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BECN1 beclin 1 [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

Gene ID: 8678, updated on 15-Jul-2018
Official Symbol
BECN1provided by HGNC
Official Full Name
beclin 1provided by HGNC
Primary source
HGNC:HGNC:1034
See related
Ensembl:ENSG00000126581 MIM:604378; Vega:OTTHUMG00000180653
Gene type
protein coding
RefSeq status
REVIEWED
Organism
Homo sapiens
Lineage
Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
Also known as
ATG6; VPS30; beclin1
Summary
This gene encodes a protein that regulates autophagy, a catabolic process of degradation induced by starvation. The encoded protein is a component of the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) complex which mediates vesicle-trafficking processes. This protein is thought to play a role in multiple cellular processes, including tumorigenesis, neurodegeneration and apoptosis. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2015]
Expression
Ubiquitous expression in colon (RPKM 32.3), duodenum (RPKM 27.0) and 25 other tissues See more
Orthologs
See BECN1 in Genome Data Viewer
Location:
17q21.31
Exon count:
13
Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
109 current GRCh38.p12 (GCF_000001405.38) 17 NC_000017.11 (42810132..42824316, complement)
105 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 17 NC_000017.10 (40962150..40976310, complement)

Chromosome 17 - NC_000017.11Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene WNK lysine deficient protein kinase 4 Neighboring gene cytochrome c oxidase assembly factor 3 Neighboring gene cyclin N-terminal domain containing 1 Neighboring gene uncharacterized LOC107985007 Neighboring gene microRNA 6781 Neighboring gene proteasome activator subunit 3

  • Project title: HPA RNA-seq normal tissues
  • Description: RNA-seq was performed of tissue samples from 95 human individuals representing 27 different tissues in order to determine tissue-specificity of all protein-coding genes
  • BioProject: PRJEB4337
  • Publication: PMID 24309898
  • Analysis date: Wed Jun 15 11:32:44 2016

GeneRIFs: Gene References Into FunctionsWhat's a GeneRIF?

Protein interactions

Protein Gene Interaction Pubs
Asp asp HIV-1 ASP expression upregulates the levels of two autophagy markers, LC3b and Beclin 1 in COS-7 cells, suggesting ASP activates autophagy in mammalian cells PubMed
Envelope surface glycoprotein gp120 env HIV-1 Env gp120 treatment of SH-SY5Y cells increases BECN1 which indicates the initiation of autophagosome formation PubMed
Nef nef HIV-1 Nef directly interacts with Beclin-1 to inhibit autophagy in human mesenchymal stem cells PubMed
nef Genome-wide shRNA screening identifies BECN1, which is required for HIV-1 Nef-induced downregulation of CD4 in HeLa CD4+ cells PubMed
nef HIV-1 Nef acts as an antiautophagic maturation factor through interaction with the autophagy regulatory factor Beclin 1, leading to protect HIV-1 from degradation PubMed
capsid gag Knockdown of Beclin 1 (ATG6) results in diminished levels of p24 yields in both primary monocyte- and U937-derived macrophages PubMed

Go to the HIV-1, Human Interaction Database

  • Apelin signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Apelin signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemApelin is an endogenous peptide capable of binding the apelin receptor (APJ), which was originally described as an orphan G-protein-coupled receptor. Apelin and APJ are widely expressed in various ti...
  • Apoptosis - multiple species, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Apoptosis - multiple species, organism-specific biosystemApoptosis is an evolutionarily conserved process used by multicellular organisms to developmentally regulate cell number or to eliminate cells that are potentially detrimental to the organism. The ma...
  • Apoptosis - multiple species, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Apoptosis - multiple species, conserved biosystemApoptosis is an evolutionarily conserved process used by multicellular organisms to developmentally regulate cell number or to eliminate cells that are potentially detrimental to the organism. The ma...
  • Autophagy - animal, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Autophagy - animal, organism-specific biosystemAutophagy (or macroautophagy) is a cellular catabolic pathway involving in protein degradation, organelle turnover, and non-selective breakdown of cytoplasmic components, which is evolutionarily cons...
  • Autophagy - animal, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Autophagy - animal, conserved biosystemAutophagy (or macroautophagy) is a cellular catabolic pathway involving in protein degradation, organelle turnover, and non-selective breakdown of cytoplasmic components, which is evolutionarily cons...
  • Autophagy - other, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Autophagy - other, organism-specific biosystemAutophagy is a degradative pathway for the removal of cytoplasmic materials in eukaryotic cells, and is characterized by the formation of a double-membrane structure called the autophagosome, either ...
  • Autophagy - other, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Autophagy - other, conserved biosystemAutophagy is a degradative pathway for the removal of cytoplasmic materials in eukaryotic cells, and is characterized by the formation of a double-membrane structure called the autophagosome, either ...
  • Cellular responses to stress, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Cellular responses to stress, organism-specific biosystemCells are subject to external molecular and physical stresses such as foreign molecules that perturb metabolic or signaling processes, and changes in temperature or pH. The ability of cells and tissu...
  • Deubiquitination, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Deubiquitination, organism-specific biosystemUbiquitination, the modification of proteins by the covalent attachment of ubiquitin (Ub), is a key regulatory mechanism for many many cellular processes, including protein degradation by the 26S pro...
  • Macroautophagy, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Macroautophagy, organism-specific biosystemMacroautophagy (hereafter referred to as autophagy) acts as a buffer against starvation by liberating building materials and energy sources from cellular components. It has additional roles in embryo...
  • Metabolism of proteins, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Metabolism of proteins, organism-specific biosystemProtein metabolism comprises the pathways of translation, post-translational modification and protein folding.
  • Mitophagy - animal, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Mitophagy - animal, organism-specific biosystemMitochondria act as the energy powerhouse of the cell, and are essential for eukaryotic cells to grow and function normally. However, deleterious byproducts of oxidative phosphorylation process calle...
  • Mitophagy - animal, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Mitophagy - animal, conserved biosystemMitochondria act as the energy powerhouse of the cell, and are essential for eukaryotic cells to grow and function normally. However, deleterious byproducts of oxidative phosphorylation process calle...
  • Nanoparticle triggered autophagic cell death, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Nanoparticle triggered autophagic cell death, organism-specific biosystemProgrammed cell death: autophagic cell death. Autophagy (self-eating) is a survival mechanism deployed by cells to cope with conditions of nutrient deprivation. However, unrestrained autophagy can re...
  • Post-translational protein modification, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Post-translational protein modification, organism-specific biosystemAfter translation, many newly formed proteins undergo further covalent modifications that alter their functional properties and that are essentially irreversible under physiological conditions in the...
  • Senescence and Autophagy in Cancer, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Senescence and Autophagy in Cancer, organism-specific biosystemSenescense and Autophagy Pathways in Cancer
  • Ub-specific processing proteases, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Ub-specific processing proteases, organism-specific biosystemUb-specific processing proteases (USPs) are the largest of the DUB families with more than 50 members in humans. The USP catalytic domain varies considerably in size and consists of six conserved mo...
Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

