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MARF1 meiosis regulator and mRNA stability factor 1 [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

Gene ID: 9665, updated on 22-Sep-2022

Summary

Official Symbol
MARF1provided by HGNC
Official Full Name
meiosis regulator and mRNA stability factor 1provided by HGNC
Primary source
HGNC:HGNC:29562
See related
Ensembl:ENSG00000166783 MIM:614593; AllianceGenome:HGNC:29562
Gene type
protein coding
RefSeq status
VALIDATED
Organism
Homo sapiens
Lineage
Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
Also known as
LKAP; LMKB; PPP1R34; KIAA0430
Summary
This gene encodes a putative peroxisomal protein that appears to be conserved across Euteleostomi. In humans, it may be autoantigenic. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2010]
Expression
Ubiquitous expression in lymph node (RPKM 15.3), ovary (RPKM 15.0) and 25 other tissues See more
Orthologs
NEW
Try the new Gene table
Try the new Transcript table

Genomic context

See MARF1 in Genome Data Viewer
Location:
16p13.11
Exon count:
28
Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
110 current GRCh38.p14 (GCF_000001405.40) 16 NC_000016.10 (15594387..15643154, complement)
110 current T2T-CHM13v2.0 (GCF_009914755.1) 16 NC_060940.1 (15599246..15648059, complement)
105.20220307 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 16 NC_000016.9 (15688244..15737011, complement)

Chromosome 16 - NC_000016.10Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene bMERB domain containing 1 Neighboring gene Sharpr-MPRA regulatory region 9672 Neighboring gene P300/CBP strongly-dependent group 1 enhancer GRCh37_chr16:15684383-15685582 Neighboring gene Sharpr-MPRA regulatory region 10508 Neighboring gene microRNA 6506 Neighboring gene uncharacterized LOC124903649 Neighboring gene microRNA 484 Neighboring gene nudE neurodevelopment protein 1 Neighboring gene Sharpr-MPRA regulatory region 12074

Genomic regions, transcripts, and products

Expression

  • Project title: HPA RNA-seq normal tissues
  • Description: RNA-seq was performed of tissue samples from 95 human individuals representing 27 different tissues in order to determine tissue-specificity of all protein-coding genes
  • BioProject: PRJEB4337
  • Publication: PMID 24309898
  • Analysis date: Wed Apr 4 07:08:55 2018

Bibliography

GeneRIFs: Gene References Into Functions

What's a GeneRIF?

Phenotypes

EBI GWAS Catalog

Description
Genome-wide association study of plasma N6 polyunsaturated fatty acids within the cohorts for heart and aging research in genomic epidemiology consortium.
EBI GWAS Catalog

Interactions

Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

General gene information

Markers

Homology

Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

Function Evidence Code Pubs
enables CCR4-NOT complex binding IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
enables mRNA base-pairing translational repressor activity IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
enables molecular_function ND
No biological Data available
more info
 
enables protein binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
enables ribonuclease activity IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
Process Evidence Code Pubs
involved_in RNA phosphodiester bond hydrolysis IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
involved_in RNA-mediated post-transcriptional gene silencing IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
involved_in double-strand break repair IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
involved_in female meiotic nuclear division ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
involved_in oogenesis ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
involved_in post-transcriptional gene silencing IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
involved_in regulation of gene expression ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
Component Evidence Code Pubs
located_in Golgi apparatus IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
 
is_active_in cytoplasm IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
located_in intracellular membrane-bounded organelle IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
 
located_in membrane HDA PubMed 
located_in peroxisome IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 

General protein information

Preferred Names
meiosis regulator and mRNA stability factor 1
Names
limkain-b1
meiosis arrest female 1
meiosis arrest female protein 1
protein phosphatase 1, regulatory subunit 34

NCBI Reference Sequences (RefSeq)

NEW Try the new Transcript table

RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

Genomic

  1. NG_021407.1 RefSeqGene

    Range
    5013..53780
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. NM_001184998.2NP_001171927.1  meiosis regulator and mRNA stability factor 1 isoform 2

