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CCND2 cyclin D2 [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

Gene ID: 894, updated on 9-Dec-2018

Summary

Official Symbol
CCND2provided by HGNC
Official Full Name
cyclin D2provided by HGNC
Primary source
HGNC:HGNC:1583
See related
Ensembl:ENSG00000118971 MIM:123833
Gene type
protein coding
RefSeq status
REVIEWED
Organism
Homo sapiens
Lineage
Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
Also known as
MPPH3; KIAK0002
Summary
The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the highly conserved cyclin family, whose members are characterized by a dramatic periodicity in protein abundance through the cell cycle. Cyclins function as regulators of CDK kinases. Different cyclins exhibit distinct expression and degradation patterns which contribute to the temporal coordination of each mitotic event. This cyclin forms a complex with CDK4 or CDK6 and functions as a regulatory subunit of the complex, whose activity is required for cell cycle G1/S transition. This protein has been shown to interact with and be involved in the phosphorylation of tumor suppressor protein Rb. Knockout studies of the homologous gene in mouse suggest the essential roles of this gene in ovarian granulosa and germ cell proliferation. High level expression of this gene was observed in ovarian and testicular tumors. Mutations in this gene are associated with megalencephaly-polymicrogyria-polydactyly-hydrocephalus syndrome 3 (MPPH3). [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2014]
Expression
Ubiquitous expression in adrenal (RPKM 22.1), heart (RPKM 18.6) and 24 other tissues See more
Orthologs

Genomic context

See CCND2 in Genome Data Viewer
Location:
12p13.32
Exon count:
5
Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
109 current GRCh38.p12 (GCF_000001405.38) 12 NC_000012.12 (4273736..4305356)
105 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 12 NC_000012.11 (4382901..4414522)

Chromosome 12 - NC_000012.12Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene ribosomal protein L18 pseudogene 9 Neighboring gene uncharacterized LOC105369612 Neighboring gene CCND2 antisense RNA 1 Neighboring gene ribosomal protein S15 pseudogene 7 Neighboring gene TP53 induced glycolysis regulatory phosphatase Neighboring gene fibroblast growth factor 23

Genomic regions, transcripts, and products

Expression

  • Project title: HPA RNA-seq normal tissues
  • Description: RNA-seq was performed of tissue samples from 95 human individuals representing 27 different tissues in order to determine tissue-specificity of all protein-coding genes
  • BioProject: PRJEB4337
  • Publication: PMID 24309898
  • Analysis date: Wed Jun 15 11:32:44 2016

Bibliography

GeneRIFs: Gene References Into FunctionsWhat's a GeneRIF?

Phenotypes

Associated conditions

Description Tests
Megalencephaly-polymicrogyria-polydactyly-hydrocephalus syndrome 3
MedGen: C4014742 OMIM: 615938 GeneReviews: MPPH Syndrome
Compare labs

NHGRI GWAS Catalog

Description
Common genetic variation and antidepressant efficacy in major depressive disorder: a meta-analysis of three genome-wide pharmacogenetic studies.
NHGRI GWA Catalog
Drug-gene interactions and the search for missing heritability: a cross-sectional pharmacogenomics study of the QT interval.
NHGRI GWA Catalog
Genome-wide association analyses in East Asians identify new susceptibility loci for colorectal cancer.
NHGRI GWA Catalog
Genome-wide association study of hematological and biochemical traits in a Japanese population.
NHGRI GWA Catalog
Genome-wide association study of recurrent major depressive disorder in two European case-control cohorts.
NHGRI GWA Catalog
Identification of Genetic Susceptibility Loci for Colorectal Tumors in a Genome-Wide Meta-analysis.
NHGRI GWA Catalog
Large-scale genetic study in East Asians identifies six new loci associated with colorectal cancer risk.
NHGRI GWA Catalog
Novel genetic loci identified for the pathophysiology of childhood obesity in the Hispanic population.
NHGRI GWA Catalog
Seventy-five genetic loci influencing the human red blood cell.
NHGRI GWA Catalog

HIV-1 interactions

Protein interactions

Protein Gene Interaction Pubs
matrix gag HIV-1 MA natural variant S75X upregulates the expression of two cyclins D2 and D3, and induces significant release of cytokine IL-6, which leads to enhance proliferation of both Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-infected primary and fully transformed B-lymphocytes PubMed

