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    IL6 interleukin 6 [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

    Gene ID: 3569, updated on 26-Jul-2021

    Summary

    Official Symbol
    IL6provided by HGNC
    Official Full Name
    interleukin 6provided by HGNC
    Primary source
    HGNC:HGNC:6018
    See related
    Ensembl:ENSG00000136244 MIM:147620
    Gene type
    protein coding
    RefSeq status
    REVIEWED
    Organism
    Homo sapiens
    Lineage
    Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
    Also known as
    CDF; HGF; HSF; BSF2; IL-6; BSF-2; IFNB2; IFN-beta-2
    Summary
    This gene encodes a cytokine that functions in inflammation and the maturation of B cells. In addition, the encoded protein has been shown to be an endogenous pyrogen capable of inducing fever in people with autoimmune diseases or infections. The protein is primarily produced at sites of acute and chronic inflammation, where it is secreted into the serum and induces a transcriptional inflammatory response through interleukin 6 receptor, alpha. The functioning of this gene is implicated in a wide variety of inflammation-associated disease states, including suspectibility to diabetes mellitus and systemic juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. Elevated levels of the encoded protein have been found in virus infections, including COVID-19 (disease caused by SARS-CoV-2). [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2020]
    Annotation information
    Note: This gene has been reviewed for its involvement in coronavirus biology, and is relevant for COVID-19 prognosis.
    Expression
    Broad expression in urinary bladder (RPKM 9.7), gall bladder (RPKM 7.1) and 14 other tissues See more
    Orthologs
    NEW
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    Try the new Transcript table

    Genomic context

    See IL6 in Genome Data Viewer
    Location:
    7p15.3
    Exon count:
    6
    Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
    109.20210514 current GRCh38.p13 (GCF_000001405.39) 7 NC_000007.14 (22725889..22732002)
    105.20201022 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 7 NC_000007.13 (22766819..22771617)

    Chromosome 7 - NC_000007.14Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene CRISPRi-validated cis-regulatory element chr7.1154 Neighboring gene CRISPRi-validated cis-regulatory element chr7.1155 Neighboring gene IL6 antisense RNA 1 Neighboring gene MT-CYB pseudogene 42 Neighboring gene ribosomal protein S26 pseudogene 32

    Genomic regions, transcripts, and products

    Expression

    • Project title: HPA RNA-seq normal tissues
    • Description: RNA-seq was performed of tissue samples from 95 human individuals representing 27 different tissues in order to determine tissue-specificity of all protein-coding genes
    • BioProject: PRJEB4337
    • Publication: PMID 24309898
    • Analysis date: Wed Apr 4 07:08:55 2018

    Bibliography

    GeneRIFs: Gene References Into Functions

    What's a GeneRIF?

    Phenotypes

    Associated conditions

    Description Tests
    Cerebral arteriovenous malformation
    MedGen: C0917804 OMIM: 108010 GeneReviews: Not available
    Compare labs
    Diabetes mellitus type 1
    MedGen: C0011854 OMIM: 222100 GeneReviews: Not available
    Compare labs
    Genome-wide association scan for survival on dialysis in African-Americans with type 2 diabetes.
    GeneReviews: Not available
    Genome-wide association study for C-reactive protein levels identified pleiotropic associations in the IL6 locus.
    GeneReviews: Not available
    Inflammatory bowel disease 1
    MedGen: C0678202 OMIM: 266600 GeneReviews: Not available
    Compare labs
    Kaposi sarcoma, susceptibility to
    MedGen: C0036220 OMIM: 148000 GeneReviews: Not available
    Compare labs
    Multiethnic meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies in >100 000 subjects identifies 23 fibrinogen-associated Loci but no strong evidence of a causal association between circulating fibrinogen and cardiovascular disease.
    GeneReviews: Not available
    Rheumatoid arthritis, systemic juvenile
    MedGen: C1858558 OMIM: 604302 GeneReviews: Not available
    Compare labs
    Type 2 diabetes mellitus
    MedGen: C0011860 OMIM: 125853 GeneReviews: Not available
    Compare labs

