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DDX21 DExD-box helicase 21 [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

Gene ID: 9188, updated on 7-Sep-2023

Summary

Official Symbol
DDX21provided by HGNC
Official Full Name
DExD-box helicase 21provided by HGNC
Primary source
HGNC:HGNC:2744
See related
Ensembl:ENSG00000165732 MIM:606357; AllianceGenome:HGNC:2744
Gene type
protein coding
RefSeq status
REVIEWED
Organism
Homo sapiens
Lineage
Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
Also known as
RH; GUA; GURDB; II/Gu; RH II/Gu; RH-II/GU; gu-alpha; RH-II/GuA
Summary
DEAD box proteins, characterized by the conserved motif Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp (DEAD), are putative RNA helicases. They are implicated in a number of cellular processes involving alteration of RNA secondary structure such as translation initiation, nuclear and mitochondrial splicing, and ribosome and spliceosome assembly. Based on their distribution patterns, some members of this family are believed to be involved in embryogenesis, spermatogenesis, and cellular growth and division. This gene encodes a DEAD box protein, which is an antigen recognized by autoimmune antibodies from a patient with watermelon stomach disease. This protein unwinds double-stranded RNA, folds single-stranded RNA, and may play important roles in ribosomal RNA biogenesis, RNA editing, RNA transport, and general transcription. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Expression
Ubiquitous expression in bone marrow (RPKM 38.2), appendix (RPKM 33.3) and 25 other tissues See more
Orthologs
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Genomic context

See DDX21 in Genome Data Viewer
Location:
10q22.1
Exon count:
16
Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
RS_2023_03 current GRCh38.p14 (GCF_000001405.40) 10 NC_000010.11 (68956170..68985068)
RS_2023_03 current T2T-CHM13v2.0 (GCF_009914755.1) 10 NC_060934.1 (69825602..69854499)
105.20220307 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 10 NC_000010.10 (70715926..70744824)

Chromosome 10 - NC_000010.11Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene storkhead box 1 Neighboring gene RNA, U6 small nuclear 697, pseudogene Neighboring gene NANOG hESC enhancer GRCh37_chr10:70637959-70638530 Neighboring gene RNA, U6 small nuclear 571, pseudogene Neighboring gene DExD-box helicase 50 Neighboring gene NANOG-H3K27ac-H3K4me1 hESC enhancer GRCh37_chr10:70715903-70716684 Neighboring gene H3K27ac hESC enhancer GRCh37_chr10:70716685-70717465 Neighboring gene mediator complex subunit 28 pseudogene 1 Neighboring gene kinesin family binding protein Neighboring gene ACTB pseudogene 14

Genomic regions, transcripts, and products

Expression

  • Project title: HPA RNA-seq normal tissues
  • Description: RNA-seq was performed of tissue samples from 95 human individuals representing 27 different tissues in order to determine tissue-specificity of all protein-coding genes
  • BioProject: PRJEB4337
  • Publication: PMID 24309898
  • Analysis date: Wed Apr 4 07:08:55 2018

Bibliography

GeneRIFs: Gene References Into Functions

What's a GeneRIF?

HIV-1 interactions

Protein interactions

Protein Gene Interaction Pubs
Envelope surface glycoprotein gp120 env Tandem affinity purification and mass spectrometry analysis identify DEAD (Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp) box helicase 21 (DDX21), HIV-1 Gag, Gag/Pol, gp120, and Nef incorporated into staufen1 RNP complexes isolated from HIV-1-expressing cells PubMed
Gag-Pol gag-pol Tandem affinity purification and mass spectrometry analysis identify DEAD (Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp) box helicase 21 (DDX21), HIV-1 Gag, Gag/Pol, gp120, and Nef incorporated into staufen1 RNP complexes isolated from HIV-1-expressing cells PubMed
Nef nef Tandem affinity purification and mass spectrometry analysis identify DEAD (Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp) box helicase 21 (DDX21), HIV-1 Gag, Gag/Pol, gp120, and Nef incorporated into staufen1 RNP complexes isolated from HIV-1-expressing cells PubMed
Pr55(Gag) gag Tandem affinity purification and mass spectrometry analysis identify DEAD (Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp) box helicase 21 (DDX21), HIV-1 Gag, Gag/Pol, gp120, and Nef incorporated into staufen1 RNP complexes isolated from HIV-1-expressing cells PubMed
Rev rev DDX5 interacts with DDX21 and synergistically enhances the Rev function PubMed
rev DDX21 interacts with HIV-1 Rev and enhances the Rev function. DDX21 partially co-localizes with Rev in the perinucleolar region PubMed
Tat tat Interaction of HIV-1 Tat with RHII/Gu in T-cells is identified by a proteomic strategy based on affinity chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry PubMed

