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CD81 CD81 molecule [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

Gene ID: 975, updated on 5-Aug-2018

Summary

Official Symbol
CD81provided by HGNC
Official Full Name
CD81 moleculeprovided by HGNC
Primary source
HGNC:HGNC:1701
See related
Ensembl:ENSG00000110651 MIM:186845; Vega:OTTHUMG00000009892
Gene type
protein coding
RefSeq status
REVIEWED
Organism
Homo sapiens
Lineage
Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
Also known as
S5.7; CVID6; TAPA1; TSPAN28
Summary
The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the transmembrane 4 superfamily, also known as the tetraspanin family. Most of these members are cell-surface proteins that are characterized by the presence of four hydrophobic domains. The proteins mediate signal transduction events that play a role in the regulation of cell development, activation, growth and motility. This encoded protein is a cell surface glycoprotein that is known to complex with integrins. This protein appears to promote muscle cell fusion and support myotube maintenance. Also it may be involved in signal transduction. This gene is localized in the tumor-suppressor gene region and thus it is a candidate gene for malignancies. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2014]
Expression
Ubiquitous expression in endometrium (RPKM 241.8), fat (RPKM 237.1) and 25 other tissues See more
Orthologs

Genomic context

See CD81 in Genome Data Viewer
Location:
11p15.5
Exon count:
10
Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
109 current GRCh38.p12 (GCF_000001405.38) 11 NC_000011.10 (2376177..2397419)
105 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 11 NC_000011.9 (2397391..2418649)

Chromosome 11 - NC_000011.10Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene CD81 antisense RNA 1 Neighboring gene ribosomal protein L26 pseudogene 30 Neighboring gene uncharacterized LOC105376520 Neighboring gene nonconserved acetylation island sequence 93 enhancer Neighboring gene tumor suppressing subtransferable candidate 4 Neighboring gene transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily M member 5

Genomic regions, transcripts, and products

Expression

  • Project title: HPA RNA-seq normal tissues
  • Description: RNA-seq was performed of tissue samples from 95 human individuals representing 27 different tissues in order to determine tissue-specificity of all protein-coding genes
  • BioProject: PRJEB4337
  • Publication: PMID 24309898
  • Analysis date: Wed Jun 15 11:32:44 2016

Bibliography

GeneRIFs: Gene References Into FunctionsWhat's a GeneRIF?

HIV-1 interactions

Replication interactions

Interaction Pubs
HIV-1 infection (VSV-G pseudotyped) of CEMT4 T cells downregulates plasma membrane expression of CD81 PubMed

