. The resulting isoform (2) has a shorter N-terminus than isoform 1.
      Source sequence(s)
      AC098613, AK298035, BC015822
      Consensus CDS
      CCDS56251.1
      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      P02788
      Related
      ENSP00000405719.2, ENST00000426532.6
      Conserved Domains (4) summary
      smart00094
      Location:320651
      TR_FER; Transferrin
      cd13617
      Location:317650
      PBP2_transferrin_C; The C-lobe of transferrin, a member of the type 2 periplasmic binding protein fold superfamily
      cd13618
      Location:1307
      PBP2_transferrin_N; The N-lobe of transferrin, a member of the type 2 periplasmic binding protein fold superfamily
      pfam00405
      Location:1308
      Transferrin; Transferrin
    2. NM_001321121.2NP_001308050.1  lactotransferrin isoform 3 preproprotein

      Status: REVIEWED

      Source sequence(s)
      AC098613, AY360320, BP342557, EU794669, X52941
      Consensus CDS
      CCDS82763.1
      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      P02788
      UniProtKB/TrEMBL
      E7ER44, Q2TUW9, V9HWI4
      Related
      ENSP00000405546.1, ENST00000417439.5
      Conserved Domains (4) summary
      smart00094
      Location:364693
      TR_FER; Transferrin
      cd13617
      Location:361692
      PBP2_transferrin_C; The C-lobe of transferrin, a member of the type 2 periplasmic binding protein fold superfamily
      cd13618
      Location:24351
      PBP2_transferrin_N; The N-lobe of transferrin, a member of the type 2 periplasmic binding protein fold superfamily
      pfam00405
      Location:25352
      Transferrin; Transferrin
    3. NM_001321122.2NP_001308051.1  lactotransferrin isoform 4

      Status: REVIEWED

      Description
      Transcript Variant: This variant (4) differs in the 5' exon structure and initiates translation at an alternate start codon compared to variant 1. The encoded isoform (4) has a distinct, shorter N-terminus compared to isoform 1.
      Source sequence(s)
      AC098613, AK093852, EU794669, X52941
      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      P02788
      UniProtKB/TrEMBL
      B3KSL2, V9HWI4
      Related
      ENSP00000397427.1, ENST00000443496.5
      Conserved Domains (4) summary
      smart00094
      Location:351682
      TR_FER; Transferrin
      cd13617
      Location:348681
      PBP2_transferrin_C; The C-lobe of transferrin, a member of the type 2 periplasmic binding protein fold superfamily
      cd13618
      Location:11338
      PBP2_transferrin_N; The N-lobe of transferrin, a member of the type 2 periplasmic binding protein fold superfamily
      pfam00405
      Location:12339
      Transferrin; Transferrin
    4. NM_002343.6NP_002334.2  lactotransferrin isoform 1 preproprotein

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_002334.2

      Status: REVIEWED

      Description
      Transcript Variant: This variant (1) encodes the longest isoform (1).
      Source sequence(s)
      AC098613, BP342557, EU794669, X52941
      Consensus CDS
      CCDS33747.1
      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      P02788
      UniProtKB/TrEMBL
      V9HWI4
      Related
      ENSP00000231751.4, ENST00000231751.9
      Conserved Domains (4) summary
      smart00094
      Location:364695
      TR_FER; Transferrin
      cd13617
      Location:361694
      PBP2_transferrin_C; The C-lobe of transferrin, a member of the type 2 periplasmic binding protein fold superfamily
      cd13618
      Location:24351
      PBP2_transferrin_N; The N-lobe of transferrin, a member of the type 2 periplasmic binding protein fold superfamily
      pfam00405
      Location:25352
      Transferrin; Transferrin

    RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: Homo sapiens Updated Annotation Release 109.20210514

    The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

    Reference GRCh38.p13 Primary Assembly

    Genomic

    1. NC_000003.12 Reference GRCh38.p13 Primary Assembly

      Range
      46435645..46485234 complement
      Download
      GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)
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