Go to the HIV-1, Human Interaction Database

Pathways from BioSystems

  • Cell Cycle, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Cell Cycle, organism-specific biosystemThe cell cycle is the series of events that takes place in a cell leading to its division and duplication (replication). Regulation of the cell cycle involves processes crucial to the survival of a c...
  • Cell Cycle, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Cell Cycle, organism-specific biosystem
    Cell Cycle
  • Cell Cycle, Mitotic, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Cell Cycle, Mitotic, organism-specific biosystemThe replication of the genome and the subsequent segregation of chromosomes into daughter cells are controlled by a series of events collectively known as the cell cycle. DNA replication is carried o...
  • Cell cycle, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Cell cycle, organism-specific biosystemMitotic cell cycle progression is accomplished through a reproducible sequence of events, DNA replication (S phase) and mitosis (M phase) separated temporally by gaps known as G1 and G2 phases. Cycli...
  • Cell cycle, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Cell cycle, conserved biosystemMitotic cell cycle progression is accomplished through a reproducible sequence of events, DNA replication (S phase) and mitosis (M phase) separated temporally by gaps known as G1 and G2 phases. Cycli...
  • Cell cycle - G1/S transition, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Cell cycle - G1/S transition, organism-specific biosystemFunctional set; Cellular processes; Cell signaling
  • Cell cycle - G1/S transition, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Cell cycle - G1/S transition, conserved biosystemFunctional set; Cellular processes; Cell signaling
  • Cyclin D associated events in G1, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Cyclin D associated events in G1, organism-specific biosystemThree D-type cyclins are essential for progression from G1 to S-phase. These D cyclins bind to and activate both CDK4 and CDK6. The formation of all possible complexes between the D-type cyclins and...
  • DNA Damage Response, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    DNA Damage Response, organism-specific biosystemThis is the first pathway out of two pathways which deals with DNA damage response. It has two central gene products (ATM and ATR) which are connected to the sources of DNA damage (in blue). The two ...
  • DNA Damage Response (only ATM dependent), organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    DNA Damage Response (only ATM dependent), organism-specific biosystemThis is the second pathway out of two pathways which deals with DNA damage response. It has two central gene products (ATM and TP53) which are connected with the first DNA damage response pathway. In...
  • Focal Adhesion, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Focal Adhesion, organism-specific biosystemCell-matrix adhesions play essential roles in important biological processes including cell motility, cell proliferation, cell differentiation, regulation of gene expression and cell survival. At the...
  • Focal adhesion, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Focal adhesion, organism-specific biosystemCell-matrix adhesions play essential roles in important biological processes including cell motility, cell proliferation, cell differentiation, regulation of gene expression and cell survival. At the...
  • Focal adhesion, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Focal adhesion, conserved biosystemCell-matrix adhesions play essential roles in important biological processes including cell motility, cell proliferation, cell differentiation, regulation of gene expression and cell survival. At the...
  • FoxO signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    FoxO signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemThe forkhead box O (FOXO) family of transcription factors regulates the expression of genes in cellular physiological events including apoptosis, cell-cycle control, glucose metabolism, oxidative str...
  • G1 Phase, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    G1 Phase, organism-specific biosystemEarly cell cycle progression in G1 is under the control of the D-type cyclins together with Cdk4 and Cdk6. An important target for these CDKs is the Retinoblastoma (Rb) protein, which when phosphoryl...
  • G1 to S cell cycle control, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    G1 to S cell cycle control, organism-specific biosystemIn the G1 phase there are two types of DNA damage responses, the p53-dependent and the p53-independent pathways. The p53-dependent responses inhibit CDKs through the up-regulation of genes encoding C...
  • HTLV-I infection, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    HTLV-I infection, organism-specific biosystemHuman T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is a pathogenic retrovirus that is associated with adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL). It is also strongly implicated in non-neoplastic chronic inflammato...
  • HTLV-I infection, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    HTLV-I infection, conserved biosystemHuman T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is a pathogenic retrovirus that is associated with adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL). It is also strongly implicated in non-neoplastic chronic inflammato...
  • Hedgehog signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Hedgehog signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemThe Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway has numerous roles in the control of cell proliferation, tissue patterning, stem cell maintenance and development. The primary cilium is an important center for tr...
  • Hedgehog signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Hedgehog signaling pathway, conserved biosystemThe Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway has numerous roles in the control of cell proliferation, tissue patterning, stem cell maintenance and development. The primary cilium is an important center for tr...
  • Hippo signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Hippo signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemHippo signaling is an evolutionarily conserved signaling pathway that controls organ size from flies to humans. In humans and mice, the pathway consists of the MST1 and MST2 kinases, their cofactor S...
  • Hippo signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Hippo signaling pathway, conserved biosystemHippo signaling is an evolutionarily conserved signaling pathway that controls organ size from flies to humans. In humans and mice, the pathway consists of the MST1 and MST2 kinases, their cofactor S...
  • IL-2 Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    IL-2 Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystemIL-2 is a multifunctional cytokine with pleiotropic effects on several cells of the immune system. IL-2 was originally discovered as a T cell growth factor, but it was also found to have actions rela...
  • IL2 signaling events mediated by STAT5, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    IL2 signaling events mediated by STAT5, organism-specific biosystem
    IL2 signaling events mediated by STAT5
  • Jak-STAT signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Jak-STAT signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemThe Janus kinase/signal transducers and activators of transcription (JAK/STAT) pathway is one of a handful of pleiotropic cascades used to transduce a multitude of signals for development and homeost...