    HIV-1 interactions

    Replication interactions

    Interaction Pubs
    HIV-1 infection increases basal mRNA levels of JUN, IL6, STAT1, CEBPA, RELA, and CEBPG in monocyte derived macrophages PubMed
    HIV-1 ADA infection decreases production of CXCL8 (IL8), CCL2 (MCP-1), and IL6 at a basal level or after Fc receptor, complement receptor 3, or bacterial stimulation in primary human macrophages PubMed

    Protein interactions

    Protein Gene Interaction Pubs
    Envelope surface glycoprotein gp120 env HIV-1 CN54, JRFL, and Ada Env (gp120) upregulates IL-6, CCL2, CCL4, CXCL8, and IL-1b through TLR4 and CCR5 induction in monocyte derived macrophages and hepatic stellate cells because treatment with an anti-TLR4 antibody mitigated the response PubMed
    env HIV-1 IIIB Env (gp120) upregulates production of TNF (TNF-a), IL-17A, CCL2 (MCP1), CCL5 (RANTES), IL6, IL10, CXCL8 (IL8), CXCL1 (GRO-a), and CCL1 (I309) in stimulated monocyte derived macrophages PubMed
    env Cytokines induced in vitro by HIV-1 gp120 in normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) include interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) and IFN-gamma, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), IL-6, IL-10, IL-1 alpha and IL-1 beta PubMed
    env Curcumin, a potent and safe anti-inflammatory compound, inhibits HIV-1 gp120-mediated upregulation of the proinflammatory cytokines TNF-alpha and IL-6, and the chemokines IL-8, RANTES, and IP-10 in primary human genital epithelial cells PubMed
    env HIV-1 gp120-induced release of IL-6 activates STAT3 in primary human monocyte-derived dendritic cells PubMed
    env HIV-1 gp120-induced release of IL-6 is regulated by p38 MAPK, IkappaBalpha, and p65 NF-kappaB activation in primary human monocyte-derived dendritic cells PubMed
    env Interaction of HIV-1 gp120 with CCR5 upregulates IL-6 expression in primary human monocyte-derived dendritic cells PubMed
    env HIV-1 gp120-induced release of IL-6 and MCP-1 is partially responsible for the impairment of barrier function in human retinal pigment epithelial cells PubMed
    env HIV-1 gp120 stimulates monocytes to release TNF-alpha, IL-1 beta, IL-6, and granulocyte-macrophage-CSF, and this effect can be blocked with soluble CD4 PubMed
    env HIV-1 gp120 upregulates the expression of IL-6 and IL-8 via the p38 signaling pathway and the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway in astrocytes PubMed
    env HIV-1 gp120-induced expansion of myeloid derived suppressor cells is dependent on the upregulation of IL-6 by gp120 PubMed
    env HIV-1 gp120 recruits SOCS-3 through IL-10 activation for suppressing IL-6 and IL-6 dependent STAT3 in immature dentritic cells PubMed
    env HIV-1 gp120-induced release of IL-10 inhibits STAT3 activation, leading to suppress HIV-1 Nef-induced IL-6 secretion in immature dentritic cells PubMed
    env HIV-1 gp120 downregulates HIV-1 Nef dependent IL-6 release, which requires the interaction of gp120 with DC-SIGN PubMed
    env HIV-1 gp120 induces the release of cytokines MIP-1 alpha, MIP-1 beta, IL-6, IL-10, and TNF-alpha in immature dentritic cells PubMed
    env HIV-1 gp120 inhibits CpG-A-induced secretion of TNF-alpha, IL-6, and IP-10 proteins in plasmacytoid dendritic cells and PBMCs PubMed
    env HIV-1 gp120 induces a time-dependent IL-6 upregulation by translocating NF-kappaB1 from cytoplasm to nucleus in human astrocyte cells PubMed
    env HIV-1 gp120 inhibits TLR9-mediated upregulation of CD83 and the secretion of inflammatory cytokines TNF-alpha and IL-6, and chemokine IP10 in plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC) PubMed
