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    GNRH2 gonadotropin releasing hormone 2 [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

    Gene ID: 2797, updated on 17-Jun-2024

    Summary

    Official Symbol
    GNRH2provided by HGNC
    Official Full Name
    gonadotropin releasing hormone 2provided by HGNC
    Primary source
    HGNC:HGNC:4420
    See related
    Ensembl:ENSG00000125787 MIM:602352; AllianceGenome:HGNC:4420
    Gene type
    protein coding
    RefSeq status
    REVIEWED
    Organism
    Homo sapiens
    Lineage
    Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
    Also known as
    GnRH-II; LH-RHII
    Summary
    This gene is a member of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) gene family. Proteins encoded by members of this gene family are proteolytically cleaved to form neuropeptides which, in part, regulate reproductive functions by stimulating the production and release of the gonadotropins follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH). The human GNRH2 gene is predicted to encode a preproprotein from which a mature neuropeptide of 10 amino acids is cleaved. However, while the human genome retains the sequence for a functional GNRH2 decapeptide, translation of the human GNRH2 gene has not yet been demonstrated and the GNRH2 gene of chimpanzees, gorilla, and Sumatran orangutan have a premature stop at codon eight of the decapeptide sequence which suggests GNRH2 was a pseudogene in the hominid lineage. The GNRH2 gene is also believed to be a pseudogene in many other mammalian species such as mouse and cow. The receptor for this gene (GNRHR2) is predicted to be a pseudogene in human as well as many other mammalian species. The closely related GNRH1 and GNRHR1 genes are functional in human and other mammals and are generally functional in vertebrates. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2019]
    Annotation information
    Note: It is uncertain if this is a protein-coding gene or if it is a transcribed pseudogene in humans. [19 Mar 2019]
    Expression
    Low expression observed in reference dataset See more
    Orthologs
    NEW
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    Try the new Transcript table

    Genomic context

    See GNRH2 in Genome Data Viewer
    Location:
    20p13
    Exon count:
    4
    Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
    RS_2023_10 current GRCh38.p14 (GCF_000001405.40) 20 NC_000020.11 (3043622..3045747)
    RS_2023_10 current T2T-CHM13v2.0 (GCF_009914755.1) 20 NC_060944.1 (3069822..3076493)
    105.20220307 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 20 NC_000020.10 (3024268..3026393)

    Chromosome 20 - NC_000020.11Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene ATAC-STARR-seq lymphoblastoid active region 17472 Neighboring gene H3K27ac-H3K4me1 hESC enhancer GRCh37_chr20:2820603-2821134 Neighboring gene H3K27ac hESC enhancer GRCh37_chr20:2821668-2822199 Neighboring gene PC-esterase domain containing 1A Neighboring gene H3K27ac hESC enhancer GRCh37_chr20:2840338-2840838 Neighboring gene VPS16 core subunit of CORVET and HOPS complexes Neighboring gene H3K4me1 hESC enhancer GRCh37_chr20:2852243-2852874 Neighboring gene H3K4me1 hESC enhancer GRCh37_chr20:2852875-2853504 Neighboring gene H3K27ac-H3K4me1 hESC enhancer GRCh37_chr20:2853505-2854136 Neighboring gene H3K27ac hESC enhancer GRCh37_chr20:2854137-2854766 Neighboring gene Neanderthal introgressed variant-containing enhancer experimental_60029 Neighboring gene protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor type A Neighboring gene H3K27ac hESC enhancer GRCh37_chr20:2903375-2903875 Neighboring gene Sharpr-MPRA regulatory region 1396 Neighboring gene ATAC-STARR-seq lymphoblastoid active region 17473 Neighboring gene BRD4-independent group 4 enhancer GRCh37_chr20:3007535-3008734 Neighboring gene ATAC-STARR-seq lymphoblastoid active region 17474 Neighboring gene ATAC-STARR-seq lymphoblastoid silent region 12612 Neighboring gene ATAC-STARR-seq lymphoblastoid active region 17475 Neighboring gene H3K4me1 hESC enhancer GRCh37_chr20:3039761-3040262 Neighboring gene H3K4me1 hESC enhancer GRCh37_chr20:3040263-3040762 Neighboring gene mitochondrial ribosomal protein S26 Neighboring gene uncharacterized LOC101929098 Neighboring gene ATAC-STARR-seq lymphoblastoid silent region 12613 Neighboring gene oxytocin/neurophysin I prepropeptide

