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TUBA4A tubulin alpha 4a [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

Gene ID: 7277, updated on 1-Aug-2020

Summary

Official Symbol
TUBA4Aprovided by HGNC
Official Full Name
tubulin alpha 4aprovided by HGNC
Primary source
HGNC:HGNC:12407
See related
Ensembl:ENSG00000127824 MIM:191110
Gene type
protein coding
RefSeq status
REVIEWED
Organism
Homo sapiens
Lineage
Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
Also known as
ALS22; TUBA1; H2-ALPHA
Summary
Microtubules of the eukaryotic cytoskeleton perform essential and diverse functions and are composed of a heterodimer of alpha and beta tubulin. The genes encoding these microtubule constituents are part of the tubulin superfamily, which is composed of six distinct families. Genes from the alpha, beta and gamma tubulin families are found in all eukaryotes. The alpha and beta tubulins represent the major components of microtubules, while gamma tubulin plays a critical role in the nucleation of microtubule assembly. There are multiple alpha and beta tubulin genes and they are highly conserved among and between species. This gene encodes an alpha tubulin that is a highly conserved homolog of a rat testis-specific alpha tubulin. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2013]
Expression
Broad expression in skin (RPKM 72.2), brain (RPKM 48.6) and 20 other tissues See more
Orthologs

Genomic context

See TUBA4A in Genome Data Viewer
Location:
2q35
Exon count:
5
Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
109.20200522 current GRCh38.p13 (GCF_000001405.39) 2 NC_000002.12 (219249710..219254608, complement)
105 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 2 NC_000002.11 (220114433..220119330, complement)

Chromosome 2 - NC_000002.12Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene autophagy related 9A Neighboring gene ankyrin repeat and zinc finger peptidyl tRNA hydrolase 1 Neighboring gene galactosidase beta 1 like Neighboring gene serine/threonine kinase 16 Neighboring gene tubulin alpha 4b Neighboring gene DnaJ heat shock protein family (Hsp40) member B2 Neighboring gene protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor type N Neighboring gene microRNA 153-1

Genomic regions, transcripts, and products

Expression

  • Project title: HPA RNA-seq normal tissues
  • Description: RNA-seq was performed of tissue samples from 95 human individuals representing 27 different tissues in order to determine tissue-specificity of all protein-coding genes
  • BioProject: PRJEB4337
  • Publication: PMID 24309898
  • Analysis date: Wed Apr 4 07:08:55 2018

Bibliography

GeneRIFs: Gene References Into Functions

What's a GeneRIF?

