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TGFB2 transforming growth factor beta 2 [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

Gene ID: 7042, updated on 6-Jan-2019

Summary

Official Symbol
TGFB2provided by HGNC
Official Full Name
transforming growth factor beta 2provided by HGNC
Primary source
HGNC:HGNC:11768
See related
Ensembl:ENSG00000092969 MIM:190220
Gene type
protein coding
RefSeq status
REVIEWED
Organism
Homo sapiens
Lineage
Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
Also known as
LDS4; G-TSF; TGF-beta2
Summary
This gene encodes a secreted ligand of the TGF-beta (transforming growth factor-beta) superfamily of proteins. Ligands of this family bind various TGF-beta receptors leading to recruitment and activation of SMAD family transcription factors that regulate gene expression. The encoded preproprotein is proteolytically processed to generate a latency-associated peptide (LAP) and a mature peptide, and is found in either a latent form composed of a mature peptide homodimer, a LAP homodimer, and a latent TGF-beta binding protein, or in an active form consisting solely of the mature peptide homodimer. The mature peptide may also form heterodimers with other TGF-beta family members. Disruption of the TGF-beta/SMAD pathway has been implicated in a variety of human cancers. A chromosomal translocation that includes this gene is associated with Peters' anomaly, a congenital defect of the anterior chamber of the eye. Mutations in this gene may be associated with Loeys-Dietz syndrome. This gene encodes multiple isoforms that may undergo similar proteolytic processing. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2016]
Expression
Broad expression in prostate (RPKM 9.5), lung (RPKM 6.3) and 18 other tissues See more
Orthologs

Genomic context

See TGFB2 in Genome Data Viewer
Location:
1q41
Exon count:
8
Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
109 current GRCh38.p12 (GCF_000001405.38) 1 NC_000001.11 (218345284..218444619)
105 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 1 NC_000001.10 (218518676..218617961)

Chromosome 1 - NC_000001.11Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene ribosomal RNA processing 15 homolog Neighboring gene ribosomal protein S26 pseudogene 17 Neighboring gene TGFB2 antisense RNA 1 (head to head) Neighboring gene TGFB2 overlapping transcript 1 Neighboring gene chromosome 1 open reading frame 143 (putative) Neighboring gene uncharacterized LOC105372924

Genomic regions, transcripts, and products

Expression

  • Project title: HPA RNA-seq normal tissues
  • Description: RNA-seq was performed of tissue samples from 95 human individuals representing 27 different tissues in order to determine tissue-specificity of all protein-coding genes
  • BioProject: PRJEB4337
  • Publication: PMID 24309898
  • Analysis date: Wed Apr 4 07:08:55 2018

Bibliography

GeneRIFs: Gene References Into FunctionsWhat's a GeneRIF?

Phenotypes

Associated conditions

Description Tests
Loeys-Dietz syndrome 4
MedGen: C3553762 OMIM: 614816 GeneReviews: Loeys-Dietz Syndrome
Compare labs

NHGRI GWAS Catalog

Description
Genome-wide association and large-scale follow up identifies 16 new loci influencing lung function.
NHGRI GWA Catalog
Genome-Wide Association Identifies Regulatory Loci Associated with Distinct Local Histogram Emphysema Patterns.
NHGRI GWA Catalog
Genome-wide association study identifies three novel susceptibility loci for severe Acne vulgaris.
NHGRI GWA Catalog
Hundreds of variants clustered in genomic loci and biological pathways affect human height.
NHGRI GWA Catalog
Meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies of adult height in East Asians identifies 17 novel loci.
NHGRI GWA Catalog
Risk loci for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a genome-wide association study and meta-analysis.
NHGRI GWA Catalog