    env Treatment of human hepatic stellate cells with gp120 significantly increases secretion and gene expression of CCL2, metalloprotease-1 and interleukin-6. Gp120 also induces activation of Akt, NF-kappaB, and p38(MAPK) PubMed
    env HIV-1 gp120 activates human brain micro vascular endothelial cells (HBMEC) via CD4 in upregulating ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression, IL-6 secretion and increased monocyte transmigration across monolayers PubMed
    Envelope surface glycoprotein gp160, precursor env HIV-1 gp160 induces interleukin-6 production in CD4+ T cells PubMed
    env HIV-1 gp140 monomer and trimer induce a time-dependent IL-6 upregulation in human astrocyte cells PubMed
    env Chimeric HIV-1 gp140 - CD40L trimers can target and activate dendritic cells to release IL-6, IL-10 and IL-12 PubMed
    Envelope transmembrane glycoprotein gp41 env The HIV-1 gp41 transmembrane domain inhibits TLR2-induced activation of ERK1/2, and secretion of TNF-alpha, MCP-1, and IL-6 PubMed
    env A synthetic peptide corresponding to the immunosuppressive domain (amino acids 574-592) of HIV-1 gp41 inhibits activation of PBMCs and upregulates the expression of IL-6 in peptide-treated PBMCs PubMed
    env HIV-1 gp41 induces significant IL-6 production by human monocytic cells; IL-10 inhibits gp41-induced IL-6 production and reduces the expression of IL-6 mRNA PubMed
    env Mutations L576A, Q577A, A578G, A582G, V583A, and E584A in the conserved immunosuppressive domain (amino acids 576-589) of HIV-1 gp41 significantly downregulate IL-6 release from human PBMCs PubMed
    env PWM, LPS, IFN-gamma and IL-6 can increase HIV-1 gp41 binding to human B cells PubMed
    Nef nef HIV-1 Nef induces IL6 and CXCL8 (IL8) expression in a PIK3-PKC dependent, AKT independent manner PubMed
    nef HIV-1 Nef induces IL6 and IL8 expression through the NF-kappaB pathway PubMed
    nef HIV-1 Nef treatment induces IL6 and IL8 production in SVGA cells and primary human fetal astrocytes PubMed
    nef HIV-1 Tat and Nef combination treatment induces release of both IL-6 and IL-8 in human mesenchymal stem cells PubMed
    nef The expression of HIV-1 Nef in primary human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) induces a significant increase in the concentration of IL-6 PubMed
    nef HIV-1 gp120-induced release of IL-10 inhibits STAT3 activation, leading to suppress HIV-1 Nef-induced IL-6 secretion in immature dentritic cells PubMed
    nef HIV-1 gp120 downregulates HIV-1 Nef dependent IL-6 release, which requires the interaction of gp120 with DC-SIGN in immature dentritic cells PubMed
    nef HIV-1 Nef synergizes with IL-6 to activate the AKT pathway promoting angiogenesis and tumorigenesis in achicken chorioallantoic membrane model and nude mice PubMed
    nef HIV-1 Nef synergizes with IL-6 to upregulate expression of basic fibroblast growth factor and cyclin D1 in NIH3T3-induced tissues PubMed
    nef HIV-1 Nef synergizes with IL-6 to enhance vascular tube formation, cell proliferation, VEGF expression, and phosphorylated AKT activation in human umbilical vein endothelial cells PubMed
    nef HIV-1 Nef inhibits IFN-gamma-induced apoptosis and upregulates TNF-alpha, IL-6 and MIP-3alpha production by Caco-2 cells while downregulates IL-10 production PubMed
    nef Both the myristoylation site and the acidic cluster in HIV-1 Nef are required for the activation of NF-kappaB, which induces upregulation of TNFalpha and IL6 expression PubMed
