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    KRAS KRAS proto-oncogene, GTPase [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

    Gene ID: 3845, updated on 20-Sep-2020

    Summary

    Official Symbol
    KRASprovided by HGNC
    Official Full Name
    KRAS proto-oncogene, GTPaseprovided by HGNC
    Primary source
    HGNC:HGNC:6407
    See related
    Ensembl:ENSG00000133703 MIM:190070
    Gene type
    protein coding
    RefSeq status
    REVIEWED
    Organism
    Homo sapiens
    Lineage
    Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
    Also known as
    NS; NS3; OES; CFC2; RALD; K-Ras; KRAS1; KRAS2; RASK2; KI-RAS; C-K-RAS; K-RAS2A; K-RAS2B; K-RAS4A; K-RAS4B; K-Ras 2; 'C-K-RAS; c-Ki-ras; c-Ki-ras2
    Summary
    This gene, a Kirsten ras oncogene homolog from the mammalian ras gene family, encodes a protein that is a member of the small GTPase superfamily. A single amino acid substitution is responsible for an activating mutation. The transforming protein that results is implicated in various malignancies, including lung adenocarcinoma, mucinous adenoma, ductal carcinoma of the pancreas and colorectal carcinoma. Alternative splicing leads to variants encoding two isoforms that differ in the C-terminal region. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
    Expression
    Ubiquitous expression in colon (RPKM 7.8), brain (RPKM 7.5) and 25 other tissues See more
    Orthologs

    Genomic context

    See KRAS in Genome Data Viewer
    Location:
    12p12.1
    Exon count:
    6
    Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
    109.20200815 current GRCh38.p13 (GCF_000001405.39) 12 NC_000012.12 (25205246..25250929, complement)
    105 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 12 NC_000012.11 (25358180..25403870, complement)

    Chromosome 12 - NC_000012.12Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate receptor associated 2 Neighboring gene cilia and flagella associated protein 94 Neighboring gene electron transfer flavoprotein regulatory factor 1 Neighboring gene NFE2L2 motif-containing MPRA enhancer 301/302 Neighboring gene uncharacterized LOC105369701

    Genomic regions, transcripts, and products

    Expression

    • Project title: HPA RNA-seq normal tissues
    • Description: RNA-seq was performed of tissue samples from 95 human individuals representing 27 different tissues in order to determine tissue-specificity of all protein-coding genes
    • BioProject: PRJEB4337
    • Publication: PMID 24309898
    • Analysis date: Wed Apr 4 07:08:55 2018

    Bibliography

    GeneRIFs: Gene References Into Functions

    What's a GeneRIF?

    Phenotypes

    Associated conditions

    Description Tests
    Acute myeloid leukemia Compare labs
    Carcinoma of pancreas
    MedGen: C0235974 OMIM: 260350 GeneReviews: Not available
    Compare labs
    Cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome 2
    MedGen: C3809005 OMIM: 615278 GeneReviews: Cardiofaciocutaneous Syndrome
    Compare labs
    Cerebral arteriovenous malformation
    MedGen: C0917804 OMIM: 108010 GeneReviews: Not available
    Compare labs
    Epidermal nevus syndrome
    MedGen: C0265318 OMIM: 163200 GeneReviews: Not available
    Compare labs
    Familial cancer of breast Compare labs
    Hereditary diffuse gastric cancer Compare labs
    Lung cancer
    MedGen: C0684249 OMIM: 211980 GeneReviews: Not available
    Compare labs
    Noonan syndrome 3
    MedGen: C1860991 OMIM: 609942 GeneReviews: Noonan Syndrome
    Compare labs
    RAS-associated autoimmune leukoproliferative disorder
    MedGen: C2674723 OMIM: 614470 GeneReviews: Not available
    Compare labs
    Toriello-Lacassie-Droste syndrome
    MedGen: C1838329 OMIM: 600268 GeneReviews: Not available
    Compare labs
    Urinary bladder cancer
    MedGen: C0005684 OMIM: 109800 GeneReviews: Not available
    Compare labs

    Copy number response

    Description
    Copy number response
    Haploinsufficency

    No evidence available (Last evaluated (2015-10-08)

    ClinGen Genome Curation Page
    Triplosensitivity

    No evidence available (Last evaluated (2015-10-08)

    ClinGen Genome Curation Page

    HIV-1 interactions

    Protein interactions

    Protein Gene Interaction Pubs
    Envelope surface glycoprotein gp120 env HIV-1 gp120 upregulates the expression of Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (KRAS) in human B cells PubMed
    Envelope surface glycoprotein gp160, precursor env Pretreatment of cells with HIV-1 gp160 results in marked inhibition of tyrosine phosphorylation of p59(fyn), PLC-gamma1, ras activation, and TNF-alpha secretion in anti-CD3 mAb activated CD4+ T cells PubMed
    env HIV-1 gp160 alone or CD4/gp160 cross-linking induces tyrosine phosphorylation of intracellular substrates p59fyn, zap 70, and p95vav and also leads to ras activation PubMed
    Tat tat Treatment with HIV-1 Tat and cocaine activates Ras/Erk pathway in human pulmonary artery endothelial cells PubMed
    tat NOX4-mediated K-Ras activation on the ER endomembrane results in Tat-induced unfolded-protein response PubMed