HIV-1 interactions

Protein interactions

Protein Gene Interaction Pubs
Tat tat HIV-1 Tat protein permits the survival and replication of a non-pathogenic trypanosomatid in macrophages through TGF-beta production PubMed
tat Transforming growth factor, beta 2 (TGF-beta2) is upregulated by HIV-1 Tat treatment in human epithelial cells PubMed
Vpu vpu Antibodies against TGF-beta or a TGF-beta receptor inhibitor SB431452 reverse Vpu-mediated profibrogenic activation of LX2 cells, suggesting that TGF-beta mediates these effects PubMed
vpu HIV-1 Vpu-expressing U937 monocytes coculture with LX2 stellate cells to activate release of transforming growth factor beta to culture supernatant, which correlates with increased activity of the AP-1 transcription factor PubMed

Go to the HIV-1, Human Interaction Database

Pathways from BioSystems

  • AGE-RAGE signaling pathway in diabetic complications, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    AGE-RAGE signaling pathway in diabetic complications, organism-specific biosystemAdvanced glycation end products (AGEs) are a complex group of compounds produced through the non-enzymatic glycation and oxidation of proteins, lipids and nucleic acids, primarily due to aging and un...
  • AGE-RAGE signaling pathway in diabetic complications, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    AGE-RAGE signaling pathway in diabetic complications, conserved biosystemAdvanced glycation end products (AGEs) are a complex group of compounds produced through the non-enzymatic glycation and oxidation of proteins, lipids and nucleic acids, primarily due to aging and un...
  • ATF-2 transcription factor network, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    ATF-2 transcription factor network, organism-specific biosystem
    ATF-2 transcription factor network
  • Amoebiasis, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Amoebiasis, organism-specific biosystemEntamoeba histolytica, an extracellular protozoan parasite is a human pathogen that invades the intestinal epithelium. Infection occurs on ingestion of contaminated water and food. The pathogenesis o...
  • Amoebiasis, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Amoebiasis, conserved biosystemEntamoeba histolytica, an extracellular protozoan parasite is a human pathogen that invades the intestinal epithelium. Infection occurs on ingestion of contaminated water and food. The pathogenesis o...
  • Cell cycle, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Cell cycle, organism-specific biosystemMitotic cell cycle progression is accomplished through a reproducible sequence of events, DNA replication (S phase) and mitosis (M phase) separated temporally by gaps known as G1 and G2 phases. Cycli...
  • Cell cycle, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Cell cycle, conserved biosystemMitotic cell cycle progression is accomplished through a reproducible sequence of events, DNA replication (S phase) and mitosis (M phase) separated temporally by gaps known as G1 and G2 phases. Cycli...
  • Chagas disease (American trypanosomiasis), organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Chagas disease (American trypanosomiasis), organism-specific biosystemTrypanosoma cruzi is an intracellular protozoan parasite that causes Chagas disease. The parasite life cycle involves hematophagous reduviid bugs as vectors. Once parasites enter the host body, they ...
  • Chagas disease (American trypanosomiasis), conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Chagas disease (American trypanosomiasis), conserved biosystemTrypanosoma cruzi is an intracellular protozoan parasite that causes Chagas disease. The parasite life cycle involves hematophagous reduviid bugs as vectors. Once parasites enter the host body, they ...
  • Chronic myeloid leukemia, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Chronic myeloid leukemia, organism-specific biosystemChronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is a clonal myeloproliferative disorder of a pluripotent stem cell. The natural history of CML has a triphasic clinical course comprising of an initial chronic phase (C...
  • Chronic myeloid leukemia, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Chronic myeloid leukemia, conserved biosystemChronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is a clonal myeloproliferative disorder of a pluripotent stem cell. The natural history of CML has a triphasic clinical course comprising of an initial chronic phase (C...
  • Colorectal cancer, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Colorectal cancer, organism-specific biosystemColorectal cancer (CRC) is the second largest cause of cancer-related deaths in Western countries. CRC arises from the colorectal epithelium as a result of the accumulation of genetic alterations in ...
  • Colorectal cancer, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Colorectal cancer, conserved biosystemColorectal cancer (CRC) is the second largest cause of cancer-related deaths in Western countries. CRC arises from the colorectal epithelium as a result of the accumulation of genetic alterations in ...
  • Cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, organism-specific biosystemCytokines are soluble extracellular proteins or glycoproteins that are crucial intercellular regulators and mobilizers of cells engaged in innate as well as adaptive inflammatory host defenses, cell ...
  • Cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, conserved biosystemCytokines are soluble extracellular proteins or glycoproteins that are crucial intercellular regulators and mobilizers of cells engaged in innate as well as adaptive inflammatory host defenses, cell ...
  • Dilated cardiomyopathy, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Dilated cardiomyopathy, organism-specific biosystemDilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a heart muscle disease characterised by dilation and impaired contraction of the left or both ventricles that results in progressive heart failure and sudden cardiac d...