  • Jak-STAT signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Jak-STAT signaling pathway, conserved biosystemThe Janus kinase/signal transducers and activators of transcription (JAK/STAT) pathway is one of a handful of pleiotropic cascades used to transduce a multitude of signals for development and homeost...
  • Measles, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Measles, organism-specific biosystemMeasles virus (MV) is highly contagious virus that leads infant death worldwide. Humans are the unique natural reservoir for this virus. It causes severe immunosuppression favouring secondary bacteri...
  • Measles, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Measles, conserved biosystemMeasles virus (MV) is highly contagious virus that leads infant death worldwide. Humans are the unique natural reservoir for this virus. It causes severe immunosuppression favouring secondary bacteri...
  • MicroRNAs in cancer, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    MicroRNAs in cancer, organism-specific biosystemMicroRNA (miRNA) is a cluster of small non-encoding RNA molecules of 21 - 23 nucleotides in length, which controls gene expression post-transcriptionally either via the degradation of target mRNAs or...
  • MicroRNAs in cancer, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    MicroRNAs in cancer, conserved biosystemMicroRNA (miRNA) is a cluster of small non-encoding RNA molecules of 21 - 23 nucleotides in length, which controls gene expression post-transcriptionally either via the degradation of target mRNAs or...
  • Mitotic G1-G1/S phases, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Mitotic G1-G1/S phases, organism-specific biosystem
    Mitotic G1-G1/S phases
  • Ovarian Infertility Genes, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Ovarian Infertility Genes, organism-specific biosystemOvarian bottleneck genes associated with infertility. A valuable approach to the study of infertility is the comparison of mutations of individual human and mouse genes associated with infertility ph...
  • PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemThe phosphatidylinositol 3' -kinase(PI3K)-Akt signaling pathway is activated by many types of cellular stimuli or toxic insults and regulates fundamental cellular functions such as transcription, tra...
  • PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, conserved biosystemThe phosphatidylinositol 3' -kinase(PI3K)-Akt signaling pathway is activated by many types of cellular stimuli or toxic insults and regulates fundamental cellular functions such as transcription, tra...
  • Prolactin signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Prolactin signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemProlactin (PRL) is a polypeptide hormone known to be involved in a wide range of biological functions including osmoregulation, lactation, reproduction, growth and development, endocrinology and meta...
  • Prolactin signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Prolactin signaling pathway, conserved biosystemProlactin (PRL) is a polypeptide hormone known to be involved in a wide range of biological functions including osmoregulation, lactation, reproduction, growth and development, endocrinology and meta...
  • Regulation of Wnt-mediated beta catenin signaling and target gene transcription, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    Regulation of Wnt-mediated beta catenin signaling and target gene transcription, organism-specific biosystem
    Regulation of Wnt-mediated beta catenin signaling and target gene transcription
  • SRF and miRs in Smooth Muscle Differentiation and Proliferation, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    SRF and miRs in Smooth Muscle Differentiation and Proliferation, organism-specific biosystemSmooth muscle cells exhibit a unique plasticity, in that they are able to oscillate between proliferative and more quiescent, differentiated states. These two states are determined, in part, by a net...
  • Signaling Pathways in Glioblastoma, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Signaling Pathways in Glioblastoma, organism-specific biosystemThe most frequently altered genes in glioblastoma. This pathway originally accompanied the 2008 Nature publication on the comprehensive genomic characterization of human glioblastoma genes and core p...
  • Transcriptional misregulation in cancer, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Transcriptional misregulation in cancer, organism-specific biosystem
    Transcriptional misregulation in cancer
  • Transcriptional misregulation in cancer, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Transcriptional misregulation in cancer, conserved biosystem
    Transcriptional misregulation in cancer
  • Validated targets of C-MYC transcriptional activation, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    Validated targets of C-MYC transcriptional activation, organism-specific biosystem
    Validated targets of C-MYC transcriptional activation
  • Viral carcinogenesis, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Viral carcinogenesis, organism-specific biosystemThere is a strong association between viruses and the development of human malignancies. We now know that at least six human viruses, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C vi...
  • Viral carcinogenesis, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Viral carcinogenesis, conserved biosystemThere is a strong association between viruses and the development of human malignancies. We now know that at least six human viruses, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C vi...
  • Wnt Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Wnt Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystemWnt proteins are secreted morphogens that are required for basic developmental processes, such as cell-fate specification, progenitor-cell proliferation and the control of asymmetric cell division, i...
  • Wnt Signaling Pathway and Pluripotency, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Wnt Signaling Pathway and Pluripotency, organism-specific biosystemThis pathway was adapted from several resources and is designed to provide a theoretical frame-work for examining Wnt signaling and interacting components in the context of embryonic stem-cell plurip...
  • Wnt signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Wnt signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemWnt proteins are secreted morphogens that are required for basic developmental processes, such as cell-fate specification, progenitor-cell proliferation and the control of asymmetric cell division, i...
  • Wnt signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Wnt signaling pathway, conserved biosystemWnt proteins are secreted morphogens that are required for basic developmental processes, such as cell-fate specification, progenitor-cell proliferation and the control of asymmetric cell division, i...
  • miRNA Regulation of DNA Damage Response, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    miRNA Regulation of DNA Damage Response, organism-specific biosystemThis is the first out of two pathways which deals with the DNA damage response. It is comprised of two central gene products (ATM and ATR) influenced by different sources of DNA damage (in blue). The...
  • p53 signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    p53 signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemp53 activation is induced by a number of stress signals, including DNA damage, oxidative stress and activated oncogenes. The p53 protein is employed as a transcriptional activator of p53-regulated ge...
  • p53 signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    p53 signaling pathway, conserved biosystemp53 activation is induced by a number of stress signals, including DNA damage, oxidative stress and activated oncogenes. The p53 protein is employed as a transcriptional activator of p53-regulated ge...

