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    PAPOLA poly(A) polymerase alpha [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

    Gene ID: 10914, updated on 17-Jun-2024

    Summary

    Official Symbol
    PAPOLAprovided by HGNC
    Official Full Name
    poly(A) polymerase alphaprovided by HGNC
    Primary source
    HGNC:HGNC:14981
    See related
    Ensembl:ENSG00000090060 MIM:605553; AllianceGenome:HGNC:14981
    Gene type
    protein coding
    RefSeq status
    REVIEWED
    Organism
    Homo sapiens
    Lineage
    Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
    Also known as
    PAP; PAP-alpha
    Summary
    The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the poly(A) polymerase family. It is required for the addition of adenosine residues for the creation of the 3'-poly(A) tail of mRNAs. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2011]
    Expression
    Ubiquitous expression in testis (RPKM 27.7), thyroid (RPKM 22.4) and 25 other tissues See more
    Orthologs
    NEW
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    Genomic context

    See PAPOLA in Genome Data Viewer
    Location:
    14q32.2
    Exon count:
    23
    Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
    RS_2023_10 current GRCh38.p14 (GCF_000001405.40) 14 NC_000014.9 (96502376..96567116)
    RS_2023_10 current T2T-CHM13v2.0 (GCF_009914755.1) 14 NC_060938.1 (90733979..90798717)
    105.20220307 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 14 NC_000014.8 (96968713..97033453)

    Chromosome 14 - NC_000014.9Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene adenylate kinase 7 Neighboring gene ribosomal protein L23a pseudogene 10 Neighboring gene MPRA-validated peak2245 silencer Neighboring gene NANOG-H3K27ac-H3K4me1 hESC enhancer GRCh37_chr14:96967424-96968020 Neighboring gene NANOG-H3K27ac-H3K4me1 hESC enhancer GRCh37_chr14:96968021-96968615 Neighboring gene NANOG-H3K27ac-H3K4me1 hESC enhancer GRCh37_chr14:96968616-96969211 Neighboring gene H3K4me1 hESC enhancer GRCh37_chr14:96970367-96970868 Neighboring gene H3K4me1 hESC enhancer GRCh37_chr14:96970869-96971368 Neighboring gene PAPOLA divergent transcript Neighboring gene ATAC-STARR-seq lymphoblastoid silent region 6056 Neighboring gene ATAC-STARR-seq lymphoblastoid active region 8988 Neighboring gene RN7SK pseudogene 108 Neighboring gene ATAC-STARR-seq lymphoblastoid active region 8989 Neighboring gene uncharacterized LOC105370645 Neighboring gene NANOG hESC enhancer GRCh37_chr14:97142464-97143129

    Genomic regions, transcripts, and products

    Expression

    • Project title: HPA RNA-seq normal tissues
    • Description: RNA-seq was performed of tissue samples from 95 human individuals representing 27 different tissues in order to determine tissue-specificity of all protein-coding genes
    • BioProject: PRJEB4337
    • Publication: PMID 24309898
    • Analysis date: Wed Apr 4 07:08:55 2018

    Bibliography

    GeneRIFs: Gene References Into Functions

    What's a GeneRIF?

    HIV-1 interactions

    Protein interactions

    Protein Gene Interaction Pubs
    Tat tat The poly(A) site in the HIV-1 5'-LTR is occluded in a Tat-dependent manner, suggesting a role for Tat in regulating this nucleotide signal PubMed
    Vpr vpr HIV-1 Vpr dephosphorylates poly(A) polymerase (PAP), presumably through inhibition of the p34cdc2/cyclin B kinase complex, leading to enhanced PAP activity PubMed

    Go to the HIV-1, Human Interaction Database

    Pathways from PubChem

    Interactions

    Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

    General gene information

    Markers

    Clone Names

    • MGC5378, FLJ33067

    Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

    Function Evidence Code Pubs
    enables ATP binding ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    enables RNA binding IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    enables magnesium ion binding ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    enables manganese ion binding ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    enables poly(A) RNA polymerase activity IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
     
    enables poly(A) RNA polymerase activity IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    enables poly(A) RNA polymerase activity ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    enables poly(A) RNA polymerase activity TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    enables protein binding IPI
    Inferred from Physical Interaction
    more info
    PubMed 
    Component Evidence Code Pubs
    located_in cytoplasm TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    located_in nucleoplasm IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
     
    located_in nucleoplasm TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    is_active_in nucleus IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
     
    located_in nucleus TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 

    General protein information

    Preferred Names
    poly(A) polymerase alpha
    Names
    polynucleotide adenylyltransferase alpha
    NP_001238935.1
    NP_001238936.1
    NP_001280556.1
    NP_001280557.1
    NP_001280561.1
    NP_001350591.1
    NP_001350593.1
    NP_001350594.1
    NP_001350595.1
    NP_116021.2