    Go to the HIV-1, Human Interaction Database

    Pathways from PubChem

    Interactions

    Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

    General gene information

    Markers

    Homology

    Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

    Function Evidence Code Pubs
    GDP binding IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
    PubMed 
    GMP binding IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    GTP binding IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
    PubMed 
    GTPase activity IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
    PubMed 
    LRR domain binding IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    protein binding IPI
    Inferred from Physical Interaction
    more info
    PubMed 
    protein-containing complex binding IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    Process Evidence Code Pubs
    MAPK cascade TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    Ras protein signal transduction IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
    PubMed 
    Ras protein signal transduction TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    actin cytoskeleton organization IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    cytokine-mediated signaling pathway IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    endocrine signaling IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    epithelial tube branching involved in lung morphogenesis IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    female pregnancy IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    forebrain astrocyte development IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    homeostasis of number of cells within a tissue IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    liver development IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    negative regulation of cell differentiation IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    negative regulation of neuron apoptotic process IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    positive regulation of MAP kinase activity IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    positive regulation of NF-kappaB transcription factor activity IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    positive regulation of Rac protein signal transduction IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    positive regulation of cell proliferation IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of cellular senescence IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    positive regulation of gene expression IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of nitric-oxide synthase activity IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    positive regulation of protein phosphorylation IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    regulation of long-term neuronal synaptic plasticity IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    regulation of protein stability IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    regulation of synaptic transmission, GABAergic IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    response to glucocorticoid IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    response to isolation stress IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    response to mineralocorticoid IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    stimulatory C-type lectin receptor signaling pathway TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    striated muscle cell differentiation IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    visual learning IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    Component Evidence Code Pubs
    cytoplasm IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    cytosol IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    extrinsic component of cytoplasmic side of plasma membrane IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    focal adhesion HDA PubMed 
    membrane HDA PubMed 
    membrane raft IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    mitochondrion IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    plasma membrane IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
    PubMed 
    plasma membrane TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     

    General protein information

    Preferred Names
    GTPase KRas
    Names
    K-ras p21 protein
    Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog
    Kirsten rat sarcoma viral proto-oncogene
    PR310 c-K-ras oncogene
    c-Kirsten-ras protein
    cellular c-Ki-ras2 proto-oncogene
    cellular transforming proto-oncogene
    oncogene KRAS2
    transforming protein p21
    v-Ki-ras2 Kirsten rat sarcoma 2 viral oncogene homolog
    NP_001356715.1
    NP_001356716.1
    NP_004976.2
    NP_203524.1

    NCBI Reference Sequences (RefSeq)

    RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

    These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

    These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

    Genomic

    1. NG_007524.2 RefSeqGene

      Range
      5075..50758
      Download
      GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics), LRG_344

    mRNA and Protein(s)

    1. NM_001369786.1NP_001356715.1  GTPase KRas isoform a

      Status: REVIEWED

      Source sequence(s)
      AC087239, AC092794, KF459678
      Conserved Domains (1) summary
      cd04138
      Location:3164
      H_N_K_Ras_like; Ras GTPase family containing H-Ras,N-Ras and K-Ras4A/4B
    2. NM_001369787.1NP_001356716.1  GTPase KRas isoform b

      Status: REVIEWED

      Source sequence(s)
      AC087239, AC092794
      Conserved Domains (1) summary
      cd04138
      Location:3164
      H_N_K_Ras_like; Ras GTPase family containing H-Ras,N-Ras and K-Ras4A/4B
    3. NM_004985.5NP_004976.2  GTPase KRas isoform b

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_004976.2

      Status: REVIEWED

      Description
      Transcript Variant: This variant (b) is composed of five exons and lacks exon 4a which the longer transcript variant (a) includes. This predominant variant (b) has a cds that terminates in exon 4b and encodes isoform b.
      Source sequence(s)
      AC092794, AK292510, M54968
      Consensus CDS
      CCDS8702.1
      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      P01116
      UniProtKB/TrEMBL
      A0A024RAV5
      Related
      ENSP00000308495.3, ENST00000311936.8
      Conserved Domains (1) summary
      cd04138
      Location:3164
      H_N_K_Ras_like; Ras GTPase family containing H-Ras,N-Ras and K-Ras4A/4B
    4. NM_033360.4NP_203524.1  GTPase KRas isoform a

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_203524.1

      Status: REVIEWED

      Description
      Transcript Variant: This variant (a) is composed of six exons, including exon 4a, which the shorter transcript variant (b) lacks. This rare variant (a) has a cds that terminates in exon 4a and encodes a unique C-terminus, compared to isoform a.
      Source sequence(s)
      AC087239, AC092794, KF459678
      Consensus CDS
      CCDS8703.1
      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      P01116
      UniProtKB/TrEMBL
      I1SRC5, L7RSL8
      Related
      ENSP00000256078.4, ENST00000256078.9
      Conserved Domains (1) summary
      cd04138
      Location:3164
      H_N_K_Ras_like; Ras GTPase family containing H-Ras,N-Ras and K-Ras4A/4B

    RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: Homo sapiens Updated Annotation Release 109.20200815

    The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

    Reference GRCh38.p13 Primary Assembly

    Genomic

    1. NC_000012.12 Reference GRCh38.p13 Primary Assembly

      Range
      25205246..25250929 complement
      Download
      GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)
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