Format

Send to:

Choose Destination

APLN apelin [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

Gene ID: 8862, updated on 12-Aug-2018

Summary

Official Symbol
APLNprovided by HGNC
Official Full Name
apelinprovided by HGNC
Primary source
HGNC:HGNC:16665
See related
Ensembl:ENSG00000171388 MIM:300297; Vega:OTTHUMG00000022371
Gene type
protein coding
RefSeq status
REVIEWED
Organism
Homo sapiens
Lineage
Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
Also known as
APEL; XNPEP2
Summary
This gene encodes a peptide that functions as an endogenous ligand for the G-protein coupled apelin receptor. The encoded preproprotein is proteolytically processed into biologically active C-terminal peptide fragments. These peptide fragments activate different tissue specific signaling pathways that regulate diverse biological functions including fluid homeostasis, cardiovascular function and insulin secretion. This protein also functions as a coreceptor for the human immunodeficiency virus 1. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2016]
Expression
Biased expression in placenta (RPKM 42.1), lung (RPKM 12.5) and 5 other tissues See more
Orthologs

Genomic context

See APLN in Genome Data Viewer
Location:
Xq26.1
Exon count:
3
Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
109 current GRCh38.p12 (GCF_000001405.38) X NC_000023.11 (129645259..129654956, complement)
105 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) X NC_000023.10 (128779236..128788933, complement)

Chromosome X - NC_000023.11Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene SWI/SNF related, matrix associated, actin dependent regulator of chromatin, subfamily a, member 1 Neighboring gene OCRL, inositol polyphosphate-5-phosphatase Neighboring gene uncharacterized LOC105373334 Neighboring gene X-prolyl aminopeptidase 2

Genomic regions, transcripts, and products

Expression

  • Project title: HPA RNA-seq normal tissues
  • Description: RNA-seq was performed of tissue samples from 95 human individuals representing 27 different tissues in order to determine tissue-specificity of all protein-coding genes
  • BioProject: PRJEB4337
  • Publication: PMID 24309898
  • Analysis date: Wed Jun 15 11:32:44 2016

Bibliography

GeneRIFs: Gene References Into FunctionsWhat's a GeneRIF?

HIV-1 interactions

Protein interactions

Protein Gene Interaction Pubs
Envelope surface glycoprotein gp120 env APJ, a seven transmembrane domain G-protein-coupled receptor, functions as a coreceptor for gp120 from some HIV-1 strains; a natural peptide ligand for APJ, apelin-13, efficiently blocks APJ coreceptor activity PubMed

Go to the HIV-1, Human Interaction Database

Pathways from BioSystems

  • Apelin signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Apelin signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemApelin is an endogenous peptide capable of binding the apelin receptor (APJ), which was originally described as an orphan G-protein-coupled receptor. Apelin and APJ are widely expressed in various ti...
  • Class A/1 (Rhodopsin-like receptors), organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Class A/1 (Rhodopsin-like receptors), organism-specific biosystemRhodopsin-like receptors (class A/1) are the largest group of GPCRs and are the best studied group from a functional and structural point of view. They show great diversity at the sequence level and ...
  • G alpha (i) signalling events, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    G alpha (i) signalling events, organism-specific biosystemThe classical signalling mechanism for G alpha (i) is inhibition of the cAMP dependent pathway through inhibition of adenylate cyclase. Decreased production of cAMP from ATP results in decreased act...
  • GPCR downstream signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    GPCR downstream signaling, organism-specific biosystemG protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are classically defined as the receptor, G-protein and downstream effectors, the alpha subunit of the G-protein being the primary signaling molecule. However, it h...
  • GPCR ligand binding, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    GPCR ligand binding, organism-specific biosystemThere are more than 800 G-protein coupled receptor (GPCRs) in the human genome, making it the largest receptor superfamily. GPCRs are also the largest class of drug targets, involved in virtually all...
  • Peptide ligand-binding receptors, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Peptide ligand-binding receptors, organism-specific biosystemThese receptors, a subset of the Class A/1 (Rhodopsin-like) family, all bind peptide ligands which include the chemokines, opioids and somatostatins.
  • Signal Transduction, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signal Transduction, organism-specific biosystemSignal transduction is a process in which extracellular signals elicit changes in cell state and activity. Transmembrane receptors sense changes in the cellular environment by binding ligands, such a...
  • Signaling by GPCR, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signaling by GPCR, organism-specific biosystemG protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs; 7TM receptors; seven transmembrane domain receptors; heptahelical receptors; G protein-linked receptors [GPLR]) are the largest family of transmembrane receptors i...

Interactions

Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

General gene information

Markers

Homology

Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

Function Evidence Code Pubs
apelin receptor binding IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
hormone activity IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
protein homodimerization activity IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
signaling receptor binding TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
Process Evidence Code Pubs
G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
angiogenesis IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
apelin receptor signaling pathway IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
apelin receptor signaling pathway IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
coronary vasculature development ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
drinking behavior ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
gastrulation IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
immune response TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
lactation TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of blood pressure ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
negative regulation of fibroblast growth factor receptor signaling pathway IGI
Inferred from Genetic Interaction
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of gene expression IGI
Inferred from Genetic Interaction
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of vasoconstriction IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
positive regulation of G-protein coupled receptor internalization IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of corticotropin secretion IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
positive regulation of corticotropin-releasing hormone secretion IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
positive regulation of heart contraction ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
positive regulation of heat generation IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
positive regulation of phosphorylation IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
positive regulation of pri-miRNA transcription by RNA polymerase II IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of vascular endothelial cell proliferation IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
regulation of respiratory gaseous exchange IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
regulation of signaling receptor activity IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
regulation of the force of heart contraction IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
signal transduction TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
Component Evidence Code Pubs
extracellular region IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
extracellular region TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
extracellular space IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
perinuclear region of cytoplasm IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 

General protein information

Preferred Names
apelin
Names
AGTRL1 ligand
APJ endogenous ligand

NCBI Reference Sequences (RefSeq)

RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

Genomic

  1. NG_016718.1 RefSeqGene

    Range
    5001..14698
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. NM_017413.4NP_059109.3  apelin preproprotein

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_059109.3

    Status: REVIEWED

    Source sequence(s)
    AL022162, BC021104, BM992527, DB481574
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS48165.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    Q9ULZ1
    Related
    ENSP00000391800.2, OTTHUMP00000023985, ENST00000429967.2, OTTHUMT00000058207
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    pfam15360
    Location:2377
    Apelin; APJ endogenous ligand

RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: Homo sapiens Annotation Release 109 details...Open this link in a new tab

The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

Reference GRCh38.p12 Primary Assembly

Genomic

  1. NC_000023.11 Reference GRCh38.p12 Primary Assembly

    Range
    129645259..129654956 complement
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)
Support Center