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TGFB1 transforming growth factor beta 1 [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

Gene ID: 7040, updated on 11-Sep-2019

Summary

Official Symbol
TGFB1provided by HGNC
Official Full Name
transforming growth factor beta 1provided by HGNC
Primary source
HGNC:HGNC:11766
See related
Ensembl:ENSG00000105329 MIM:190180
Gene type
protein coding
RefSeq status
REVIEWED
Organism
Homo sapiens
Lineage
Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
Also known as
CED; LAP; DPD1; TGFB; IBDIMDE; TGFbeta; TGF-beta1
Summary
This gene encodes a secreted ligand of the TGF-beta (transforming growth factor-beta) superfamily of proteins. Ligands of this family bind various TGF-beta receptors leading to recruitment and activation of SMAD family transcription factors that regulate gene expression. The encoded preproprotein is proteolytically processed to generate a latency-associated peptide (LAP) and a mature peptide, and is found in either a latent form composed of a mature peptide homodimer, a LAP homodimer, and a latent TGF-beta binding protein, or in an active form consisting solely of the mature peptide homodimer. The mature peptide may also form heterodimers with other TGFB family members. This encoded protein regulates cell proliferation, differentiation and growth, and can modulate expression and activation of other growth factors including interferon gamma and tumor necrosis factor alpha. This gene is frequently upregulated in tumor cells, and mutations in this gene result in Camurati-Engelmann disease. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2016]
Expression
Broad expression in spleen (RPKM 38.0), bone marrow (RPKM 32.1) and 23 other tissues See more
Orthologs

Genomic context

See TGFB1 in Genome Data Viewer
Location:
19q13.2
Exon count:
7
Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
109.20190905 current GRCh38.p13 (GCF_000001405.39) 19 NC_000019.10 (41330323..41353922, complement)
105 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 19 NC_000019.9 (41836812..41859831, complement)

Chromosome 19 - NC_000019.10Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein U like 1 Neighboring gene RNA, 7SL, cytoplasmic 34, pseudogene Neighboring gene uncharacterized LOC105372401 Neighboring gene coiled-coil domain containing 97 Neighboring gene B9 domain containing 2 Neighboring gene transmembrane protein 91 Neighboring gene exosome component 5

Genomic regions, transcripts, and products

Expression

  • Project title: HPA RNA-seq normal tissues
  • Description: RNA-seq was performed of tissue samples from 95 human individuals representing 27 different tissues in order to determine tissue-specificity of all protein-coding genes
  • BioProject: PRJEB4337
  • Publication: PMID 24309898
  • Analysis date: Wed Apr 4 07:08:55 2018

Bibliography

GeneRIFs: Gene References Into Functions

What's a GeneRIF?

Phenotypes

NHGRI GWAS Catalog

Description
Genome-wide meta-analysis identifies new susceptibility loci for migraine.
NHGRI GWA Catalog
Large-scale genetic study in East Asians identifies six new loci associated with colorectal cancer risk.
NHGRI GWA Catalog

HIV-1 interactions

Replication interactions

Interaction Pubs
HIV-1 replication is restricted by TGFB1 and SMAD2 in Langerhans cells PubMed