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001171927.1

    Status: VALIDATED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (3) uses an alternate in-frame splice site in the coding region, compared to variant 1. The encoded isoform (2) differs in sequence but is the same length as isoform 1.
    Source sequence(s)
    AB007890, BC064914, BC144514, DB360504
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS53990.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    Q9Y4F3
    Related
    ENSP00000450309.1, ENST00000551742.5
    Conserved Domains (12) summary
    cd09977
    Location:876937
    LOTUS_1_Limkain_b1; The first LOTUS domain on Limkain b1(LKAP)
    cd09978
    Location:10041074
    LOTUS_2_Limkain_b1; The second LOTUS domain on Limkain b1(LKAP)
    cd09979
    Location:11001171
    LOTUS_3_Limkain_b1; The third LOTUS domain on Limkain b1(LKAP)
    cd09980
    Location:11761247
    LOTUS_4_Limkain_b1; The fourth LOTUS domain on Limkain b1(LKAP)
    cd09981
    Location:12601330
    LOTUS_5_Limkain_b1; The fifth LOTUS domain on Limkain b1(LKAP)
    cd09982
    Location:13361406
    LOTUS_6_Limkain_b1; The sixth LOTUS domain on Limkain b1(LKAP)
    cd09983
    Location:14121484
    LOTUS_7_Limkain_b1; The seventh LOTUS domain on Limkain b1(LKAP)
    cd09984
    Location:14871562
    LOTUS_8_Limkain_b1; The eighth LOTUS domain on Limkain b1(LKAP)
    cd10910
    Location:352494
    limkain_b1_N_like; N-terminal LabA-like domain of limkain b1 and similar proteins
    COG0724
    Location:776872
    RRM; RNA recognition motif (RRM) domain [Translation, ribosomal structure and biogenesis]
    cd12255
    Location:509581
    RRM1_LKAP; RNA recognition motif 1 in Limkain-b1 (LKAP) and similar proteins
    cd12256
    Location:787875
    RRM2_LKAP; RNA recognition motif 2 in Limkain-b1 (LKAP) and similar proteins
  2. NM_001184999.2NP_001171928.1  meiosis regulator and mRNA stability factor 1 isoform 3

    Status: VALIDATED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (3) uses an alternate in-frame splice site in the coding region, compared to variant 1. This results in a shorter isoform (3), compared to isoform 1.
    Source sequence(s)
    AB007890, AC026401, BC064914, BC144515, DB360504
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS55991.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    Q9Y4F3
    Related
    ENSP00000449376.1, ENST00000548025.5
    Conserved Domains (12) summary
    cd09977
    Location:873934
    LOTUS_1_Limkain_b1; The first LOTUS domain on Limkain b1(LKAP)
    cd09978
    Location:10011071
    LOTUS_2_Limkain_b1; The second LOTUS domain on Limkain b1(LKAP)
    cd09979
    Location:10971168
    LOTUS_3_Limkain_b1; The third LOTUS domain on Limkain b1(LKAP)
    cd09980
    Location:11731244
    LOTUS_4_Limkain_b1; The fourth LOTUS domain on Limkain b1(LKAP)
    cd09981
    Location:12571327
    LOTUS_5_Limkain_b1; The fifth LOTUS domain on Limkain b1(LKAP)
    cd09982
    Location:13331403
    LOTUS_6_Limkain_b1; The sixth LOTUS domain on Limkain b1(LKAP)
    cd09983
    Location:14091481
    LOTUS_7_Limkain_b1; The seventh LOTUS domain on Limkain b1(LKAP)
    cd09984
    Location:14841559
    LOTUS_8_Limkain_b1; The eighth LOTUS domain on Limkain b1(LKAP)
    cd10910
    Location:349491
    limkain_b1_N_like; N-terminal LabA-like domain of limkain b1 and similar proteins
    COG0724
    Location:773869
    RRM; RNA recognition motif (RRM) domain [Translation, ribosomal structure and biogenesis]
    cd12255
    Location:507579
    RRM1_LKAP; RNA recognition motif 1 in Limkain-b1 (LKAP) and similar proteins
    cd12256
    Location:784872
    RRM2_LKAP; RNA recognition motif 2 in Limkain-b1 (LKAP) and similar proteins
  3. NM_014647.4NP_055462.2  meiosis regulator and mRNA stability factor 1 isoform 1