    NCBI Reference Sequences (RefSeq)

    NEW Try the new Transcript table

    RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

    These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

    These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

    Genomic

    1. NG_030439.1 RefSeqGene

      Range
      5007..69741
      Download
      GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

    mRNA and Protein(s)

    1. NM_001252006.1NP_001238935.1  poly(A) polymerase alpha isoform 2

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001238935.1

      Status: REVIEWED

      Description
      Transcript Variant: This variant (2) lacks multiple exons and its transcription extends past a splice site that is used in variant 1, resulting in a novel 3' coding region and 3' UTR compared to variant 1. It encodes isoform 2 which is shorter and has a distinct C-terminus, compared to isoform 1.
      Source sequence(s)
      AL163051, BX089817, BX248753, DB045100
      Consensus CDS
      CCDS58334.1
      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      P51003
      Related
      ENSP00000450437.1, ENST00000557320.5
      Conserved Domains (1) summary
      pfam04928
      Location:21279
      PAP_central; Poly(A) polymerase central domain
    2. NM_001252007.1NP_001238936.1  poly(A) polymerase alpha isoform 3

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001238936.1

      Status: REVIEWED

      Description
      Transcript Variant: This variant (3) lacks multiple exons and its transcription extends past a splice site that is used in variant 1, resulting in a novel 3' coding region and 3' UTR compared to variant 1. It encodes isoform 3 which is shorter and has a distinct C-terminus, compared to isoform 1.
      Source sequence(s)
      AL163051, BX089817, BX161482, DB045100
      Consensus CDS
      CCDS58335.1
      UniProtKB/TrEMBL
      A0A0C4DGK1
      Related
      ENSP00000450812.1, ENST00000557471.5
      Conserved Domains (1) summary
      cl11966
      Location:21205
      NT_Pol-beta-like; Nucleotidyltransferase (NT) domain of DNA polymerase beta and similar proteins
    3. NM_001293627.1NP_001280556.1  poly(A) polymerase alpha isoform 4

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001280556.1

      Status: REVIEWED

      Description
      Transcript Variant: This variant (4) has an alternate splice site in the 3' coding region, compared to variant 1. The resulting isoform (4) lacks an internal aa, compared to isoform 1.
      Source sequence(s)
      BC015150, BC036014, CD655865, DB483858
      UniProtKB/TrEMBL
      B4DYF4
      Conserved Domains (2) summary
      pfam04926
      Location:366495
      PAP_RNA-bind; Poly(A) polymerase predicted RNA binding domain
      pfam04928
      Location:21363
      PAP_central; Poly(A) polymerase central domain
    4. NM_001293628.2NP_001280557.1  poly(A) polymerase alpha isoform 5

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001280557.1

      Status: REVIEWED

      Description
      Transcript Variant: This variant (5) has an alternate 5' terminal exon, which results in a downstream AUG start codon, compared to variant 1. The resulting isoform (5) has a shorter N-terminus, compared to isoform 1. Both variants 5 and 6 encode the same isoform 5.
      Source sequence(s)
      AL163051, BC036014, BX248301, CD655865
      Conserved Domains (3) summary
      cl11966
      Location:1113
      NT_Pol-beta-like; Nucleotidyltransferase (NT) domain of DNA polymerase beta and similar proteins
      cl26091
      Location:251396
      MotB_plug; Membrane MotB of proton-channel complex MotA/MotB
      cl27098
      Location:1317
      PAP_RNA-bind; Poly(A) polymerase predicted RNA binding domain
    5. NM_001293632.3NP_001280561.1  poly(A) polymerase alpha isoform 5

