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APLN apelin [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

Gene ID: 8862, updated on 28-Nov-2021

Summary

Official Symbol
APLNprovided by HGNC
Official Full Name
apelinprovided by HGNC
Primary source
HGNC:HGNC:16665
See related
Ensembl:ENSG00000171388 MIM:300297
Gene type
protein coding
RefSeq status
REVIEWED
Organism
Homo sapiens
Lineage
Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
Also known as
APEL; XNPEP2
Summary
This gene encodes a peptide that functions as an endogenous ligand for the G-protein coupled apelin receptor. The encoded preproprotein is proteolytically processed into biologically active C-terminal peptide fragments. These peptide fragments activate different tissue specific signaling pathways that regulate diverse biological functions including fluid homeostasis, cardiovascular function and insulin secretion. This protein also functions as a coreceptor for the human immunodeficiency virus 1. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2016]
Expression
Biased expression in placenta (RPKM 42.1), lung (RPKM 12.5) and 5 other tissues See more
Orthologs
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Genomic context

See APLN in Genome Data Viewer
Location:
Xq26.1
Exon count:
3
Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
109.20211119 current GRCh38.p13 (GCF_000001405.39) X NC_000023.11 (129645259..129654956, complement)
105.20201022 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) X NC_000023.10 (128779236..128788933, complement)

Chromosome X - NC_000023.11Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene SWI/SNF related, matrix associated, actin dependent regulator of chromatin, subfamily a, member 1 Neighboring gene Sharpr-MPRA regulatory region 13828 Neighboring gene OCRL inositol polyphosphate-5-phosphatase Neighboring gene Sharpr-MPRA regulatory region 14523 Neighboring gene uncharacterized LOC105373334

Genomic regions, transcripts, and products

Expression

  • Project title: HPA RNA-seq normal tissues
  • Description: RNA-seq was performed of tissue samples from 95 human individuals representing 27 different tissues in order to determine tissue-specificity of all protein-coding genes
  • BioProject: PRJEB4337
  • Publication: PMID 24309898
  • Analysis date: Wed Apr 4 07:08:55 2018

Bibliography

GeneRIFs: Gene References Into Functions

What's a GeneRIF?

HIV-1 interactions

Protein interactions

Protein Gene Interaction Pubs
Envelope surface glycoprotein gp120 env APJ, a seven transmembrane domain G-protein-coupled receptor, functions as a coreceptor for gp120 from some HIV-1 strains; a natural peptide ligand for APJ, apelin-13, efficiently blocks APJ coreceptor activity PubMed

Go to the HIV-1, Human Interaction Database

Interactions

Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

General gene information

Markers

Homology

Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

Function Evidence Code Pubs
enables apelin receptor binding IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
enables hormone activity IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
enables signaling receptor binding TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
Process Evidence Code Pubs
involved_in angiogenesis IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
involved_in apelin receptor signaling pathway IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
involved_in apelin receptor signaling pathway IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
involved_in coronary vasculature development ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
involved_in drinking behavior ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
involved_in gastrulation IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
involved_in immune response TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
involved_in lactation TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
involved_in negative regulation of blood pressure ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
involved_in negative regulation of fibroblast growth factor receptor signaling pathway IGI
Inferred from Genetic Interaction
more info
PubMed 
involved_in negative regulation of gene expression IGI
Inferred from Genetic Interaction
more info
PubMed 
involved_in negative regulation of vascular associated smooth muscle cell proliferation IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
involved_in positive regulation of G protein-coupled receptor internalization IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
involved_in positive regulation of heart contraction ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
involved_in positive regulation of pri-miRNA transcription by RNA polymerase II IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
involved_in positive regulation of vascular endothelial cell proliferation IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
involved_in signal transduction TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
Component Evidence Code Pubs
located_in extracellular region IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
located_in extracellular region TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
is_active_in extracellular space IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 

General protein information

Preferred Names
apelin
Names
AGTRL1 ligand
APJ endogenous ligand

NCBI Reference Sequences (RefSeq)

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RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

Genomic

  1. NG_016718.1 RefSeqGene

    Range
    5001..14698
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. NM_017413.5NP_059109.3  apelin preproprotein

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_059109.3

    Status: REVIEWED

    Source sequence(s)
    AL022162, BC021104, BM992527, DB481574
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS48165.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    Q9ULZ1
    Related
    ENSP00000391800.2, ENST00000429967.3
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    pfam15360
    Location:2377
    Apelin; APJ endogenous ligand

RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: Homo sapiens Updated Annotation Release 109.20211119

The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

Reference GRCh38.p13 Primary Assembly

Genomic

  1. NC_000023.11 Reference GRCh38.p13 Primary Assembly

    Range
    129645259..129654956 complement
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)
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