  • Dilated cardiomyopathy, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Dilated cardiomyopathy, conserved biosystemDilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a heart muscle disease characterised by dilation and impaired contraction of the left or both ventricles that results in progressive heart failure and sudden cardiac d...
  • ECM proteoglycans, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    ECM proteoglycans, organism-specific biosystemProteoglycans are major components of the extracellular matrix. In cartilage the matrix constitutes more than 90% of tissue dry weight. Proteoglycans are proteins substituted with glycosaminoglycans ...
  • Elastic fibre formation, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Elastic fibre formation, organism-specific biosystemElastic fibres (EF) are a major structural constituent of dynamic connective tissues such as large arteries and lung parenchyma, where they provide essential properties of elastic recoil and resilien...
  • Endochondral Ossification, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Endochondral Ossification, organism-specific biosystemEndochondral ossification is the process by which the embryonic cartilaginous model of most bones contributes to longitudinal growth and is gradually replaced by bone. During endochondral ossificatio...
  • Endocytosis, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Endocytosis, organism-specific biosystemEndocytosis is a mechanism for cells to remove ligands, nutrients, and plasma membrane (PM) proteins, and lipids from the cell surface, bringing them into the cell interior. Transmembrane proteins en...
  • Endocytosis, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Endocytosis, conserved biosystemEndocytosis is a mechanism for cells to remove ligands, nutrients, and plasma membrane (PM) proteins, and lipids from the cell surface, bringing them into the cell interior. Transmembrane proteins en...
  • Extracellular matrix organization, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Extracellular matrix organization, organism-specific biosystemThe extracellular matrix is a component of all mammalian tissues, a network consisting largely of the fibrous proteins collagen, elastin and associated-microfibrils, fibronectin and laminins embedded...
  • Extracellular vesicle-mediated signaling in recipient cells, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Extracellular vesicle-mediated signaling in recipient cells, organism-specific biosystemProtein sorting during formation of multivesicular bodies results in packaging of key molecules in exosomes. Exosomes bound-signaling ligands once released from host cells interacts with the receptor...
  • FoxO signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    FoxO signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemThe forkhead box O (FOXO) family of transcription factors regulates the expression of genes in cellular physiological events including apoptosis, cell-cycle control, glucose metabolism, oxidative str...
  • HTLV-I infection, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    HTLV-I infection, organism-specific biosystemHuman T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is a pathogenic retrovirus that is associated with adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL). It is also strongly implicated in non-neoplastic chronic inflammato...
  • HTLV-I infection, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    HTLV-I infection, conserved biosystemHuman T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is a pathogenic retrovirus that is associated with adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL). It is also strongly implicated in non-neoplastic chronic inflammato...
  • Hemostasis, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Hemostasis, organism-specific biosystemHemostasis is a physiological response that culminates in the arrest of bleeding from an injured vessel. Under normal conditions the vascular endothelium supports vasodilation, inhibits platelet adhe...
  • Hepatitis B, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Hepatitis B, organism-specific biosystemHepatitis B virus (HBV) is an enveloped virus and contains a partially double-stranded relaxed circular DNA (RC-DNA) genome. After entry into hepatocytes, HBV RC-DNA is transported to the nucleus and...
  • Hippo signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Hippo signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemHippo signaling is an evolutionarily conserved signaling pathway that controls organ size from flies to humans. In humans and mice, the pathway consists of the MST1 and MST2 kinases, their cofactor S...
  • Hippo signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Hippo signaling pathway, conserved biosystemHippo signaling is an evolutionarily conserved signaling pathway that controls organ size from flies to humans. In humans and mice, the pathway consists of the MST1 and MST2 kinases, their cofactor S...
  • Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), organism-specific biosystemHypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a primary myocardial disorder with an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance that is characterized by hypertrophy of the left ventricles with histological feat...
  • Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), conserved biosystemHypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a primary myocardial disorder with an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance that is characterized by hypertrophy of the left ventricles with histological feat...
  • Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), organism-specific biosystemInflammatory bowel disease (IBD), which includes Crohn disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), is characterized by chronic inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract due to environmental and geneti...
  • Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), conserved biosystemInflammatory bowel disease (IBD), which includes Crohn disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), is characterized by chronic inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract due to environmental and geneti...
  • Leishmaniasis, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Leishmaniasis, organism-specific biosystemLeishmania is an intracellular protozoan parasite of macrophages that causes visceral, mucosal, and cutaneous diseases. The parasite is transmitted to humans by sandflies, where they survive and prol...
  • Leishmaniasis, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Leishmaniasis, conserved biosystemLeishmania is an intracellular protozoan parasite of macrophages that causes visceral, mucosal, and cutaneous diseases. The parasite is transmitted to humans by sandflies, where they survive and prol...
  • MAPK Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    MAPK Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystemThe mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade is a highly conserved module that is involved in various cellular functions, including cell proliferation, differentiation and migration. Mammals e...
  • MAPK signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    MAPK signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemThe mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade is a highly conserved module that is involved in various cellular functions, including cell proliferation, differentiation and migration. Mammals e...
  • MAPK signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    MAPK signaling pathway, conserved biosystemThe mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade is a highly conserved module that is involved in various cellular functions, including cell proliferation, differentiation and migration. Mammals e...
  • Malaria, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Malaria, organism-specific biosystemPlasmodium protozoa are parasites that account for malaria infection. Sporozoite forms of the parasite are injected by mosquito bites under the skin and are carried to the liver where they develop in...
  • Malaria, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Malaria, conserved biosystemPlasmodium protozoa are parasites that account for malaria infection. Sporozoite forms of the parasite are injected by mosquito bites under the skin and are carried to the liver where they develop in...
  • MicroRNAs in cancer, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    MicroRNAs in cancer, organism-specific biosystemMicroRNA (miRNA) is a cluster of small non-encoding RNA molecules of 21 - 23 nucleotides in length, which controls gene expression post-transcriptionally either via the degradation of target mRNAs or...
  • MicroRNAs in cancer, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    MicroRNAs in cancer, conserved biosystemMicroRNA (miRNA) is a cluster of small non-encoding RNA molecules of 21 - 23 nucleotides in length, which controls gene expression post-transcriptionally either via the degradation of target mRNAs or...
  • Molecules associated with elastic fibres, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Molecules associated with elastic fibres, organism-specific biosystemProteins found associated with microfibrils include vitronectin (Dahlback et al. 1990), latent transforming growth factor beta-binding proteins (Kielty et al. 2002, Munger & Sheppard 2011), emilin (B...
  • NRF2 pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    NRF2 pathway, organism-specific biosystemNRF2 is part of a group of transcription factors called nuclear receptors. It is activated under oxidative stress conditions and subsequently activates several antioxidative genes and proteins.
  • Osteoclast differentiation, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Osteoclast differentiation, organism-specific biosystemThe osteoclasts, multinucleared cells originating from the hematopoietic monocyte-macrophage lineage, are responsible for bone resorption. Osteoclastogenesis is mainly regulated by signaling pathways...
  • Osteoclast differentiation, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Osteoclast differentiation, conserved biosystemThe osteoclasts, multinucleared cells originating from the hematopoietic monocyte-macrophage lineage, are responsible for bone resorption. Osteoclastogenesis is mainly regulated by signaling pathways...
  • Pancreatic cancer, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Pancreatic cancer, organism-specific biosystemInfiltrating ductal adenocarcinoma is the most common malignancy of the pancreas. When most investigators use the term 'pancreatic cancer' they are referring to pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA)...
  • Pancreatic cancer, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Pancreatic cancer, conserved biosystemInfiltrating ductal adenocarcinoma is the most common malignancy of the pancreas. When most investigators use the term 'pancreatic cancer' they are referring to pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA)...
  • Pathways in cancer, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Pathways in cancer, organism-specific biosystem
    Pathways in cancer
  • Platelet activation, signaling and aggregation, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Platelet activation, signaling and aggregation, organism-specific biosystemPlatelet activation begins with the initial binding of adhesive ligands and of the excitatory platelet agonists (released or generated at the sites of vascular trauma) to cognate receptors on the pla...