    Genomic regions, transcripts, and products

    Expression

    • Project title: HPA RNA-seq normal tissues
    • Description: RNA-seq was performed of tissue samples from 95 human individuals representing 27 different tissues in order to determine tissue-specificity of all protein-coding genes
    • BioProject: PRJEB4337
    • Publication: PMID 24309898
    • Analysis date: Wed Apr 4 07:08:55 2018

    Bibliography

    GeneRIFs: Gene References Into Functions

    What's a GeneRIF?

    Interactions

    Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

    General gene information

    Markers

    Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

    Function Evidence Code Pubs
    enables gonadotropin hormone-releasing hormone activity IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
     
    enables gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor binding IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
     
    enables hormone activity TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    Process Evidence Code Pubs
    involved_in reproductive process IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
     
    involved_in signal transduction TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    Component Evidence Code Pubs
    located_in extracellular region TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    is_active_in extracellular space IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
     
    located_in extracellular space ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     

    General protein information

    Preferred Names
    progonadoliberin-2
    Names
    GnRH-associated peptide 2
    GnRH-associated peptide II
    Gonadoliberin II
    Gonadoliberin-2
    luliberin II
    luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone II
    progonadoliberin II

    NCBI Reference Sequences (RefSeq)

    NEW Try the new Transcript table

    RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

    These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

    These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

    mRNA and Protein(s)

    1. NM_001310220.2NP_001297149.1  progonadoliberin-2 isoform a preproprotein

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001297149.1

      Status: REVIEWED

      Description
      Transcript Variant: This variant (4) differs in the 5' UTR compared to variant 1. Variants 1 and 4 encode the same isoform (a).
      Source sequence(s)
      AF036330, AL121905, BC115400
      Consensus CDS
      CCDS13040.1
      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      O43555, Q14C68, Q14C69, Q9BYN9, Q9BYP0
    2. NM_001501.2NP_001492.1  progonadoliberin-2 isoform a preproprotein

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001492.1

      Status: REVIEWED

      Description
      Transcript Variant: This variant (1) represents the longest transcript and encodes the longest isoform (a). Variants 1 and 4 encode the same isoform (a).
      Source sequence(s)
      AF036330, AL121905, BC069362
      Consensus CDS
      CCDS13040.1
      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      O43555, Q14C68, Q14C69, Q9BYN9, Q9BYP0
      Related
      ENSP00000245983.2, ENST00000245983.6
    3. NM_178331.2NP_847901.1  progonadoliberin-2 isoform c preproprotein

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_847901.1

      Status: REVIEWED

      Description
      Transcript Variant: This variant (3) uses an alternate in-frame splice site compared to variant 1, resulting in a shorter isoform (c) compared to isoform a.
      Source sequence(s)
      AF036330, AL121905, BC115399
      Consensus CDS
      CCDS13041.1
      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      O43555
      Related
      ENSP00000352003.2, ENST00000359100.6
    4. NM_178332.2NP_847902.1  progonadoliberin-2 isoform b preproprotein

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_847902.1

      Status: REVIEWED

      Description
      Transcript Variant: This variant (2) uses an alternate in-frame splice site compared to variant 1, resulting in a shorter isoform (b) compared to isoform a.
      Source sequence(s)
      AF036330, AL121905, BF061974
      Consensus CDS
      CCDS13042.1
      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      O43555
      Related
      ENSP00000369704.2, ENST00000380346.2

    RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: GCF_000001405.40-RS_2023_10

    The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

    Reference GRCh38.p14 Primary Assembly

    Genomic

    1. NC_000020.11 Reference GRCh38.p14 Primary Assembly

      Range
      3043622..3045747
      Download
      GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

    Alternate T2T-CHM13v2.0

    Genomic

    1. NC_060944.1 Alternate T2T-CHM13v2.0

      Range
      3069822..3076493
      Download
      GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

    mRNA and Protein(s)

    1. XM_054323379.1XP_054179354.1  progonadoliberin-2 isoform X1