Markers

Homology

Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

Function Evidence Code Pubs
GTPase binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
protein binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
protein homodimerization activity IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
protein kinase binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
ubiquitin protein ligase binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
Process Evidence Code Pubs
aging IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
amyloid-beta metabolic process IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
apoptotic process IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
autophagosome assembly IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
autophagosome assembly ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
autophagy IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
autophagy IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
autophagy of mitochondrion IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
cell division IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
cellular defense response TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
cellular response to aluminum ion IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
cellular response to amino acid starvation IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
cellular response to copper ion IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
cellular response to epidermal growth factor stimulus IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
cellular response to glucose starvation ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
cellular response to hydrogen peroxide IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
cellular response to nitrogen starvation IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
defense response to virus IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
early endosome to late endosome transport IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
engulfment of apoptotic cell IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
late endosome to vacuole transport IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
lysosome organization IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
macroautophagy ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
macroautophagy TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
mitophagy IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
mitotic metaphase plate congression IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of apoptotic process IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
negative regulation of autophagosome assembly IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
negative regulation of cell death IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of cell proliferation IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
negative regulation of lysosome organization IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
negative regulation of reactive oxygen species metabolic process IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
neuron development IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
positive regulation of attachment of mitotic spindle microtubules to kinetochore IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of autophagosome assembly IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
positive regulation of cardiac muscle hypertrophy IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
positive regulation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling NAS
Non-traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
protein deubiquitination TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
protein localization by the Cvt pathway IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
receptor catabolic process IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
regulation of catalytic activity IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
regulation of cytokinesis IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
response to hypoxia IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
response to iron(II) ion IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
response to lead ion IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
response to mitochondrial depolarisation IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
response to vitamin E IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
viral process IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
Component Evidence Code Pubs
autophagosome IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
cytosol TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
dendrite IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
endoplasmic reticulum IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
endoplasmic reticulum membrane IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
endosome IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
endosome membrane IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
extrinsic component of membrane IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
extrinsic component of membrane IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
mitochondrial membrane IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
colocalizes_with mitochondrion IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
nucleus IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
phagocytic vesicle IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
phagophore assembly site IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase complex, class III ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase complex, class III, type I IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase complex, class III, type II IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
trans-Golgi network IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
Preferred Names
beclin-1
Names
ATG6 autophagy related 6 homolog
beclin 1 (coiled-coil, moesin-like BCL2-interacting protein)
beclin 1, autophagy related
coiled-coil myosin-like BCL2-interacting protein
testis secretory sperm-binding protein Li 215e

RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. NM_001313998.1NP_001300927.1  beclin-1 isoform a

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (2) differs in the 5' UTR compared to variant 1. Variants 1 and 2 encode the same isoform (a).
    Source sequence(s)
    AA427906, AC016889, AK312651, BC010276, DC354547
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS11441.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    Q14457
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    A0A024R1X5
    Related
    ENSP00000465364.1, OTTHUMP00000264883, ENST00000590099.5, OTTHUMT00000452407
    Conserved Domains (2) summary
    pfam15285
    Location:107129
    BH3; Beclin-1 BH3 domain, Bcl-2-interacting
    pfam04111
    Location:135445
    APG6; Autophagy protein Apg6
  2. NM_001313999.1NP_001300928.1  beclin-1 isoform b

