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TXN thioredoxin [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

Gene ID: 7295, updated on 5-Jan-2020

Summary

Official Symbol
TXNprovided by HGNC
Official Full Name
thioredoxinprovided by HGNC
Primary source
HGNC:HGNC:12435
See related
Ensembl:ENSG00000136810 MIM:187700
Gene type
protein coding
RefSeq status
REVIEWED
Organism
Homo sapiens
Lineage
Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
Also known as
TRX; TRDX; TRX1
Summary
The protein encoded by this gene acts as a homodimer and is involved in many redox reactions. The encoded protein is active in the reversible S-nitrosylation of cysteines in certain proteins, which is part of the response to intracellular nitric oxide. This protein is found in the cytoplasm. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2011]
Expression
Ubiquitous expression in esophagus (RPKM 218.4), colon (RPKM 150.6) and 24 other tissues See more
Orthologs

Genomic context

See TXN in Genome Data Viewer
Location:
9q31.3
Exon count:
5
Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
109.20191205 current GRCh38.p13 (GCF_000001405.39) 9 NC_000009.12 (110243810..110256507, complement)
105 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 9 NC_000009.11 (113006092..113018920, complement)

Chromosome 9 - NC_000009.12Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene tRNA-Arg (anticodon TCG) 6-1 Neighboring gene chromosome 9 open reading frame 152 Neighboring gene uncharacterized LOC107987114 Neighboring gene thioredoxin domain containing 8

Genomic regions, transcripts, and products

Expression

  • Project title: HPA RNA-seq normal tissues
  • Description: RNA-seq was performed of tissue samples from 95 human individuals representing 27 different tissues in order to determine tissue-specificity of all protein-coding genes
  • BioProject: PRJEB4337
  • Publication: PMID 24309898
  • Analysis date: Wed Apr 4 07:08:55 2018

Bibliography

GeneRIFs: Gene References Into Functions

What's a GeneRIF?

HIV-1 interactions

Replication interactions

Interaction Pubs
HIV-1 assembly incorporates TXN (Trx1) and TXNRD1 (TrxR1) into viral particles PubMed

Protein interactions

Protein Gene Interaction Pubs
Envelope surface glycoprotein gp120 env Using specific anti-Trx monoclonal antibody significantly reduces HIV-1 entry and infection in human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs), suggesting Trx plays a great role in HIV-1 infection of MDMs PubMed
env The ability of thioredoxin, a protein disulfide isomerase (PDI), to reduce the disulfide bond in CD4 is enhanced in the presence of HIV-1 gp120 and thioredoxin also reduces disulfide bonds in gp120 directly in the absence of CD4 PubMed
env Cleavage of the CD4 domain 2 disulfide bond (Cys130-Cys159) by thioredoxin enhances HIV-1 gp120/gp41-mediated cell-cell fusion and virus entry PubMed
env Thioredoxin cleaves the gp120 disulfide bond (Cys296-Cys331) in the V3 domain and the cleavage is enhanced by CD4-expressing cells PubMed
Envelope transmembrane glycoprotein gp41 env Cleavage of the CD4 domain 2 disulfide bond (Cys130-Cys159) by thioredoxin enhances HIV-1 gp120/gp41-mediated cell-cell fusion and virus entry PubMed
Nef nef HIV-1 Nef stabilizes the association of thioredoxin with ASK1, thereby inhibiting the catalytic activity of ASK1, Fas- and TNFalpha-mediated apoptosis, and activation of c-Jun amino-terminal kinase PubMed

Go to the HIV-1, Human Interaction Database

Pathways from PubChem

Interactions

Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

General gene information

Markers

Homology

Clone Names

  • MGC61975, DKFZp686B1993

Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

Function Evidence Code Pubs
RNA binding HDA PubMed 
peptide disulfide oxidoreductase activity IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
protein binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
protein disulfide oxidoreductase activity IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
thioredoxin-disulfide reductase activity TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
Component Evidence Code Pubs
cell IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
cytosol IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
 
cytosol TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
extracellular exosome HDA PubMed 
nucleoplasm IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
 
nucleoplasm TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 

General protein information

Preferred Names
thioredoxin
Names
ADF
ATL-derived factor
SASP
TXN delta 3
surface-associated sulphydryl protein
testicular tissue protein Li 199
thioredoxin delta 3

NCBI Reference Sequences (RefSeq)

RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. NM_001244938.2NP_001231867.1  thioredoxin isoform 2

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001231867.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (2) lacks an alternate in-frame exon compared to variant 1. The resulting isoform (2) has the same N- and C-termini but is shorter compared to isoform 1.
    Source sequence(s)
    AF065241, AL158158, AW160756, BC054866, BQ774337
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS59139.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P10599
    Related
    ENSP00000363639.5, ENST00000374515.9
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    cl00388
    Location:784
    Thioredoxin_like; Protein Disulfide Oxidoreductases and Other Proteins with a Thioredoxin fold
  2. NM_003329.4NP_003320.2  thioredoxin isoform 1

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_003320.2

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (1) represents the longer transcript and encodes the longer isoform (1).
    Source sequence(s)
    AL158158, BC054866, BQ774337
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS35103.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P10599
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    H9ZYJ2
    Related
    ENSP00000363641.5, ENST00000374517.6
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    pfam00085
    Location:7104
    Thioredoxin; Thioredoxin

RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: Homo sapiens Updated Annotation Release 109.20191205

The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

Reference GRCh38.p13 Primary Assembly

Genomic

  1. NC_000009.12 Reference GRCh38.p13 Primary Assembly

    Range
    110243810..110256507 complement
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)
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