Protein interactions

Protein Gene Interaction Pubs
Envelope surface glycoprotein gp120 env Tetraspanin proteins, such as CD9, CD63, CD81, CD82, and CD231, are incorporated on the membrane of released virions in an HIV-1 envelope protein (Env)-independent manner and have the potential to inhibit HIV-1 Env-mediated infection PubMed
env Overexpression of CD81 and CD9 renders cells less susceptible to HIV-1 gp120/gp41-mediated syncytia formation; antibodies raised against CD9 and CD81 enhance syncytia formation PubMed
env CD81 localizes to endosome compartments and is incorporated into the viral envelope of macrophage-derived HIV-1 particles PubMed
Envelope surface glycoprotein gp160, precursor env HIV-1 Env co-localizes with the lipid raft marker CD55 or the tetraspanin CD81 in HeLa P4-R5 cells PubMed
Nef nef HIV-1 Nef is detected in detergent-insoluble AChE+/CD81 low/TSG101 low exosomes, but not in detergent-soluble AChE-/CD81 high/TSG101 high exosomes in Nef-transfected 293T cells PubMed
nef Both HIV-1 Nef and Vpu downregulate the cell surface expression of CD81 (TSPAN28) PubMed
nef HIV-1 Nef increases the production of exosomes, which form at the plasma membrane and co-localizes with plasma membrane-associated proteins ICAM1, CD81, and Lck in Jurkat PubMed
Pr55(Gag) gag Co-localization of HIV-1 Gag virus-like particles in THP-1/CD169YF cells is reduced within CD81+ compartments, but enhanced within CD63+ or LAMP1+ compartments PubMed
gag HIV-1 Gag proteins co-localize with CD63 and CD81 in intracellular exosomes PubMed
gag HIV-1 Gag recruits and traps CD81 to Gag assembly sites at the plasma membrane PubMed
gag HIV-1 Gag P99A mutation reduces its co-localization with tetraspanin-enriched microdomain marker CD81 and lipid raft marker CD59 PubMed
gag Tetherin co-localizes with HIV-1 Gag in CD81- and CD63-enriched intracellular virus-containing compartments in macrophages, and that a separate population of tetherin is located in the TGN PubMed
gag In the absence of Vpu, Env accumulates extensively within clathrin-coated endosomal structures, including the viral proteins Gag and MA; the tetraspanins CD63 and CD81; the adaptor protein complex AP-3; and AIP1/ALIX, a cellular cofactor for viral budding PubMed
Vpu vpu HIV-1 Vpu co-localizes with CD81 in HIV-1-infected CEMss T cells PubMed
vpu Both HIV-1 Nef and Vpu downregulate the cell surface expression of CD81 (TSPAN28) PubMed
capsid gag Infection of monocyte-derived macrophages with HIV-1 redistributes viperin from ER into foci, which significantly co-localizes with p24 and CD81 PubMed
matrix gag In the absence of Vpu, Env accumulates extensively within clathrin-coated endosomal structures, including the viral proteins Gag and MA; the tetraspanins CD63 and CD81; the adaptor protein complex AP-3; and AIP1/ALIX, a cellular cofactor for viral budding PubMed

Go to the HIV-1, Human Interaction Database

Pathways from BioSystems

  • Adaptive Immune System, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Adaptive Immune System, organism-specific biosystemAdaptive immunity refers to antigen-specific immune response efficiently involved in clearing the pathogens. The adaptive immune system is comprised of B and T lymphocytes that express receptors with...
  • B Cell Receptor Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    B Cell Receptor Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystemThe functional B-cell receptor is a multi-protein complex consisting of an antigen binding subunit and a signaling subunit. The antigen binding subunit is the membrane bound immunoglobulin and the si...
  • B cell receptor signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    B cell receptor signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemB cells are an important component of adaptive immunity. They produce and secrete millions of different antibody molecules, each of which recognizes a different (foreign) antigen. The B cell receptor...
  • B cell receptor signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    B cell receptor signaling pathway, conserved biosystemB cells are an important component of adaptive immunity. They produce and secrete millions of different antibody molecules, each of which recognizes a different (foreign) antigen. The B cell receptor...
  • Hepatitis C, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Hepatitis C, organism-specific biosystemHepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major cause of chronic liver disease. The HCV employ several strategies to perturb host cell immunity. After invasion, HCV RNA genome functions directly as an mRNA in the...
  • Hepatitis C, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Hepatitis C, conserved biosystemHepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major cause of chronic liver disease. The HCV employ several strategies to perturb host cell immunity. After invasion, HCV RNA genome functions directly as an mRNA in the...
  • Immune System, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Immune System, organism-specific biosystemHumans are exposed to millions of potential pathogens daily, through contact, ingestion, and inhalation. Our ability to avoid infection depends on the adaptive immune system and during the first crit...
  • Immunoregulatory interactions between a Lymphoid and a non-Lymphoid cell, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Immunoregulatory interactions between a Lymphoid and a non-Lymphoid cell, organism-specific biosystemA number of receptors and cell adhesion molecules play a key role in modifying the response of cells of lymphoid origin (such as B-, T- and NK cells) to self and tumor antigens, as well as to pathoge...
  • Malaria, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Malaria, organism-specific biosystemPlasmodium protozoa are parasites that account for malaria infection. Sporozoite forms of the parasite are injected by mosquito bites under the skin and are carried to the liver where they develop in...
  • Malaria, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Malaria, conserved biosystemPlasmodium protozoa are parasites that account for malaria infection. Sporozoite forms of the parasite are injected by mosquito bites under the skin and are carried to the liver where they develop in...