Protein interactions

Protein Gene Interaction Pubs
Envelope surface glycoprotein gp120 env Recombinant HIV-1 Env (gp120) induces high levels of TGFB1 mRNA expression in CD34+ hematopoietic progenitor cells PubMed
env HIV-1 gp120-induced downregulation of CD80 and upregulation of FCRL4 involve the TGF-beta1 signaling pathway in human B cells PubMed
env Inactivated HIV or gp120 increases HCV replication and enhances HCV-regulated transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1 expression PubMed
env HIV-1 gp120-induced apoptosis in human proximal renal tubular cells is significantly enhanced by p300, and Smad7 and an anti-TGF-beta antibody inhibit this effect of p300 PubMed
env HIV-1 gp120 and p300 synergistically increase TGF-beta, ATF-2 and activating protein-1 (AP-1) expression leading to tubular cell apoptosis; in addition, HIV-1 gp120 treatment causes phosphorylation of Smad2 and downregulation of c-Jun PubMed
env HIV-1 gp120-mediated suppression of CD34+ cell growth is entirely due to an upregulation of endogenous TGF-beta 1 PubMed
Envelope surface glycoprotein gp160, precursor env HIV-1 gp160 induces TGF-beta production in human PBMC PubMed
env HIV-1 gp160 and serum-free macrophage supernatant (MSP) enhance synthesis of type IV collagen by mesangial cells; anti-TGF-beta antibodies attenuate this gp160/MSP-induced collagen synthesis PubMed
Tat tat Primary human Muller glia cells treated with both HIV-1 clade B and clade C Tat upregulate the expression of anti-inflammatory proteins IL-10 and TGF-beta PubMed
tat HIV-1 Tat protein permits the survival and replication of a non-pathogenic trypanosomatid in macrophages through TGF-beta1 production PubMed
tat HIV-1 Tat binds to GLI2 and GLI2 binds to the human TGFB1 promoter, suggesting a potential mechanism for TGFB1 induction in HIV-1 infection PubMed
tat HIV-1 Tat and TGF-beta secretion enhance parasite entry in human macrophages by upregulating surface expression of CD91/LRP-1 PubMed
tat TGF-beta inhibits/down-modulates HIV-1 Tat-induced IL-8 production PubMed
tat HIV-1 Tat upregulation of TGF-beta 1 is likely involved in the regulation of MCP-1 transcription by Tat and the interactions of Tat with Smad-3 and Smad-4, two transcription factors whose activities are induced by the TGF-beta 1 pathway PubMed
tat HIV-1 Tat upregulates TGF-beta 1 expression in a manner involving IL-6, an effect mediated by Tat amino acids 1-48 and potentially associated with immunosuppression, nephropathy, hematopoietic suppression and glomerulosclerosis PubMed
Vpr vpr HIV-1 Vpr impairs NK cell function through cytokine dysregulation, including diminshed expression of CD107a, reduced production of IFN-gamma, differential regulation of IL-12 and TGF-beta, and activation of the Smad3 signalling pathway PubMed
Vpu vpu Antibodies against TGF-beta or a TGF-beta receptor inhibitor SB431452 reverse Vpu-mediated profibrogenic activation of LX2 cells, suggesting that TGF-beta mediates these effects PubMed
vpu HIV-1 Vpu-expressing U937 monocytes coculture with LX2 stellate cells to activate release of transforming growth factor beta to culture supernatant, which correlates with increased activity of the AP-1 transcription factor PubMed
capsid gag Treatment of monocyte-derived dendritic cells with TGF-beta1 significantly enhances their ability to capture HIV-1 particles measured by p24 levels in cells PubMed
gag Transforming growth factor-beta1 is involved in the enhanced expression of HIV-1 by nicotine, as measured by p24 antigen levels in culture supernatants PubMed