  • Platelet degranulation, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Platelet degranulation, organism-specific biosystemPlatelets function as exocytotic cells, secreting a plethora of effector molecules at sites of vascular injury. Platelets contain a number of distinguishable storage granules including alpha granules...
  • Proteoglycans in cancer, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Proteoglycans in cancer, organism-specific biosystemMany proteoglycans (PGs) in the tumor microenvironment have been shown to be key macromolecules that contribute to biology of various types of cancer including proliferation, adhesion, angiogenesis a...
  • Proteoglycans in cancer, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Proteoglycans in cancer, conserved biosystemMany proteoglycans (PGs) in the tumor microenvironment have been shown to be key macromolecules that contribute to biology of various types of cancer including proliferation, adhesion, angiogenesis a...
  • Regulation of retinoblastoma protein, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    Regulation of retinoblastoma protein, organism-specific biosystem
    Regulation of retinoblastoma protein
  • Renal cell carcinoma, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Renal cell carcinoma, organism-specific biosystemRenal cell cancer (RCC) accounts for ~3% of human malignancies and its incidence appears to be rising. Although most cases of RCC seem to occur sporadically, an inherited predisposition to renal canc...
  • Renal cell carcinoma, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Renal cell carcinoma, conserved biosystemRenal cell cancer (RCC) accounts for ~3% of human malignancies and its incidence appears to be rising. Although most cases of RCC seem to occur sporadically, an inherited predisposition to renal canc...
  • Response to elevated platelet cytosolic Ca2+, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Response to elevated platelet cytosolic Ca2+, organism-specific biosystemActivation of phospholipase C enzymes results in the generation of second messengers of the phosphatidylinositol pathway. The events resulting from this pathway are a rise in intracellular calcium an...
  • Rheumatoid arthritis, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Rheumatoid arthritis, organism-specific biosystemRheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic autoimmune joint disease where persistent inflammation affects bone remodeling leading to progressive bone destruction. In RA, abnormal activation of the immune...
  • Rheumatoid arthritis, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Rheumatoid arthritis, conserved biosystemRheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic autoimmune joint disease where persistent inflammation affects bone remodeling leading to progressive bone destruction. In RA, abnormal activation of the immune...
  • Signaling events mediated by the Hedgehog family, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    Signaling events mediated by the Hedgehog family, organism-specific biosystem
    Signaling events mediated by the Hedgehog family
  • TGF-beta signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    TGF-beta signaling, organism-specific biosystemFunctional set; Cellular processes; Cell signaling
  • TGF-beta signaling, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    TGF-beta signaling, conserved biosystemFunctional set; Cellular processes; Cell signaling
  • TGF-beta signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    TGF-beta signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemThe transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) family members, which include TGF-betas, activins and bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), are structurally related secreted cytokines found in species r...
  • TGF-beta signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    TGF-beta signaling pathway, conserved biosystemThe transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) family members, which include TGF-betas, activins and bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), are structurally related secreted cytokines found in species r...
  • Toxoplasmosis, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Toxoplasmosis, organism-specific biosystemToxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular parasite that is prevalent worldwide. The tachyzoite form acquired by oral ingestion downmodulates proinflammatory signaling pathways via various mechan...
  • Toxoplasmosis, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Toxoplasmosis, conserved biosystemToxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular parasite that is prevalent worldwide. The tachyzoite form acquired by oral ingestion downmodulates proinflammatory signaling pathways via various mechan...
  • Tuberculosis, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Tuberculosis, organism-specific biosystemTuberculosis, or TB, is an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. One third of the world's population is thought to be infected with TB. About 90% of those infected result in latent...
  • Tuberculosis, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Tuberculosis, conserved biosystemTuberculosis, or TB, is an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. One third of the world's population is thought to be infected with TB. About 90% of those infected result in latent...
  • p38 MAPK Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    p38 MAPK Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystemp38 MAPKs are members of the MAPK family that are activated by a variety of environmental stresses and inflammatory cytokines. Stress signals are delivered to this cascade by members of small GTPases...