Interactions

Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

General gene information

Markers

Homology

Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

Function Evidence Code Pubs
MHC class II protein complex binding HDA PubMed 
integrin binding IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
protein binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
transferrin receptor binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
virus receptor activity IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
Process Evidence Code Pubs
activation of MAPK activity IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
cell proliferation TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
cell surface receptor signaling pathway IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
cellular response to low-density lipoprotein particle stimulus ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
positive regulation of 1-phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase activity IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of B cell proliferation IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of cell proliferation IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of peptidyl-tyrosine phosphorylation IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of protein catabolic process in the vacuole IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II IGI
Inferred from Genetic Interaction
more info
PubMed 
protein localization IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
protein localization to lysosome IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
receptor internalization ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
receptor-mediated virion attachment to host cell TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
regulation of cell motility IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
regulation of complement activation TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
regulation of immune response TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
regulation of protein stability IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
viral entry into host cell TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
Component Evidence Code Pubs
basolateral plasma membrane IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
extracellular exosome HDA PubMed 
extracellular exosome IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
focal adhesion HDA PubMed 
immunological synapse IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
integral component of plasma membrane IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
integral component of plasma membrane IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
membrane HDA PubMed 
plasma membrane TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
vesicle IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 

General protein information

Preferred Names
CD81 antigen
Names
26 kDa cell surface protein TAPA-1
CD81 antigen (target of antiproliferative antibody 1)
tetraspanin-28
tspan-28

NCBI Reference Sequences (RefSeq)

RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

Genomic

  1. NG_023386.1 RefSeqGene

    Range
    3861..25103
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics), LRG_142

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. NM_001297649.1NP_001284578.1  CD81 antigen isoform 2

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001284578.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (2) uses an alternate first exon and initiates translation at an alternate start codon compared to variant 1. The resulting isoform (2) is shorter at the N-terminus compared to isoform 1.
    Source sequence(s)
    AI334163, BC093047, BP323362
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS73240.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P60033
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    E9PJK1
    Related
    ENSP00000431780.1, ENST00000526072.5
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    cd03151
    Location:42131
    CD81_like_LEL; Tetraspanin, extracellular domain or large extracellular loop (LEL), CD81_like subfamily. Tetraspanins are trans-membrane proteins with 4 trans-membrane segments. Both the N- and C-termini lie on the intracellular side of the membrane. This alignment ...
  2. NM_004356.3NP_004347.1  CD81 antigen isoform 1

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_004347.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (1) represents the longer transcript and encodes the longer isoform (1).
    Source sequence(s)
    BC002978, BG397506, BQ709484, CB055265, M33680
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS7734.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P60033
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    A0A024RCB7
    Related
    ENSP00000263645.4, OTTHUMP00000011528, ENST00000263645.9, OTTHUMT00000027357
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    pfam00335
    Location:10228
    Tetraspannin; Tetraspanin family

RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: Homo sapiens Annotation Release 109 details...Open this link in a new tab

The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

Reference GRCh38.p12 Primary Assembly

Genomic

  1. NC_000011.10 Reference GRCh38.p12 Primary Assembly

    Range
    2376177..2397419
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. XM_011520492.2XP_011518794.1  CD81 antigen isoform X1

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for XP_011518794.1

    Related
    ENSP00000432249.1, OTTHUMP00000229008, ENST00000492252.5, OTTHUMT00000027362
    Conserved Domains (2) summary
    cd03151
    Location:106195
    CD81_like_LEL; Tetraspanin, extracellular domain or large extracellular loop (LEL), CD81_like subfamily. Tetraspanins are trans-membrane proteins with 4 trans-membrane segments. Both the N- and C-termini lie on the intracellular side of the membrane. This alignment ...
    pfam00335
    Location:16223
    Tetraspannin; Tetraspanin family
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