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (3) lacks an alternate exon in the 3' coding region resulting in a frameshift, compared to variant 1. The encoded isoform (b) has a distinct C-terminus, and is shorter than isoform a.
    Source sequence(s)
    AA427906, BC010276, KC776730
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    Q14457
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    W0FFG4
    Conserved Domains (3) summary
    pfam04111
    Location:135348
    APG6; Autophagy protein Apg6
    pfam12777
    Location:196269
    MT; Microtubule-binding stalk of dynein motor
    pfam15285
    Location:107129
    BH3; Beclin-1 BH3 domain, Bcl-2-interacting
  3. NM_001314000.1NP_001300929.1  beclin-1 isoform c

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (4) has multiple differences compared to variant 1. These differences result in a distinct 5' UTR and a frameshift in the 3' coding region, compared to variant 1. The encoded isoform (c) has a distinct C-terminus, and is shorter than isoform a.
    Source sequence(s)
    AA427906, AC016889, AK298619, BC010276, DC354547
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS82132.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    Q14457
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    B4DQ36, E7EV84
    Related
    ENSP00000416173.2, OTTHUMP00000264885, ENST00000438274.7, OTTHUMT00000452409
    Conserved Domains (2) summary
    pfam04111
    Location:87272
    APG6; Autophagy protein Apg6
    pfam12777
    Location:120193
    MT; Microtubule-binding stalk of dynein motor
  4. NM_003766.4NP_003757.1  beclin-1 isoform a

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_003757.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (1) represents the longest transcript and encodes the longest isoform (a). Variants 1 and 2 encode the same isoform.
    Source sequence(s)
    AA427906, BC010276, DC354547
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS11441.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    Q14457
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    A0A024R1X5
    Related
    ENSP00000355231.3, OTTHUMP00000264882, ENST00000361523.8, OTTHUMT00000452405
    Conserved Domains (2) summary
    pfam15285
    Location:107129
    BH3; Beclin-1 BH3 domain, Bcl-2-interacting
    pfam04111
    Location:135445
    APG6; Autophagy protein Apg6

RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: Homo sapiens Annotation Release 109 details...Open this link in a new tab

The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

Reference GRCh38.p12 Primary Assembly

Genomic

  1. NC_000017.11 Reference GRCh38.p12 Primary Assembly

    Range
    42810132..42824316 complement
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. XM_017025262.2XP_016880751.1  beclin-1 isoform X1

    Conserved Domains (4) summary
    pfam04111
    Location:135348
    APG6; Autophagy protein Apg6
    pfam12777
    Location:196269
    MT; Microtubule-binding stalk of dynein motor
    pfam13900
    Location:347388
    GVQW; Putative domain of unknown function
    pfam15285
    Location:107129
    BH3; Beclin-1 BH3 domain, Bcl-2-interacting
  2. XM_005257760.4XP_005257817.1  beclin-1 isoform X3

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for XP_005257817.1

    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    W0FFG4
    Conserved Domains (3) summary
    pfam04111
    Location:135348
    APG6; Autophagy protein Apg6
    pfam12777
    Location:196269
    MT; Microtubule-binding stalk of dynein motor
    pfam15285
    Location:107129
    BH3; Beclin-1 BH3 domain, Bcl-2-interacting
  3. XM_011525421.2XP_011523723.1  beclin-1 isoform X1

    Conserved Domains (4) summary
    pfam04111
    Location:135348
    APG6; Autophagy protein Apg6
    pfam12777
    Location:196269
    MT; Microtubule-binding stalk of dynein motor
    pfam13900
    Location:347388
    GVQW; Putative domain of unknown function
    pfam15285
    Location:107129
    BH3; Beclin-1 BH3 domain, Bcl-2-interacting
  4. XM_017025263.2XP_016880752.1  beclin-1 isoform X2

    Conserved Domains (3) summary
    pfam04111
    Location:135378
    APG6; Autophagy protein Apg6
    pfam12777
    Location:196269
    MT; Microtubule-binding stalk of dynein motor
    pfam15285
    Location:107129
    BH3; Beclin-1 BH3 domain, Bcl-2-interacting
  5. XM_017025264.2XP_016880753.1  beclin-1 isoform X3

    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    W0FFG4
    Conserved Domains (3) summary
    pfam04111
    Location:135348
    APG6; Autophagy protein Apg6
    pfam12777
    Location:196269
    MT; Microtubule-binding stalk of dynein motor
    pfam15285
    Location:107129
    BH3; Beclin-1 BH3 domain, Bcl-2-interacting
  6. XM_005257759.3XP_005257816.1  beclin-1 isoform X2

    Conserved Domains (3) summary
    pfam04111
    Location:135378
    APG6; Autophagy protein Apg6
    pfam12777
    Location:196269
    MT; Microtubule-binding stalk of dynein motor
    pfam15285
    Location:107129
    BH3; Beclin-1 BH3 domain, Bcl-2-interacting
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