    nef Intracisternal HIV-1 Nef injection upregulates levels of IL-6, TNF-alpha, and IFN-gamma in rat cerebrospinal fluid PubMed
    nef HIV-1 Nef expression by immature human and macaque dendritic cells (DCs) upregulates IL-6, IL-12, TNF-alpha, CXCL8, CCL3, and CCL4 release, but without upregulating co-stimulatory and other molecules characteristic of mature DCs PubMed
    nef Treatment of human PBMC and PBL with soluble HIV-1 Nef upregulates IL-6 production PubMed
    Pr55(Gag) gag MVA-gag induces a significant release of cytokines such as IL-2R, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-alpha, IFN-gamma, MCP-1, MIP-1alpha, MIP-1beta, and RANTES by the infected monocyte-derived dendritic cells in comparison with uninfected cells PubMed
    gag Depletion of HIV-specific CD8(+)/IL-10(+) cells from PBMCs leads to upregulation of CD38 on CD14(+) monocytes together with increased IL-6 production in response to HIV-1 gag stimulation PubMed
    gag HIV-1 Gag virus-like particles expressed by recombinant baculoviruses activate human PBMC to release IL-6 in a dose and time dependent manner PubMed
    gag The Matrix protein of HIV-1 Gag increases IL-6 production in placental mononuclear cells PubMed
    Tat tat HIV-1 Tat upregulates IL6 protein expression in human monocytes and monocyte-derived dendritic cells in a TLR4-CD14-MD2 dependent manner PubMed
    tat Human microglia cells treated with HIV-1 clade C Tat show more significant upregulation of IL-6 and TNF-alpha, and higher NF-kappaB activation as compared to clade B Tat-treated cells PubMed
    tat HIV-1 Tat and Nef combination treatment induces release of both IL-6 and IL-8 in human mesenchymal stem cells PubMed
    tat HIV-1 Tat upregulates IL-6 expression in monocytes, astrocytes, microglial cells, human brain endothelial cells, THP-1 and Jurkat T-cells, MC3 B-cells, HeLa, and cells from Kaposi's sarcoma lesions PubMed
    tat HIV-1 Tat-induced upregulation of IL-6 in a time-dependent manner involves NF-kappaB and AP-1 transcription factors, activation of the p38 MAPK beta and delta subunits, and PI3K/Akt pathway in astrocytes PubMed
    tat Astrocyte cultures treated with morphine and HIV-1 Tat show exaggerated increases in chemokine release, including monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), RANTES, and IL-6 PubMed
    tat Upregulation of IL-6 by HIV-1 Tat in human brain endothelial cells is mediated through activation of protein kinase C (PK-C) and cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PK-A) PubMed
    tat HIV-1 Tat inhibits CpG-A-induced secretion of TNF-alpha, IL-6, and IP-10 proteins in plasmacytoid dendritic cells and PBMCs PubMed
    tat LRRK2 is involved in HIV-1 Tat-induced cytokine TNF-alpha, IL-6, and MCP-1 expression in microglia cells PubMed
    tat HIV-1 Tat significantly decreases TNF-alpha and IL-6 secretion but increases IL-4 levels in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells PubMed
    tat HIV-1 Tat downregulates the expression of adiponectin protein and upregulates the expression of IL-6, IL-8, and MCP-1 proteins in human SGBS preadipocytes PubMed
    tat Monocytes treated with HIV-1 clade B Tat show significant upregulation of proinflammatory cytokines, IL-6 and TNF-alpha, as compared to clade C Tat-treated cultures PubMed
    tat Sulfated polymannuroguluronate (SPMG) significantly reverses HIV-1 Tat-induced release of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, and IL-6 in THP-1 cells PubMed
    tat Ectopic expression of HIV-1 Tat induces the production of human IL-6 (huIL-6) and its receptor (huIL-6Ra) and activates STAT3 signaling; these effects are involved in Tat-mediated activation of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpes virus (KSHV) replication PubMed