Go to the HIV-1, Human Interaction Database

Pathways from BioSystems

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  • Endocytosis, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
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  • Hemostasis, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
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  • MAPK signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
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    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), organism-specific biosystemNon-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) represents a spectrum ranging from simple steatosis to more severe steatohepatitis with hepatic inflammation and fibrosis, known as nonalcoholic steatohepati...
  • Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), conserved biosystemNon-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) represents a spectrum ranging from simple steatosis to more severe steatohepatitis with hepatic inflammation and fibrosis, known as nonalcoholic steatohepati...
  • Non-integrin membrane-ECM interactions, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Non-integrin membrane-ECM interactions, organism-specific biosystemSeveral non-integrin membrane proteins interact with extracellular matrix proteins. Transmembrane proteoglycans may associate with integrins and growth factor receptors to influence their function, o...
  • Osteoclast differentiation, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Osteoclast differentiation, organism-specific biosystemThe osteoclasts, multinucleared cells originating from the hematopoietic monocyte-macrophage lineage, are responsible for bone resorption. Osteoclastogenesis is mainly regulated by signaling pathways...
  • Osteoclast differentiation, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Osteoclast differentiation, conserved biosystemThe osteoclasts, multinucleared cells originating from the hematopoietic monocyte-macrophage lineage, are responsible for bone resorption. Osteoclastogenesis is mainly regulated by signaling pathways...
  • Pancreatic cancer, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Pancreatic cancer, organism-specific biosystemInfiltrating ductal adenocarcinoma is the most common malignancy of the pancreas. When most investigators use the term 'pancreatic cancer' they are referring to pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA)...
  • Pancreatic cancer, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Pancreatic cancer, conserved biosystemInfiltrating ductal adenocarcinoma is the most common malignancy of the pancreas. When most investigators use the term 'pancreatic cancer' they are referring to pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA)...
  • Pathways in cancer, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Pathways in cancer, organism-specific biosystem
    Pathways in cancer
  • Platelet activation, signaling and aggregation, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Platelet activation, signaling and aggregation, organism-specific biosystemPlatelet activation begins with the initial binding of adhesive ligands and of the excitatory platelet agonists (released or generated at the sites of vascular trauma) to cognate receptors on the pla...
  • Platelet degranulation, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Platelet degranulation, organism-specific biosystemPlatelets function as exocytotic cells, secreting a plethora of effector molecules at sites of vascular injury. Platelets contain a number of distinguishable storage granules including alpha granules...
  • Post-translational protein modification, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Post-translational protein modification, organism-specific biosystemAfter translation, many newly formed proteins undergo further covalent modifications that alter their functional properties and that are essentially irreversible under physiological conditions in the...
  • Primary Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis FSGS, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Primary Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis FSGS, organism-specific biosystemPrimary or idiopathic focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) a cause of nephrotic syndrome in children and adolescents, as well as an important cause of end stage renal disease in adults. FSGS is ...
  • Proteoglycans in cancer, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Proteoglycans in cancer, organism-specific biosystemMany proteoglycans (PGs) in the tumor microenvironment have been shown to be key macromolecules that contribute to biology of various types of cancer including proliferation, adhesion, angiogenesis a...
  • Proteoglycans in cancer, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Proteoglycans in cancer, conserved biosystemMany proteoglycans (PGs) in the tumor microenvironment have been shown to be key macromolecules that contribute to biology of various types of cancer including proliferation, adhesion, angiogenesis a...
  • RXR and RAR heterodimerization with other nuclear receptor, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    RXR and RAR heterodimerization with other nuclear receptor, organism-specific biosystem
    RXR and RAR heterodimerization with other nuclear receptor
  • Regulation of Telomerase, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    Regulation of Telomerase, organism-specific biosystem
    Regulation of Telomerase
  • Renal cell carcinoma, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Renal cell carcinoma, organism-specific biosystemRenal cell cancer (RCC) accounts for ~3% of human malignancies and its incidence appears to be rising. Although most cases of RCC seem to occur sporadically, an inherited predisposition to renal canc...
  • Renal cell carcinoma, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Renal cell carcinoma, conserved biosystemRenal cell cancer (RCC) accounts for ~3% of human malignancies and its incidence appears to be rising. Although most cases of RCC seem to occur sporadically, an inherited predisposition to renal canc...
  • Response to elevated platelet cytosolic Ca2+, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Response to elevated platelet cytosolic Ca2+, organism-specific biosystemActivation of phospholipase C enzymes results in the generation of second messengers of the phosphatidylinositol pathway. The events resulting from this pathway are a rise in intracellular calcium an...
  • Rheumatoid arthritis, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Rheumatoid arthritis, organism-specific biosystemRheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic autoimmune joint disease where persistent inflammation affects bone remodeling leading to progressive bone destruction. In RA, abnormal activation of the immune...
  • Rheumatoid arthritis, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Rheumatoid arthritis, conserved biosystemRheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic autoimmune joint disease where persistent inflammation affects bone remodeling leading to progressive bone destruction. In RA, abnormal activation of the immune...
  • SMAD2/3 MH2 Domain Mutants in Cancer, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    SMAD2/3 MH2 Domain Mutants in Cancer, organism-specific biosystemMutations in the MH2 domain of SMAD2 and SMAD3 affect their ability to form heterotrimers with SMAD4, thereby impairing TGF-beta signaling (Fleming et al. 2013).The SMAD2 and SMAD3 MH2 domain residue...
  • SMAD2/3 Phosphorylation Motif Mutants in Cancer, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    SMAD2/3 Phosphorylation Motif Mutants in Cancer, organism-specific biosystemThe conserved phosphorylation motif Ser-Ser-X-Ser at the C-terminus of SMAD2 and SMAD3 is subject to disruptive mutations in cancer. The last two serine residues in this conserved motif, namely Ser46...
  • Senescence and Autophagy in Cancer, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Senescence and Autophagy in Cancer, organism-specific biosystemSenescense and Autophagy Pathways in Cancer
  • Signal Transduction, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signal Transduction, organism-specific biosystemSignal transduction is a process in which extracellular signals elicit changes in cell state and activity. Transmembrane receptors sense changes in the cellular environment by binding ligands, such a...
  • Signaling by Interleukins, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signaling by Interleukins, organism-specific biosystemInterleukins are low molecular weight proteins that bind to cell surface receptors and act in an autocrine and/or paracrine fashion. They were first identified as factors produced by leukocytes but a...
  • Signaling by TGF-beta Receptor Complex, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signaling by TGF-beta Receptor Complex, organism-specific biosystemThe TGF-beta/BMP pathway incorporates several signaling pathways that share most, but not all, components of a central signal transduction engine. The general signaling scheme is rather simple: upon ...
  • Signaling by TGF-beta Receptor Complex in Cancer, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signaling by TGF-beta Receptor Complex in Cancer, organism-specific biosystemSignaling by the TGF-beta receptor complex is tumor suppressive, as it inhibits cell growth and promotes cell differentiation and apoptosis (Shipley et al. 1986, Hannon et al. 1994, Datto et al. 1995...