Interactions

Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

General gene information

Markers

Homology

Clone Names

  • MGC102758

Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

Function Evidence Code Pubs
cyclin-dependent protein serine/threonine kinase regulator activity IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
protein binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
contributes_to protein kinase activity IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
protein kinase binding IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
protein kinase binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
Process Evidence Code Pubs
cell division IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
mitotic cell cycle IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of apoptotic process IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of G1/S transition of mitotic cell cycle IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of G1/S transition of mitotic cell cycle IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of cell cycle IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of cell proliferation IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of cell proliferation IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of cyclin-dependent protein serine/threonine kinase activity IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of protein phosphorylation IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
protein phosphorylation IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
regulation of cyclin-dependent protein serine/threonine kinase activity IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
regulation of mitotic nuclear division IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
Component Evidence Code Pubs
chromatin IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
cyclin-dependent protein kinase holoenzyme complex IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
cyclin-dependent protein kinase holoenzyme complex IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
cytoplasm IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
cytosol IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
nuclear membrane IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
nucleolus IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
nucleoplasm IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
 
nucleus IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
nucleus IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 

NCBI Reference Sequences (RefSeq)

RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

Genomic

  1. NG_034254.1 RefSeqGene

    Range
    5001..36621
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. NM_001759.4NP_001750.1  G1/S-specific cyclin-D2

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001750.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Source sequence(s)
    AC006122
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS8524.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P30279
    Related
    ENSP00000261254.3, ENST00000261254.7
    Conserved Domains (2) summary
    pfam00134
    Location:26152
    Cyclin_N; Cyclin, N-terminal domain
    pfam02984
    Location:154257
    Cyclin_C; Cyclin, C-terminal domain

RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: Homo sapiens Annotation Release 109 details...Open this link in a new tab

The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

Reference GRCh38.p12 Primary Assembly

Genomic

  1. NC_000012.12 Reference GRCh38.p12 Primary Assembly

    Range
    4273736..4305356
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)
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