    tat Treatment of T lymphocytes with IL-2, IL-6 and TNFalpha increases CDK9 and cyclin T1 protein levels, suggesting a mechanism for activation of HIV-1 Tat function and reactivation of HIV-1 in CD4+ T lymphocytes harboring a latent provirus PubMed
    tat Hydroxyurea and IL-6 synergistically enhance HIV-1 Tat activation of HIV-1 LTR-driven transcription via the Sp1 binding site PubMed
    tat HIV-1 Tat protein upregulates expression of IL-6 and IL-8 in human breast cancer cells by an NF-kappaB-dependent pathway PubMed
    tat IL-6 and IL-6 receptor are upregulated in human epithelial cells by HIV-1 Tat treatment PubMed
    tat HIV-1 Tat upregulates IL-6 expression by transactivating the IL-6 promoter, an effect mediated through enhancement of CAAT enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP; nuclear factor-IL-6) DNA binding activity PubMed
    Vpr vpr Treatment of human primary astrocytes with HIV-1 Vpr upregulates secretion of IL6, CXCL8 (IL-8), MCP-1, and MIF and downregulates secretion of serpin E1, a serine proteinase inhibitor (known as PAI-1) PubMed
    vpr HIV-1 Vpr induces IL6 production via activation of MAPK p38 PubMed
    vpr HIV-1 Vpr induced upregulation of IL6 involves PI3K/Akt mediated activation of NFKB1 (NF-kappaB) in astrocytes PubMed
    vpr HIV-1 Vpr upregulation of IL6 involves NFKB1 (NF-kappaB) PubMed
    vpr HIV-1 Vpr enhances the secretion of IL6 from human fetal astrocytes PubMed
    vpr HIV-1 Vpr upregulates the expression of IL6 mRNA in human fetal astrocytes PubMed
    vpr HIV-1 Vpr upregulates the expression of IL6 mRNA in SVGA in a dose-dependent manner PubMed
    vpr HIV-1 Vpr upregulates the expression of IL6 mRNA in SVGA astrocytes in a time dependent fashion PubMed
    vpr HIV-1 Vpr enhances the secretion of IL6 from SVGA astrocytes in a time dependent fashion PubMed
    vpr HIV-1 involves the JUN (AP-1) transcription factor in the induction of IL6 in astrocytes PubMed
    vpr HIV-1 Vpr involves the CEBPD (C/EBP-delta) transcription factor in the induction of IL6 in astrocytes PubMed
    vpr HIV-1 Vpr-mediated regulation of IL6 involves MAPK8 (Jnk-MAPK8) in astrocytes PubMed
    vpr Vpr-mediated upregulation of IL6 involves p38-MAPK11 (beta isoform of p38-MAPK) in astrocytes PubMed
    vpr Soluble HIV-1 Vpr induces a markedly reduced expression of IL6 in monocytoid cells PubMed
    vpr Concurrent exposure of HIV-1 Vpr with HCV core protein causes higher IL6 expression than HIV-1 Vpr-treated human fetal microglia PubMed
    vpr HIV-1 Vpr-induced IL6 production depends on the activation of NFkappaB and the involvement of C/EBP-beta, TLR4, and MyD88 PubMed
    vpr HIV-1 Vpr upregulates IL6 expression in primary macrophages and in A549 cells PubMed
    capsid gag Unactivated memory CD4+ T cells infected by HIV-1 in the presence of IL-2 and IL-15 alone or IL-6/IL-7/TNF-alpha combination, upregulate granzyme B and HIV-1 CA production PubMed
    gag PLA-p24-loaded human monocyte-derived dendritic cells enhance the secretion of MIP-1beta, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-alpha in comparison with PLA-loaded cells alone PubMed
    matrix gag HIV-1 MA natural variant S75X upregulates the expression of two cyclins D2 and D3, and induces significant release of cytokine IL-6 in both Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-infected primary and fully transformed B-lymphocytes PubMed
    gag HIV-1 Matrix upregulates IL-6 production in placental mononuclear cells PubMed