  • Simplified Interaction Map Between LOXL4 and Oxidative Stress Pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Simplified Interaction Map Between LOXL4 and Oxidative Stress Pathway, organism-specific biosystemThis pathway Involved in chemo-resistance of cells in bladder cancer begins with LOXL2 activation of CDC37 and COL2A1. COL2A1 activates the complex NRF1/2 and two other complexes that trigger RTK/MAP...
  • Spinal Cord Injury, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Spinal Cord Injury, organism-specific biosystemThis pathway provides an overview of cell types, therapeutic targets, drugs, new proposed targets and pathways implicated in spinal cord injury. Spinal cord injury is a complex multistep process that...
  • Syndecan interactions, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Syndecan interactions, organism-specific biosystemSyndecans are type I transmembrane proteins, with an N-terminal ectodomain that contains several consensus sequences for glycosaminoglycan (GAG) attachment and a short C-terminal cytoplasmic domain. ...
  • Syndecan-1-mediated signaling events, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    Syndecan-1-mediated signaling events, organism-specific biosystem
    Syndecan-1-mediated signaling events
  • Syndecan-2-mediated signaling events, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    Syndecan-2-mediated signaling events, organism-specific biosystem
    Syndecan-2-mediated signaling events
  • T-Cell antigen Receptor (TCR) Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    T-Cell antigen Receptor (TCR) Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystemThe T-cell antigen receptor (TCR) complex is composed of a ligand-binding subunit, the ? and ? chains, and a signaling subunit, namely the CD3?, ? and ? chains and the TCR? chain. This complex partic...
  • TFs Regulate miRNAs related to cardiac hypertrophy, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    TFs Regulate miRNAs related to cardiac hypertrophy, organism-specific biosystemTranscription Factors that possibly regulate the expression of microRNAs related to cardiac hypertrophy. Interactions found by using TransMir. MicroRNAs are represented by a purple color and a rounde...
  • TGF-B Signaling in Thyroid Cells for Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    TGF-B Signaling in Thyroid Cells for Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition, organism-specific biosystemThis pathway is based on the Figure 7 of "Cadherin 6 Is a New RUNX2 Target in TGF-? Signalling Pathway" (see bibliography). TGF-B is a target gene in thyroid cells in the causation of cancer. When TG...
  • TGF-beta Receptor Signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    TGF-beta Receptor Signaling, organism-specific biosystemThe Transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) signaling pathway is involved in many cellular processes in both the adult organism and the developing embryo including cell growth, cell differentiat...
  • TGF-beta Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    TGF-beta Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystemThe signal transduction mechanisms underlying the pathophysiological activities of transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?) have been extensively studied since its discovery nearly 30 years ago. TGF-? li...
  • TGF-beta receptor signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    TGF-beta receptor signaling, organism-specific biosystem
    TGF-beta receptor signaling
  • TGF-beta receptor signaling activates SMADs, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    TGF-beta receptor signaling activates SMADs, organism-specific biosystemBinding of transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF beta 1, i.e. TGFB1) to TGF beta receptor type 2 (TGFBR2) activates TGF beta receptor signaling cascade. TGFB1 is posttranslationally processed by fur...
  • TGF-beta receptor signaling in EMT (epithelial to mesenchymal transition), organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    TGF-beta receptor signaling in EMT (epithelial to mesenchymal transition), organism-specific biosystemIn normal cells and in the early stages of cancer development, signaling by TGF-beta plays a tumor suppressive role, as SMAD2/3:SMAD4-mediated transcription inhibits cell division by downregulating M...
  • TGF-beta signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    TGF-beta signaling, organism-specific biosystemFunctional set; Cellular processes; Cell signaling
  • TGF-beta signaling, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    TGF-beta signaling, conserved biosystemFunctional set; Cellular processes; Cell signaling
  • TGF-beta signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    TGF-beta signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemThe transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) family members, which include TGF-betas, activins and bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), are structurally related secreted cytokines found in species r...
  • TGF-beta signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    TGF-beta signaling pathway, conserved biosystemThe transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) family members, which include TGF-betas, activins and bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), are structurally related secreted cytokines found in species r...
  • TGFBR1 KD Mutants in Cancer, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    TGFBR1 KD Mutants in Cancer, organism-specific biosystemMutations in the kinase domain (KD) of TGF-beta receptor 1 (TGFBR1) have been found in Ferguson-Smith tumor i.e. multiple self-healing squamous epithelioma - MSSE (Goudie et al. 2011), breast cancer ...
  • TGFBR1 LBD Mutants in Cancer, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    TGFBR1 LBD Mutants in Cancer, organism-specific biosystemMutations in the ligand-binding domain (LBD) of TGF-beta receptor 1 (TGFBR1) have been reported as germline mutations in Ferguson-Smith tumor (multiple self-healing squamous epithelioma - MSSE), an a...
  • TGFBR2 Kinase Domain Mutants in Cancer, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    TGFBR2 Kinase Domain Mutants in Cancer, organism-specific biosystemMissense mutations in the kinase domain (KD) of TGF-beta receptor II (TGFBR2) are found in ~20% of microsatellite stable (MSS) colon cancers and make affected tumors resistant to TGF-beta (TGFB1)-med...
  • TGFBR2 MSI Frameshift Mutants in Cancer, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    TGFBR2 MSI Frameshift Mutants in Cancer, organism-specific biosystemThe short adenine repeat in the coding sequence of TGF-beta receptor II (TGFBR2) gene is frequently targeted by loss-of-function frameshift mutations in colon cancers with microsatellite instability ...
  • Th17 cell differentiation, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Th17 cell differentiation, organism-specific biosystemInterleukin (IL)-17-producing helper T (Th17) cells serve as a subset of CD4+ T cells involved in epithelial cell- and neutrophil mediated immune responses against extracellular microbes and in the p...
  • Th17 cell differentiation, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Th17 cell differentiation, conserved biosystemInterleukin (IL)-17-producing helper T (Th17) cells serve as a subset of CD4+ T cells involved in epithelial cell- and neutrophil mediated immune responses against extracellular microbes and in the p...
  • Toxoplasmosis, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Toxoplasmosis, organism-specific biosystemToxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular parasite that is prevalent worldwide. The tachyzoite form acquired by oral ingestion downmodulates proinflammatory signaling pathways via various mechan...
  • Toxoplasmosis, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Toxoplasmosis, conserved biosystemToxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular parasite that is prevalent worldwide. The tachyzoite form acquired by oral ingestion downmodulates proinflammatory signaling pathways via various mechan...
  • Transcriptional regulation of white adipocyte differentiation, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Transcriptional regulation of white adipocyte differentiation, organism-specific biosystemAdipogenesis is the process of cell differentiation by which preadipocytes become adipocytes. During this process the preadipocytes cease to proliferate, begin to accumulate lipid droplets and develo...
  • Tuberculosis, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Tuberculosis, organism-specific biosystemTuberculosis, or TB, is an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. One third of the world's population is thought to be infected with TB. About 90% of those infected result in latent...
  • Tuberculosis, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Tuberculosis, conserved biosystemTuberculosis, or TB, is an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. One third of the world's population is thought to be infected with TB. About 90% of those infected result in latent...
  • UCH proteinases, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    UCH proteinases, organism-specific biosystemDUBs of the Ub C-terminal Hydrolase (UCH) family are thiol proteases that have an N-terminal catalytic domain sometimes followed by C-terminal extensions that mediate protein-protein interactions. Hu...