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_055462.2

    Status: VALIDATED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (1) encodes isoform (1).
    Source sequence(s)
    AB007890, BC064914, BC137165, DB360504
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS10562.2
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    Q9Y4F3, Q9Y4J9
    Related
    ENSP00000379654.3, ENST00000396368.8
    Conserved Domains (12) summary
    cd09977
    Location:876937
    LOTUS_1_Limkain_b1; The first LOTUS domain on Limkain b1(LKAP)
    cd09978
    Location:10041074
    LOTUS_2_Limkain_b1; The second LOTUS domain on Limkain b1(LKAP)
    cd09979
    Location:11001171
    LOTUS_3_Limkain_b1; The third LOTUS domain on Limkain b1(LKAP)
    cd09980
    Location:11761247
    LOTUS_4_Limkain_b1; The fourth LOTUS domain on Limkain b1(LKAP)
    cd09981
    Location:12601330
    LOTUS_5_Limkain_b1; The fifth LOTUS domain on Limkain b1(LKAP)
    cd09982
    Location:13361406
    LOTUS_6_Limkain_b1; The sixth LOTUS domain on Limkain b1(LKAP)
    cd09983
    Location:14121484
    LOTUS_7_Limkain_b1; The seventh LOTUS domain on Limkain b1(LKAP)
    cd09984
    Location:14871562
    LOTUS_8_Limkain_b1; The eighth LOTUS domain on Limkain b1(LKAP)
    cd10910
    Location:352494
    limkain_b1_N_like; N-terminal LabA-like domain of limkain b1 and similar proteins
    COG0724
    Location:776872
    RRM; RNA recognition motif (RRM) domain [Translation, ribosomal structure and biogenesis]
    cd12255
    Location:510582
    RRM1_LKAP; RNA recognition motif 1 in Limkain-b1 (LKAP) and similar proteins
    cd12256
    Location:787875
    RRM2_LKAP; RNA recognition motif 2 in Limkain-b1 (LKAP) and similar proteins

RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: Homo sapiens Annotation Release 110 details...Open this link in a new tab

The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

Reference GRCh38.p14 Primary Assembly

Genomic

  1. NC_000016.10 Reference GRCh38.p14 Primary Assembly

    Range
    15594387..15643154 complement
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. XM_047434955.1XP_047290911.1  meiosis regulator and mRNA stability factor 1 isoform X22

  2. XM_047434954.1XP_047290910.1  meiosis regulator and mRNA stability factor 1 isoform X21

  3. XM_047434950.1XP_047290906.1  meiosis regulator and mRNA stability factor 1 isoform X17

  4. XM_047434948.1XP_047290904.1  meiosis regulator and mRNA stability factor 1 isoform X15

  5. XM_047434946.1XP_047290902.1  meiosis regulator and mRNA stability factor 1 isoform X13

  6. XM_047434953.1XP_047290909.1  meiosis regulator and mRNA stability factor 1 isoform X20

  7. XM_047434949.1XP_047290905.1  meiosis regulator and mRNA stability factor 1 isoform X16

  8. XM_017023906.3XP_016879395.1  meiosis regulator and mRNA stability factor 1 isoform X14

  9. XM_017023905.3XP_016879394.1  meiosis regulator and mRNA stability factor 1 isoform X12

  10. XM_047434951.1XP_047290907.1  meiosis regulator and mRNA stability factor 1 isoform X18

  11. XM_047434945.1XP_047290901.1  meiosis regulator and mRNA stability factor 1 isoform X11

    Related
    ENSP00000439819.2, ENST00000540441.6
  12. XM_017023904.3XP_016879393.1  meiosis regulator and mRNA stability factor 1 isoform X10

  13. XM_017023903.3XP_016879392.1  meiosis regulator and mRNA stability factor 1 isoform X9

  14. XM_047434943.1XP_047290899.1  meiosis regulator and mRNA stability factor 1 isoform X8

  15. XM_047434941.1XP_047290897.1  meiosis regulator and mRNA stability factor 1 isoform X6

  16. XM_005255706.3XP_005255763.1  meiosis regulator and mRNA stability factor 1 isoform X4

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for XP_005255763.1

    Conserved Domains (12) summary
    cd09977
    Location:875936
    LOTUS_1_Limkain_b1; The first LOTUS domain on Limkain b1(LKAP)
    cd09978
    Location:10031073
    LOTUS_2_Limkain_b1; The second LOTUS domain on Limkain b1(LKAP)
    cd09979
    Location:10991170
    LOTUS_3_Limkain_b1; The third LOTUS domain on Limkain b1(LKAP)
    cd09980
    Location:11751246
    LOTUS_4_Limkain_b1; The fourth LOTUS domain on Limkain b1(LKAP)
    cd09981
    Location:12591329
    LOTUS_5_Limkain_b1; The fifth LOTUS domain on Limkain b1(LKAP)
    cd09982
    Location:13351405
    LOTUS_6_Limkain_b1; The sixth LOTUS domain on Limkain b1(LKAP)
    cd09983
    Location:14111483
    LOTUS_7_Limkain_b1; The seventh LOTUS domain on Limkain b1(LKAP)
    cd09984
    Location:14861561
    LOTUS_8_Limkain_b1; The eighth LOTUS domain on Limkain b1(LKAP)
    cd10910
    Location:352494
    limkain_b1_N_like; N-terminal LabA-like domain of limkain b1 and similar proteins
    COG0724
    Location:775871
    RRM; RNA recognition motif (RRM) domain [Translation, ribosomal structure and biogenesis]
    cd12255
    Location:509581
    RRM1_LKAP; RNA recognition motif 1 in Limkain-b1 (LKAP) and similar proteins
    cd12256
    Location:786874
    RRM2_LKAP; RNA recognition motif 2 in Limkain-b1 (LKAP) and similar proteins
  17. XM_017023902.3XP_016879391.1  meiosis regulator and mRNA stability factor 1 isoform X7