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001280561.1

      Status: REVIEWED

      Description
      Transcript Variant: This variant (6) lacks two consecutive exons in the 5' region, which results in a downstream AUG start codon, compared to variant 1. The resulting isoform (5) has a shorter N-terminus, compared to isoform 1. Both variants 5 and 6 encode the same isoform 5.
      Source sequence(s)
      AK307659, AL163051, BC036014, DB483858
      Conserved Domains (3) summary
      cl11966
      Location:1113
      NT_Pol-beta-like; Nucleotidyltransferase (NT) domain of DNA polymerase beta and similar proteins
      cl26091
      Location:251396
      MotB_plug; Membrane MotB of proton-channel complex MotA/MotB
      cl27098
      Location:1317
      PAP_RNA-bind; Poly(A) polymerase predicted RNA binding domain
    6. NM_001363662.3NP_001350591.1  poly(A) polymerase alpha isoform 6

      Status: REVIEWED

      Source sequence(s)
      AL163051
      Consensus CDS
      CCDS86431.1
      UniProtKB/TrEMBL
      B4DHB8, G3XAH6
      Related
      ENSP00000376716.2, ENST00000392990.6
      Conserved Domains (3) summary
      PRK12799
      Location:501646
      motB; flagellar motor protein MotB; Reviewed
      pfam04926
      Location:366495
      PAP_RNA-bind; Poly(A) polymerase predicted RNA binding domain
      pfam04928
      Location:21363
      PAP_central; Poly(A) polymerase central domain
    7. NM_001363664.3NP_001350593.1  poly(A) polymerase alpha isoform 7

      Status: REVIEWED

      Source sequence(s)
      AL163051
      UniProtKB/TrEMBL
      B4DHB8
      Conserved Domains (3) summary
      pfam04926
      Location:366495
      PAP_RNA-bind; Poly(A) polymerase predicted RNA binding domain
      pfam04928
      Location:21363
      PAP_central; Poly(A) polymerase central domain
      cl26091
      Location:501645
      MotB_plug; Membrane MotB of proton-channel complex MotA/MotB
    8. NM_001363665.3NP_001350594.1  poly(A) polymerase alpha isoform 8

      Status: REVIEWED

      Source sequence(s)
      AL163051
      UniProtKB/TrEMBL
      B4DHB8
      Conserved Domains (3) summary
      PRK12799
      Location:501646
      motB; flagellar motor protein MotB; Reviewed
      pfam04926
      Location:366495
      PAP_RNA-bind; Poly(A) polymerase predicted RNA binding domain
      pfam04928
      Location:21363
      PAP_central; Poly(A) polymerase central domain
    9. NM_001363666.3NP_001350595.1  poly(A) polymerase alpha isoform 9

      Status: REVIEWED

      Source sequence(s)
      AL163051
      UniProtKB/TrEMBL
      B4DHB8
      Conserved Domains (3) summary
      pfam04926
      Location:366495
      PAP_RNA-bind; Poly(A) polymerase predicted RNA binding domain
      pfam04928
      Location:21363
      PAP_central; Poly(A) polymerase central domain
      cl26091
      Location:501645
      MotB_plug; Membrane MotB of proton-channel complex MotA/MotB
    10. NM_032632.5NP_116021.2  poly(A) polymerase alpha isoform 1

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_116021.2

      Status: REVIEWED

      Description
      Transcript Variant: This variant (1) encodes the longest isoform (1).
      Source sequence(s)
      AL163051
      Consensus CDS
      CCDS9946.1
      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      P51003, Q86SX4, Q86TV0, Q8IYF5, Q9BVU2
      UniProtKB/TrEMBL
      B4DYF4
      Related
      ENSP00000216277.8, ENST00000216277.13
      Conserved Domains (3) summary
      PRK12799
      Location:501646
      motB; flagellar motor protein MotB; Reviewed
      pfam04926
      Location:366495
      PAP_RNA-bind; Poly(A) polymerase predicted RNA binding domain
      pfam04928
      Location:21363
      PAP_central; Poly(A) polymerase central domain

    RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: GCF_000001405.40-RS_2023_10

    The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

    Reference GRCh38.p14 Primary Assembly

    Genomic

    1. NC_000014.9 Reference GRCh38.p14 Primary Assembly

      Range
      96502376..96567116
      Download
      GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

    Alternate T2T-CHM13v2.0

    Genomic

    1. NC_060938.1 Alternate T2T-CHM13v2.0

      Range
      90733979..90798717
      Download
      GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)