Interactions

Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

General gene information

Markers

Homology

Clone Names

  • MGC116892

Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

Function Evidence Code Pubs
amyloid-beta binding IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
cytokine activity IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
cytokine activity TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
growth factor activity IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
protein binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
protein heterodimerization activity TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
protein homodimerization activity IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
signaling receptor binding IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
transforming growth factor beta receptor binding IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
transforming growth factor beta receptor binding IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
type II transforming growth factor beta receptor binding IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
type II transforming growth factor beta receptor binding IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
type II transforming growth factor beta receptor binding IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
type II transforming growth factor beta receptor binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
type III transforming growth factor beta receptor binding IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
type III transforming growth factor beta receptor binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
Process Evidence Code Pubs
SMAD protein signal transduction IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
SMAD protein signal transduction IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
activation of protein kinase activity IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
angiogenesis TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
ascending aorta morphogenesis ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
atrial septum morphogenesis ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
atrial septum primum morphogenesis ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
atrioventricular valve morphogenesis ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
cardiac epithelial to mesenchymal transition IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
cardiac muscle cell proliferation IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
cardiac right ventricle morphogenesis ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
cardioblast differentiation IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
cell cycle arrest IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
cell death IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
cell development IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
cell migration IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
cell morphogenesis IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
cell proliferation TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
cell-cell junction organization IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
cell-cell signaling TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
collagen fibril organization IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
cranial skeletal system development ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
dopamine biosynthetic process ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
embryo development ending in birth or egg hatching TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
embryonic digestive tract development IEP
Inferred from Expression Pattern
more info
PubMed 
embryonic limb morphogenesis ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
endocardial cushion fusion ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
endocardial cushion morphogenesis ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
epithelial to mesenchymal transition IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
epithelial to mesenchymal transition TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
extrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
eye development IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
generation of neurons TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
glial cell migration IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
hair follicle development IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
hair follicle development ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
hair follicle morphogenesis ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
heart development IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
heart morphogenesis IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
heart valve morphogenesis ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
hemopoiesis ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
inner ear development ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
kidney development ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
male gonad development ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
membranous septum morphogenesis ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
negative regulation of Ras protein signal transduction ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
negative regulation of alkaline phosphatase activity IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of angiogenesis IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of cell growth IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of cell proliferation IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of epithelial cell proliferation IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of epithelial cell proliferation IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of epithelial to mesenchymal transition involved in endocardial cushion formation ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
negative regulation of gene expression IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of immune response TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of macrophage cytokine production IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
neural retina development ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
neural tube closure ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
neuron development ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
neutrophil chemotaxis ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
neutrophil chemotaxis TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
odontogenesis NAS
Non-traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
outflow tract septum morphogenesis ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
pathway-restricted SMAD protein phosphorylation IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
pharyngeal arch artery morphogenesis ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
platelet degranulation TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
positive regulation of Notch signaling pathway IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of cardioblast differentiation IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of cell adhesion mediated by integrin IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of cell cycle ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
positive regulation of cell division IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
positive regulation of cell growth IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of cell proliferation IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of epithelial cell migration IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of epithelial to mesenchymal transition IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of epithelial to mesenchymal transition involved in endocardial cushion formation ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
positive regulation of heart contraction IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of immune response ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
positive regulation of integrin biosynthetic process IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of neuron apoptotic process IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of ossification IEP
Inferred from Expression Pattern
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of pathway-restricted SMAD protein phosphorylation IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of pri-miRNA transcription by RNA polymerase II IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of protein secretion IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of stress-activated MAPK cascade IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of timing of catagen IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
protein phosphorylation IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
pulmonary valve morphogenesis ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
regulation of MAPK cascade IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
regulation of apoptotic process IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
regulation of apoptotic process involved in outflow tract morphogenesis ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
regulation of cell proliferation IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
NOT regulation of complement-dependent cytotoxicity IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
regulation of signaling receptor activity IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
regulation of timing of catagen IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
regulation of transforming growth factor beta2 production IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
response to drug IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
response to hypoxia IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
response to progesterone IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
response to wounding IEP
Inferred from Expression Pattern
more info
PubMed 
salivary gland morphogenesis IEP
Inferred from Expression Pattern
more info
PubMed 
secondary palate development ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
skeletal system development ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
somatic stem cell division ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
substantia propria of cornea development ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
transforming growth factor beta receptor signaling pathway IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
transforming growth factor beta receptor signaling pathway IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
uterine wall breakdown TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
uterus development ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
ventricular septum morphogenesis ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
ventricular trabecula myocardium morphogenesis ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
wound healing ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
Component Evidence Code Pubs
axon ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
collagen-containing extracellular matrix IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
extracellular region IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
extracellular region TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
extracellular space IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
extracellular space IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
neuronal cell body ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
platelet alpha granule lumen TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 

