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TPM4 tropomyosin 4 [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

Gene ID: 7171, updated on 10-Dec-2019

Summary

Official Symbol
TPM4provided by HGNC
Official Full Name
tropomyosin 4provided by HGNC
Primary source
HGNC:HGNC:12013
See related
Ensembl:ENSG00000167460 MIM:600317
Gene type
protein coding
RefSeq status
REVIEWED
Organism
Homo sapiens
Lineage
Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
Also known as
HEL-S-108
Summary
This gene encodes a member of the tropomyosin family of actin-binding proteins involved in the contractile system of striated and smooth muscles and the cytoskeleton of non-muscle cells. Tropomyosins are dimers of coiled-coil proteins that polymerize end-to-end along the major groove in most actin filaments. They provide stability to the filaments and regulate access of other actin-binding proteins. In muscle cells, they regulate muscle contraction by controlling the binding of myosin heads to the actin filament. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2009]
Expression
Ubiquitous expression in gall bladder (RPKM 102.4), urinary bladder (RPKM 100.5) and 25 other tissues See more
Orthologs

Genomic context

See TPM4 in Genome Data Viewer
Location:
19p13.12-p13.11
Exon count:
15
Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
109.20191205 current GRCh38.p13 (GCF_000001405.39) 19 NC_000019.10 (16067507..16103005)
105 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 19 NC_000019.9 (16178317..16213815)

Chromosome 19 - NC_000019.10Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene olfactory receptor family 1 subfamily AB member 1 pseudogene Neighboring gene long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 1855 Neighboring gene RAB8A, member RAS oncogene family Neighboring gene hematopoietic SH2 domain containing Neighboring gene calcium and integrin binding family member 3

Genomic regions, transcripts, and products

Expression

  • Project title: HPA RNA-seq normal tissues
  • Description: RNA-seq was performed of tissue samples from 95 human individuals representing 27 different tissues in order to determine tissue-specificity of all protein-coding genes
  • BioProject: PRJEB4337
  • Publication: PMID 24309898
  • Analysis date: Wed Apr 4 07:08:55 2018

Bibliography

GeneRIFs: Gene References Into Functions

What's a GeneRIF?

Phenotypes

NHGRI GWAS Catalog

Description
A meta-analysis and genome-wide association study of platelet count and mean platelet volume in african americans.
NHGRI GWA Catalog
New gene functions in megakaryopoiesis and platelet formation.
NHGRI GWA Catalog

Pathways from BioSystems

  • Adrenergic signaling in cardiomyocytes, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Adrenergic signaling in cardiomyocytes, organism-specific biosystemCardiac myocytes express at least six subtypes of adrenergic receptor (AR) which include three subtypes of beta-AR (beta-1, beta-2, beta-3) and three subtypes of the alpha-1-AR (alpha-1A, alpha-1B, a...
  • Adrenergic signaling in cardiomyocytes, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Adrenergic signaling in cardiomyocytes, conserved biosystemCardiac myocytes express at least six subtypes of adrenergic receptor (AR) which include three subtypes of beta-AR (beta-1, beta-2, beta-3) and three subtypes of the alpha-1-AR (alpha-1A, alpha-1B, a...
  • Cardiac muscle contraction, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Cardiac muscle contraction, organism-specific biosystemContraction of the heart is a complex process initiated by the electrical excitation of cardiac myocytes (excitation-contraction coupling, ECC). In cardiac myocytes, Ca2+ influx induced by activation...
  • Cardiac muscle contraction, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Cardiac muscle contraction, conserved biosystemContraction of the heart is a complex process initiated by the electrical excitation of cardiac myocytes (excitation-contraction coupling, ECC). In cardiac myocytes, Ca2+ influx induced by activation...
  • Dilated cardiomyopathy, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Dilated cardiomyopathy, organism-specific biosystemDilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a heart muscle disease characterised by dilation and impaired contraction of the left or both ventricles that results in progressive heart failure and sudden cardiac d...
  • Dilated cardiomyopathy, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Dilated cardiomyopathy, conserved biosystemDilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a heart muscle disease characterised by dilation and impaired contraction of the left or both ventricles that results in progressive heart failure and sudden cardiac d...
  • Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), organism-specific biosystemHypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a primary myocardial disorder with an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance that is characterized by hypertrophy of the left ventricles with histological feat...
  • Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), conserved biosystemHypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a primary myocardial disorder with an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance that is characterized by hypertrophy of the left ventricles with histological feat...
  • Muscle contraction, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Muscle contraction, organism-specific biosystemIn this module, the processes by which calcium binding triggers actin - myosin interactions and force generation in smooth and striated muscle tissues are annotated.
  • Smooth Muscle Contraction, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Smooth Muscle Contraction, organism-specific biosystemLayers of smooth muscle cells can be found in the walls of numerous organs and tissues within the body. Smooth muscle tissue lacks the striated banding pattern characteristic of skeletal and cardiac ...
  • Striated Muscle Contraction, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Striated Muscle Contraction, organism-specific biosystemStriated muscle contraction is a process whereby force is generated within striated muscle tissue, resulting in a change in muscle geometry, or in short, increased force being exerted on the tendons....
  • Striated Muscle Contraction, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Striated Muscle Contraction, organism-specific biosystemMuscle contraction is the process where muscle tissue is activated by a signal from the nervous system. In case of voluntary action the nervous signals are initiated from the brain by so called actio...