  18. XM_005255707.3XP_005255764.1  meiosis regulator and mRNA stability factor 1 isoform X5

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for XP_005255764.1

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    Q9Y4F3
    Conserved Domains (11) summary
    cd09977
    Location:867928
    LOTUS_1_Limkain_b1; The first LOTUS domain on Limkain b1(LKAP)
    cd09978
    Location:9951065
    LOTUS_2_Limkain_b1; The second LOTUS domain on Limkain b1(LKAP)
    cd09979
    Location:10911162
    LOTUS_3_Limkain_b1; The third LOTUS domain on Limkain b1(LKAP)
    cd09980
    Location:11671238
    LOTUS_4_Limkain_b1; The fourth LOTUS domain on Limkain b1(LKAP)
    cd09981
    Location:12511321
    LOTUS_5_Limkain_b1; The fifth LOTUS domain on Limkain b1(LKAP)
    cd09982
    Location:13271397
    LOTUS_6_Limkain_b1; The sixth LOTUS domain on Limkain b1(LKAP)
    cd09983
    Location:14031475
    LOTUS_7_Limkain_b1; The seventh LOTUS domain on Limkain b1(LKAP)
    cd09984
    Location:14781553
    LOTUS_8_Limkain_b1; The eighth LOTUS domain on Limkain b1(LKAP)
    cd10910
    Location:352494
    limkain_b1_N_like; N-terminal LabA-like domain of limkain b1 and similar proteins
    cd12255
    Location:510582
    RRM1_LKAP; RNA recognition motif 1 in Limkain-b1 (LKAP) and similar proteins
    cd12256
    Location:778866
    RRM2_LKAP; RNA recognition motif 2 in Limkain-b1 (LKAP) and similar proteins
  19. XM_005255704.2XP_005255761.1  meiosis regulator and mRNA stability factor 1 isoform X1

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for XP_005255761.1

    Conserved Domains (12) summary
    cd09977
    Location:877938
    LOTUS_1_Limkain_b1; The first LOTUS domain on Limkain b1(LKAP)
    cd09978
    Location:10051075
    LOTUS_2_Limkain_b1; The second LOTUS domain on Limkain b1(LKAP)
    cd09979
    Location:11011172
    LOTUS_3_Limkain_b1; The third LOTUS domain on Limkain b1(LKAP)
    cd09980
    Location:11771248
    LOTUS_4_Limkain_b1; The fourth LOTUS domain on Limkain b1(LKAP)
    cd09981
    Location:12611331
    LOTUS_5_Limkain_b1; The fifth LOTUS domain on Limkain b1(LKAP)
    cd09982
    Location:13371407
    LOTUS_6_Limkain_b1; The sixth LOTUS domain on Limkain b1(LKAP)
    cd09983
    Location:14131485
    LOTUS_7_Limkain_b1; The seventh LOTUS domain on Limkain b1(LKAP)
    cd09984
    Location:14881563
    LOTUS_8_Limkain_b1; The eighth LOTUS domain on Limkain b1(LKAP)
    cd10910
    Location:352494
    limkain_b1_N_like; N-terminal LabA-like domain of limkain b1 and similar proteins
    COG0724
    Location:777873
    RRM; RNA recognition motif (RRM) domain [Translation, ribosomal structure and biogenesis]
    cd12255
    Location:510582
    RRM1_LKAP; RNA recognition motif 1 in Limkain-b1 (LKAP) and similar proteins
    cd12256
    Location:788876
    RRM2_LKAP; RNA recognition motif 2 in Limkain-b1 (LKAP) and similar proteins
  20. XM_047434947.1XP_047290903.1  meiosis regulator and mRNA stability factor 1 isoform X14