    Go to the HIV-1, Human Interaction Database

    Pathways from PubChem

    Interactions

    Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

    General gene information

    Markers

    Homology

    Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

    Function Evidence Code Pubs
    enables cytokine activity IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
    PubMed 
    enables cytokine activity IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    enables cytokine activity ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    enables cytokine activity NAS
    Non-traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    enables cytokine activity TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    enables growth factor activity IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
    PubMed 
    enables growth factor activity IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    contributes_to interleukin-6 receptor binding IPI
    Inferred from Physical Interaction
    more info
    PubMed 
    enables interleukin-6 receptor binding IPI
    Inferred from Physical Interaction
    more info
    PubMed 
    enables interleukin-6 receptor binding NAS
    Non-traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    enables protein binding IPI
    Inferred from Physical Interaction
    more info
    PubMed 
    Process Evidence Code Pubs
    involved_in T follicular helper cell differentiation ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    involved_in T-helper 17 cell lineage commitment ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    involved_in acute-phase response TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in cellular response to hydrogen peroxide IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    acts_upstream_of_or_within cellular response to lipopolysaccharide IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in cellular response to virus ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    involved_in cytokine-mediated signaling pathway IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in defense response to Gram-negative bacterium TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in defense response to Gram-positive bacterium TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in defense response to virus IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in endocrine pancreas development ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    involved_in germinal center B cell differentiation ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    involved_in glucagon secretion ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    involved_in glucose homeostasis IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in hepatic immune response IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in hepatic immune response TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in hepatocyte proliferation ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    involved_in humoral immune response IC
    Inferred by Curator
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in inflammatory response IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in inflammatory response TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in interleukin-6-mediated signaling pathway IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in liver regeneration ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    acts_upstream_of_or_within maintenance of blood-brain barrier TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in monocyte chemotaxis IC
    Inferred by Curator
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in negative regulation of apoptotic process IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in negative regulation of bone resorption ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    involved_in negative regulation of cell population proliferation TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in negative regulation of chemokine production ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    involved_in negative regulation of collagen biosynthetic process IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in negative regulation of fat cell differentiation NAS
    Non-traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in negative regulation of interleukin-1-mediated signaling pathway ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    involved_in negative regulation of lipid storage NAS
    Non-traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in negative regulation of neurogenesis TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    acts_upstream_of negative regulation of primary miRNA processing IGI
    Inferred from Genetic Interaction
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in neuron cellular homeostasis TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in neuron projection development IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in neutrophil apoptotic process IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in neutrophil mediated immunity TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in platelet activation TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of B cell activation IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    acts_upstream_of positive regulation of DNA-binding transcription factor activity IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of DNA-binding transcription factor activity IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    acts_upstream_of_or_within positive regulation of MAPK cascade IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of MAPK cascade IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    NOT involved_in positive regulation of NF-kappaB transcription factor activity IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of T cell proliferation IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of T-helper 2 cell cytokine production ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    involved_in positive regulation of acute inflammatory response IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of apoptotic DNA fragmentation IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of apoptotic process IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of cell population proliferation IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
    PubMed 
    acts_upstream_of_or_within positive regulation of cell population proliferation IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of cell population proliferation IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of cell population proliferation IGI
    Inferred from Genetic Interaction
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of cell population proliferation IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of chemokine production IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of chemokine production NAS
    Non-traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    acts_upstream_of_or_within positive regulation of cytokine production involved in inflammatory response IGI
    Inferred from Genetic Interaction
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of epithelial to mesenchymal transition IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of extracellular matrix disassembly IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of gene expression IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    acts_upstream_of_or_within positive regulation of gene expression IGI
    Inferred from Genetic Interaction
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of gene expression ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    involved_in positive regulation of glial cell proliferation IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of immunoglobulin production IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of immunoglobulin production ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    acts_upstream_of positive regulation of interleukin-1 beta production IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    acts_upstream_of_or_within positive regulation of interleukin-1 beta production IGI
    Inferred from Genetic Interaction
    more info
    PubMed 
    acts_upstream_of positive regulation of interleukin-10 production IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    acts_upstream_of_or_within positive regulation of interleukin-10 production IGI
    Inferred from Genetic Interaction
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of interleukin-17 production ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of interleukin-21 production ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    involved_in positive regulation of interleukin-6 production IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    acts_upstream_of positive regulation of interleukin-8 production IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    acts_upstream_of_or_within positive regulation of interleukin-8 production IGI
    Inferred from Genetic Interaction
    more info
    PubMed 
    acts_upstream_of_or_within positive regulation of leukocyte adhesion to vascular endothelial cell IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of leukocyte chemotaxis TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of neuroinflammatory response TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of osteoblast differentiation IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of osteoblast differentiation TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    acts_upstream_of_or_within positive regulation of peptidyl-serine phosphorylation IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    acts_upstream_of_or_within positive regulation of peptidyl-tyrosine phosphorylation IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    acts_upstream_of positive regulation of platelet aggregation IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    acts_upstream_of_or_within positive regulation of production of miRNAs involved in gene silencing by miRNA IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of receptor signaling pathway via JAK-STAT IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of receptor signaling pathway via JAK-STAT IC
    Inferred by Curator
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of receptor signaling pathway via JAK-STAT IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    acts_upstream_of positive regulation of receptor signaling pathway via STAT IGI
    Inferred from Genetic Interaction
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of smooth muscle cell proliferation IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    acts_upstream_of_or_within positive regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    involved_in positive regulation of transcription, DNA-templated IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of transcription, DNA-templated IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of translation IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    acts_upstream_of_or_within positive regulation of tumor necrosis factor production IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    acts_upstream_of_or_within positive regulation of tumor necrosis factor production IGI
    Inferred from Genetic Interaction
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of type B pancreatic cell apoptotic process TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    acts_upstream_of_or_within positive regulation of tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT protein IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT protein IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT protein IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor production IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in regulation of angiogenesis IC
    Inferred by Curator
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in regulation of astrocyte activation TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in regulation of glucagon secretion IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in regulation of insulin secretion IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in regulation of microglial cell activation TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in regulation of neuroinflammatory response TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor production IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in response to activity ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    involved_in response to glucocorticoid IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in response to peptidoglycan NAS
    Non-traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in vascular endothelial growth factor production IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    Component Evidence Code Pubs
    located_in endoplasmic reticulum lumen TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    located_in extracellular region TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    is_active_in extracellular space IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
    PubMed 
    located_in extracellular space IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    part_of interleukin-6 receptor complex IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
    PubMed 
    part_of interleukin-6 receptor complex IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 