HIV-1 interactions

Protein interactions

Protein Gene Interaction Pubs
Envelope surface glycoprotein gp120 env Tandem affinity purification and mass spectrometry analysis identify tubulin alpha 4a protein (TUBA4A), HIV-1 Gag, Gag/Pol, gp120, and Nef incorporated into staufen1 RNP complexes isolated from HIV-1-expressing cells PubMed
env The mRNA expression levels for alpha-tubulin, TRADD, IFN-gamma R2, GAS1, MADD, NF-kappaB, I-kappa B, 14-3-3 protein, APaf1, PARP, IGF-1 receptor, RB1, Rb2/p130, ARC, and caspase 6 are upregulated in human neuronal cells after treatment with HIV-1 gp120 PubMed
env The binding of HIV-1 gp120 to CD4+-permissive cells increases the level of acetylated alpha-tubulin in a CD4-dependent manner; overexpression of Histone Deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) inhibits the acetylation of alpha-tubulin and prevents HIV-1-cell fusion PubMed
Envelope surface glycoprotein gp160, precursor env Treatment of cells with actin-depolymerizing agents or tubulin polymerization inhibitors largely reduces the percentage of cells with capped HIV-1 Gag and Env, indicating an intact actin and tubulin cytoskeleton is required for efficient assembly of HIV-1 PubMed
Envelope transmembrane glycoprotein gp41 env Expression of HIV-1 gp41 cytoplasmic domain reduces acetylated tubulin alpha and interferes with virus-cell fusion PubMed
Gag-Pol gag-pol Tandem affinity purification and mass spectrometry analysis identify tubulin alpha 4a protein (TUBA4A), HIV-1 Gag, Gag/Pol, gp120, and Nef incorporated into staufen1 RNP complexes isolated from HIV-1-expressing cells PubMed
Nef nef Tandem affinity purification and mass spectrometry analysis identify tubulin alpha 4a protein (TUBA4A), HIV-1 Gag, Gag/Pol, gp120, and Nef incorporated into staufen1 RNP complexes isolated from HIV-1-expressing cells PubMed
Pr55(Gag) gag Tandem affinity purification and mass spectrometry analysis identify tubulin alpha 4a protein (TUBA4A), HIV-1 Gag, Gag/Pol, gp120, and Nef incorporated into staufen1 RNP complexes isolated from HIV-1-expressing cells PubMed
gag Treatment of cells with actin-depolymerizing agents or tubulin polymerization inhibitors largely reduces the percentage of cells with capped HIV-1 Gag and Env, indicating an intact actin and tubulin cytoskeleton is required for efficient assembly of HIV-1 PubMed
Rev rev HIV-1 Rev interacting protein, tubulin alpha 4a (TUBA4A), is identified by the in-vitro binding experiments involving cytosolic or nuclear extracts from HeLa cells PubMed
rev Rev acts to depolymerize microtubules that are formed by tubulin, an effect that is observed during HIV-1 infection PubMed
Tat tat HIV-1 Tat K29A, K50R, and K51R lysine mutations downregulate the proportion of soluble tubulin in cells, while the majority of other lysine mutations upregulate the percentage of soluble tubulin compared with the wild-type PubMed
tat HIV-1 Tat causes a dramatic decrease in alpha-tubulin staining, which indicates disruption of the cytoskeleton organization in human intestinal epithelial cells PubMed
tat HIV-1 Tat (specifically, amino acids 38-72), enhances tubulin polymerization and triggers the mitochondrial pathway to induce T cell apoptosis as shown in vitro by the release of cytochrome c from isolated mitochondria PubMed
tat HIV-1 Tat (amino acids 36-39) binds tubulin alpha/beta dimers and polymerized microtubules leading to the alteration of microtubule dynamics and activation of a mitochondria-dependent apoptotic pathway that is facilitated by the Bcl-2 relative Bim PubMed
integrase gag-pol Co-immunoprecipitation shows interaction of HIV-1 IN with alpha-tubulin PubMed

Go to the HIV-1, Human Interaction Database

Pathways from PubChem

Interactions

Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

General gene information

Markers

Homology

Clone Names

  • FLJ30169

Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

Function Evidence Code Pubs
GTP binding IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
GTPase activity IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
protein binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
protein kinase binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
structural constituent of cytoskeleton IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
Process Evidence Code Pubs
G2/M transition of mitotic cell cycle TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
ciliary basal body-plasma membrane docking TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
microtubule cytoskeleton organization IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
microtubule-based process IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
mitotic cell cycle IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
platelet degranulation TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
regulation of G2/M transition of mitotic cell cycle TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
Component Evidence Code Pubs
cytoplasm IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
cytoskeleton IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
cytosol TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
extracellular exosome HDA PubMed 
extracellular region TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
microtubule IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
microtubule IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
microtubule cytoskeleton IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
 

General protein information

Preferred Names
tubulin alpha-4A chain
Names
tubulin H2-alpha
tubulin alpha-1 chain
tubulin, alpha 1 (testis specific)

NCBI Reference Sequences (RefSeq)

RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

Genomic

  1. NG_029913.1 RefSeqGene

    Range
    4999..9207
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. NM_001278552.1NP_001265481.1  tubulin alpha-4A chain isoform 2

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001265481.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (2) contains an alternate 5' exon, which results in translation initiation at a downstream start codon, compared to variant 1. The resulting isoform (2) has a shorter N-terminus, compared to isoform 1.
    Source sequence(s)
    AK054731, AK299958
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS63131.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P68366
    Related
    ENSP00000375938.2, ENST00000392088.6
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    PTZ00335
    Location:1433
    PTZ00335; tubulin alpha chain; Provisional
  2. NM_006000.3NP_005991.1  tubulin alpha-4A chain isoform 1

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_005991.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (1) encodes the longer isoform (1).
    Source sequence(s)
    AC068946, AK054731, BP346611
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS2438.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P68366
    Related
    ENSP00000248437.4, ENST00000248437.9
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    PTZ00335
    Location:1448
    PTZ00335; tubulin alpha chain; Provisional

RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: Homo sapiens Annotation Release 109.20200522

The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

Reference GRCh38.p13 Primary Assembly

Genomic

  1. NC_000002.12 Reference GRCh38.p13 Primary Assembly

    Range
    219249710..219254608 complement
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. XM_017004824.1XP_016860313.1  tubulin alpha-4A chain isoform X1

    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    cl25946
    Location:1295
    Tubulin; Tubulin/FtsZ family, GTPase domain
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