Go to the HIV-1, Human Interaction Database

Pathways from PubChem

Interactions

Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

General gene information

Markers

Clone Names

  • DKFZp686F21172

Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

Function Evidence Code Pubs
enables 7SK snRNA binding IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
enables ATP binding IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
enables ATP hydrolysis activity IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
enables RNA binding HDA PubMed 
enables RNA binding IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
enables RNA helicase activity IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
enables RNA helicase activity IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
enables RNA helicase activity IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
enables RNA polymerase inhibitor activity TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
enables double-stranded RNA binding IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
enables identical protein binding IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
enables miRNA binding IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
enables protein binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
enables rRNA binding IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
enables snoRNA binding IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
Process Evidence Code Pubs
involved_in R-loop processing IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
involved_in chromatin remodeling NAS
Non-traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
involved_in defense response to virus IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
involved_in innate immune response IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
involved_in negative regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase I TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
involved_in osteoblast differentiation HDA PubMed 
involved_in positive regulation of canonical NF-kappaB signal transduction ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
involved_in positive regulation of histone acetylation NAS
Non-traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
involved_in positive regulation of myeloid dendritic cell cytokine production IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
involved_in positive regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase I NAS
Non-traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
involved_in positive regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II NAS
Non-traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
involved_in positive regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase III IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
involved_in rRNA processing IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
involved_in response to exogenous dsRNA IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
involved_in transcription by RNA polymerase II IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
Component Evidence Code Pubs
part_of B-WICH complex IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
located_in chromosome IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
 
located_in cytosol ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
located_in membrane HDA PubMed 
located_in mitochondrion IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
is_active_in nucleolus IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
located_in nucleolus IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
located_in nucleolus NAS
Non-traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
located_in nucleoplasm IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
located_in nucleoplasm TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 

General protein information

Preferred Names
nucleolar RNA helicase 2
Names
DEAD (Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp) box helicase 21
DEAD box protein 21
DEAD-box helicase 21
DEAD/H (Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp/His) box polypeptide 21
Gu protein
RNA helicase II/Gu alpha
nucleolar RNA helicase Gu
nucleolar RNA helicase II
NP_001243839.1
NP_001397861.1
NP_004719.2

NCBI Reference Sequences (RefSeq)

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RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. NM_001256910.2NP_001243839.1  nucleolar RNA helicase 2 isoform 2

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001243839.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (2) differs in the 5'UTR and has multiple coding region differences, compared to variant 1. These differences cause translation initiation at a downstream AUG and result in an isoform (2) with a shorter N-terminus, compared to isoform 1.
    Source sequence(s)
    AA446317, AL359844
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS73144.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    Q9NR30
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    A0A8I5KND9
    Related
    ENSP00000480334.1, ENST00000620315.2
    Conserved Domains (5) summary
    PTZ00424
    Location:100486
    PTZ00424; helicase 45; Provisional
    cd00079
    Location:343470
    HELICc; Helicase superfamily c-terminal domain; associated with DEXDc-, DEAD-, and DEAH-box proteins, yeast initiation factor 4A, Ski2p, and Hepatitis C virus NS3 helicases; this domain is found in a wide variety of helicases and helicase related proteins; may ...
    cd00268
    Location:120327
    DEADc; DEAD-box helicases. A diverse family of proteins involved in ATP-dependent RNA unwinding, needed in a variety of cellular processes including splicing, ribosome biogenesis and RNA degradation. The name derives from the sequence of the Walker B motif ...
    cd12936
    Location:549641
    GUCT_RHII_Gualpha_beta; RNA-binding GUCT domain found in vertebrate RNA helicase II/Gualpha (RH-II/Gualpha), RNA helicase II/Gubeta (RH-II/Gubeta) and similar proteins
    cl17173
    Location:650703
    AdoMet_MTases; S-adenosylmethionine-dependent methyltransferases (SAM or AdoMet-MTase), class I; AdoMet-MTases are enzymes that use S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM or AdoMet) as a substrate for methyltransfer, creating the product S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine (AdoHcy). ...
  2. NM_001410932.1NP_001397861.1  nucleolar RNA helicase 2 isoform 3

    Status: REVIEWED

    Source sequence(s)
    AL359844
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS91249.1
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    A0A8I5KNP3, A0A8I5KYZ4
    Related
    ENSP00000510328.1, ENST00000685106.1
  3. NM_004728.4NP_004719.2  nucleolar RNA helicase 2 isoform 1

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_004719.2

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (1) encodes the longer isoform (1).
    Source sequence(s)
    AA446317, AL359844, BC008071, DW408689
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS31211.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    B2RDL0, Q13436, Q5VX41, Q68D35, Q9NR30
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    A0A8I5KNP3
    Related
    ENSP00000346120.4, ENST00000354185.9
    Conserved Domains (3) summary
    COG0513
    Location:178587
    SrmB; Superfamily II DNA and RNA helicase [Replication, recombination and repair]
    cd12936
    Location:617709
    GUCT_RHII_Gualpha_beta; RNA-binding GUCT domain found in vertebrate RNA helicase II/Gualpha (RH-II/Gualpha), RNA helicase II/Gubeta (RH-II/Gubeta) and similar proteins
    cl17173
    Location:718771
    AdoMet_MTases; S-adenosylmethionine-dependent methyltransferases (SAM or AdoMet-MTase), class I; AdoMet-MTases are enzymes that use S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM or AdoMet) as a substrate for methyltransfer, creating the product S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine (AdoHcy). ...

RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: GCF_000001405.40-RS_2023_03

The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

Reference GRCh38.p14 Primary Assembly

Genomic

  1. NC_000010.11 Reference GRCh38.p14 Primary Assembly

    Range
    68956170..68985068
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

Alternate T2T-CHM13v2.0

Genomic

  1. NC_060934.1 Alternate T2T-CHM13v2.0

    Range
    69825602..69854499
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)