Interactions

Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

General gene information

Markers

Homology

Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

Function Evidence Code Pubs
actin filament binding IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
actin filament binding ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
calcium ion binding NAS
Non-traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
identical protein binding ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
protein binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
protein heterodimerization activity ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
protein homodimerization activity ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
structural constituent of muscle TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
Process Evidence Code Pubs
actin filament organization IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
muscle contraction TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
muscle filament sliding TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
osteoblast differentiation HDA PubMed 
Component Evidence Code Pubs
actin filament IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
cytoskeleton TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
cytosol TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
extracellular exosome HDA PubMed 
focal adhesion HDA PubMed 
membrane HDA PubMed 
muscle thin filament tropomyosin TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
stress fiber IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 

General protein information

Preferred Names
tropomyosin alpha-4 chain
Names
TM30p1
epididymis secretory protein Li 108

NCBI Reference Sequences (RefSeq)

RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

Genomic

  1. NG_015841.1 RefSeqGene

    Range
    5032..40496
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. NM_001145160.2NP_001138632.1  tropomyosin alpha-4 chain isoform Tpm4.1cy

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001138632.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (Tpm4.1, also known as variant 1) encodes the longest isoform (Tpm4.1cy, also known as isoform 1).
    Source sequence(s)
    AC008894, AK023385
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS46007.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P67936
    Related
    ENSP00000494125.1, ENST00000646974.2
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    pfam00261
    Location:48282
    Tropomyosin; Tropomyosin
  2. NM_001367836.1NP_001354765.1  tropomyosin alpha-4 chain isoform 3

    Status: REVIEWED

    Source sequence(s)
    AC008894
  3. NM_001367837.2NP_001354766.1  tropomyosin alpha-4 chain isoform 4

    Status: REVIEWED

    Source sequence(s)
    AC008894
    Related
    ENSP00000494867.1, ENST00000645471.1
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    pfam00261
    Location:12246
    Tropomyosin
  4. NM_001367838.1NP_001354767.1  tropomyosin alpha-4 chain isoform 5

    Status: REVIEWED

    Source sequence(s)
    AC008894
    Related
    ENSP00000467087.3, ENST00000586833.7
  5. NM_003290.3NP_003281.1  tropomyosin alpha-4 chain isoform Tpm4.2cy

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_003281.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (Tpm4.2, also known as variant 2) differs in the 5' UTR and coding sequence compared to variant Tpm4.1. The resulting isoform (Tpm4.2cy, also known as isoform 2) has a shorter and distinct N-terminus compared to isoform Tpm4.1cy.
    Source sequence(s)
    AC008894, BC037576
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS12338.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P67936
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    V9HW56
    Related
    ENSP00000495347.1, ENST00000643579.2
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    pfam00261
    Location:12246
    Tropomyosin

RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: Homo sapiens Updated Annotation Release 109.

The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

Reference GRCh38.p13 Primary Assembly

Genomic

  1. NC_000019.10 Reference GRCh38.p13 Primary Assembly

    Range
    16067507..16103005
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. XM_006722865.2XP_006722928.1  tropomyosin alpha-4 chain isoform X1

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for XP_006722928.1

    Related
    ENSP00000496648.2, ENST00000647464.2
    Conserved Domains (2) summary
    pfam00261
    Location:48282
    Tropomyosin; Tropomyosin
    pfam16526
    Location:1372
    CLZ; C-terminal leucine zipper domain of cyclic nucleotide-gated channels
  2. XM_024451681.1XP_024307449.1  tropomyosin alpha-4 chain isoform X5

    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    cl26315
    Location:1156
    Tropomyosin_1; Tropomyosin like
  3. XM_011528232.1XP_011526534.1  tropomyosin alpha-4 chain isoform X5

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for XP_011526534.1

    Related
    ENSP00000345230.6, ENST00000344824.11
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    cl26315
    Location:1156
    Tropomyosin_1; Tropomyosin like
  4. XM_017027189.1XP_016882678.1  tropomyosin alpha-4 chain isoform X4

    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    pfam00261
    Location:42243
    Tropomyosin; Tropomyosin
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