General protein information

Preferred Names
transforming growth factor beta-2 proprotein
Names
BSC-1 cell growth inhibitor
cetermin
glioblastoma-derived T-cell suppressor factor
polyergin
prepro-transforming growth factor beta-2

NCBI Reference Sequences (RefSeq)

RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

Genomic

  1. NG_027721.2 RefSeqGene

    Range
    4951..104286
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. NM_001135599.3NP_001129071.1  transforming growth factor beta-2 proprotein isoform 1 precursor

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001129071.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (1) represents the longest transcript and encodes the longer isoform (1). This isoform (1) may undergo proteolytic processing similar to isoform 2.
    Source sequence(s)
    AB209842, AC096638, BX098793, M19154
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS44318.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P61812
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    Q59EG9
    Related
    ENSP00000355896.4, ENST00000366929.4
    Conserved Domains (2) summary
    pfam00019
    Location:345441
    TGF_beta; Transforming growth factor beta like domain
    pfam00688
    Location:21256
    TGFb_propeptide; TGF-beta propeptide
  2. NM_003238.5NP_003229.1  transforming growth factor beta-2 proprotein isoform 2 preproprotein

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_003229.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (2) lacks an in-frame exon in the 5' coding region compared to variant 1. The resulting isoform (2) is shorter than isoform 1.
    Source sequence(s)
    AB209842, AC096638, BC096235, BX098793
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS1521.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P61812
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    Q59EG9
    Related
    ENSP00000355897.4, ENST00000366930.8
    Conserved Domains (2) summary
    pfam00019
    Location:317413
    TGF_beta; Transforming growth factor beta like domain
    pfam00688
    Location:21228
    TGFb_propeptide; TGF-beta propeptide

RNA

  1. NR_138148.1 RNA Sequence

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (3) lacks an internal exon and uses an alternate splice site in an internal exon compared to variant 1. This variant is represented as non-coding because the use of the 5'-most expected translational start codon renders the transcript a candidate for nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD).
    Source sequence(s)
    AB209842, AC096638, BC096236, BX098793, M19154
  2. NR_138149.1 RNA Sequence

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (4) uses an alternate splice site in an internal exon compared to variant 1. This variant is represented as non-coding because the use of the 5'-most expected translational start codon renders the transcript a candidate for nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD).
    Source sequence(s)
    AB209842, AC096638, AK295671, BX098793, M19154

RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: Homo sapiens Annotation Release 109

The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

Reference GRCh38.p12 Primary Assembly

Genomic

  1. NC_000001.11 Reference GRCh38.p12 Primary Assembly

    Range
    218345284..218444619
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)
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