  21. XM_047434944.1XP_047290900.1  meiosis regulator and mRNA stability factor 1 isoform X8

  22. XM_047434942.1XP_047290898.1  meiosis regulator and mRNA stability factor 1 isoform X6

  23. XM_047434939.1XP_047290895.1  meiosis regulator and mRNA stability factor 1 isoform X4

  24. XM_017023901.3XP_016879390.1  meiosis regulator and mRNA stability factor 1 isoform X3

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    Q9Y4F3
    Conserved Domains (12) summary
    cd09977
    Location:876937
    LOTUS_1_Limkain_b1; The first LOTUS domain on Limkain b1(LKAP)
    cd09978
    Location:10041074
    LOTUS_2_Limkain_b1; The second LOTUS domain on Limkain b1(LKAP)
    cd09979
    Location:11001171
    LOTUS_3_Limkain_b1; The third LOTUS domain on Limkain b1(LKAP)
    cd09980
    Location:11761247
    LOTUS_4_Limkain_b1; The fourth LOTUS domain on Limkain b1(LKAP)
    cd09981
    Location:12601330
    LOTUS_5_Limkain_b1; The fifth LOTUS domain on Limkain b1(LKAP)
    cd09982
    Location:13361406
    LOTUS_6_Limkain_b1; The sixth LOTUS domain on Limkain b1(LKAP)
    cd09983
    Location:14121484
    LOTUS_7_Limkain_b1; The seventh LOTUS domain on Limkain b1(LKAP)
    cd09984
    Location:14871562
    LOTUS_8_Limkain_b1; The eighth LOTUS domain on Limkain b1(LKAP)
    cd10910
    Location:352494
    limkain_b1_N_like; N-terminal LabA-like domain of limkain b1 and similar proteins
    COG0724
    Location:776872
    RRM; RNA recognition motif (RRM) domain [Translation, ribosomal structure and biogenesis]
    cd12255
    Location:509581
    RRM1_LKAP; RNA recognition motif 1 in Limkain-b1 (LKAP) and similar proteins
    cd12256
    Location:787875
    RRM2_LKAP; RNA recognition motif 2 in Limkain-b1 (LKAP) and similar proteins
  25. XM_047434940.1XP_047290896.1  meiosis regulator and mRNA stability factor 1 isoform X5

  26. XM_047434938.1XP_047290894.1  meiosis regulator and mRNA stability factor 1 isoform X2

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    Q9Y4J9
  27. XM_017023900.3XP_016879389.1  meiosis regulator and mRNA stability factor 1 isoform X1

    Conserved Domains (12) summary
    cd09977
    Location:877938
    LOTUS_1_Limkain_b1; The first LOTUS domain on Limkain b1(LKAP)
    cd09978
    Location:10051075
    LOTUS_2_Limkain_b1; The second LOTUS domain on Limkain b1(LKAP)
    cd09979
    Location:11011172
    LOTUS_3_Limkain_b1; The third LOTUS domain on Limkain b1(LKAP)
    cd09980
    Location:11771248
    LOTUS_4_Limkain_b1; The fourth LOTUS domain on Limkain b1(LKAP)
    cd09981
    Location:12611331
    LOTUS_5_Limkain_b1; The fifth LOTUS domain on Limkain b1(LKAP)
    cd09982
    Location:13371407
    LOTUS_6_Limkain_b1; The sixth LOTUS domain on Limkain b1(LKAP)
    cd09983
    Location:14131485
    LOTUS_7_Limkain_b1; The seventh LOTUS domain on Limkain b1(LKAP)
    cd09984
    Location:14881563
    LOTUS_8_Limkain_b1; The eighth LOTUS domain on Limkain b1(LKAP)
    cd10910
    Location:352494
    limkain_b1_N_like; N-terminal LabA-like domain of limkain b1 and similar proteins
    COG0724
    Location:777873
    RRM; RNA recognition motif (RRM) domain [Translation, ribosomal structure and biogenesis]
    cd12255
    Location:510582
    RRM1_LKAP; RNA recognition motif 1 in Limkain-b1 (LKAP) and similar proteins
    cd12256
    Location:788876
    RRM2_LKAP; RNA recognition motif 2 in Limkain-b1 (LKAP) and similar proteins
  28. XM_047434952.1XP_047290908.1  meiosis regulator and mRNA stability factor 1 isoform X19

Reference GRCh38.p14 ALT_REF_LOCI_1

Genomic

  1. NT_187607.1 Reference GRCh38.p14 ALT_REF_LOCI_1

    Range
    1252378..1301165 complement
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

Alternate T2T-CHM13v2.0

Genomic

  1. NC_060940.1 Alternate T2T-CHM13v2.0

    Range
    15599246..15648059 complement
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

Suppressed Reference Sequence(s)

The following Reference Sequences have been suppressed. Explain

  1. NM_019081.2: Suppressed sequence

    Description
    NM_019081.2: This RefSeq was permanently suppressed because it is a nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) candidate.