    General protein information

    Preferred Names
    interleukin-6
    Names
    B-cell differentiation factor
    B-cell stimulatory factor 2
    CTL differentiation factor
    hybridoma growth factor
    interferon beta-2
    interleukin BSF-2

    NCBI Reference Sequences (RefSeq)

    NEW Try the new Transcript table

    RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

    These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

    These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

    Genomic

    1. NG_011640.1 RefSeqGene

      Range
      5054..9852
      Download
      GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

    mRNA and Protein(s)

    1. NM_000600.5NP_000591.1  interleukin-6 isoform 1 precursor

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_000591.1

      Status: REVIEWED

      Description
      Transcript Variant: This variant (1) represents the longer transcript and encodes the longer isoform (1).
      Source sequence(s)
      AK301141, BC015511
      Consensus CDS
      CCDS5375.1
      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      P05231
      UniProtKB/TrEMBL
      B4DVM1, Q75MH2
      Related
      ENSP00000258743.5, ENST00000258743.10
      Conserved Domains (1) summary
      pfam00489
      Location:33211
      IL6; Interleukin-6/G-CSF/MGF family
    2. NM_001318095.2NP_001305024.1  interleukin-6 isoform 2

      Status: REVIEWED

      Description
      Transcript Variant: This variant (2) lacks an exon in its 5' UTR and uses a downstream in-frame start codon, compared to variant 1. The encoded isoform (2) has a shorter N-terminus than isoform 1.
      Source sequence(s)
      CD013918, HY076725
      Consensus CDS
      CCDS83166.1
      UniProtKB/TrEMBL
      B5MC21
      Related
      ENSP00000385043.1, ENST00000407492.5
      Conserved Domains (1) summary
      cl02473
      Location:1135
      IL6; Interleukin-6/G-CSF/MGF family
    3. NM_001371096.1NP_001358025.1  interleukin-6 isoform 3

      Status: REVIEWED

      Source sequence(s)
      AC073072
      Related
      ENSP00000384928.3, ENST00000401630.7

    RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: Homo sapiens Updated Annotation Release 109.20210514

    The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

    Reference GRCh38.p13 Primary Assembly

    Genomic

    1. NC_000007.14 Reference GRCh38.p13 Primary Assembly

      Range
      22725889..22732002
      Download
      GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

    mRNA and Protein(s)

    1. XM_011515390.2XP_011513692.1  interleukin-6 isoform X2

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for XP_011513692.1

      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      P05231
      UniProtKB/TrEMBL
      Q75MH2
      Related
      ENSP00000385675.1, ENST00000404625.5
      Conserved Domains (1) summary
      pfam00489
      Location:33211
      IL6; Interleukin-6/G-CSF/MGF family
    2. XM_005249745.5XP_005249802.1  interleukin-6 isoform X1

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for XP_005249802.1

      UniProtKB/TrEMBL
      B4DNQ5
      Conserved Domains (1) summary
      cl02473
      Location:87212
      IL6; Interleukin-6/G-CSF/MGF family
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