Interactions

Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

General gene information

Markers

Homology

Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

Function Evidence Code Pubs
antigen binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
cytokine activity IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
cytokine activity TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
enzyme binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
growth factor activity IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
identical protein binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
protein N-terminus binding IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
protein binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
protein heterodimerization activity IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
protein homodimerization activity IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
protein serine/threonine kinase activator activity IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
transforming growth factor beta receptor binding IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
type I transforming growth factor beta receptor binding IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
type I transforming growth factor beta receptor binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
type II transforming growth factor beta receptor binding IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
type II transforming growth factor beta receptor binding IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
type II transforming growth factor beta receptor binding IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
type II transforming growth factor beta receptor binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
type III transforming growth factor beta receptor binding IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
type III transforming growth factor beta receptor binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
Process Evidence Code Pubs
ATP biosynthetic process IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
MAPK cascade IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
Notch signaling pathway IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
SMAD protein complex assembly IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
SMAD protein signal transduction IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
T cell homeostasis IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
adaptive immune response based on somatic recombination of immune receptors built from immunoglobulin superfamily domains IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
aging IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
aortic valve morphogenesis IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
branch elongation involved in mammary gland duct branching IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
cell cycle arrest IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
cell development IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
cell migration IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
cell-cell junction organization IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
cellular calcium ion homeostasis IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
cellular response to dexamethasone stimulus IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
cellular response to insulin-like growth factor stimulus IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
cellular response to ionizing radiation IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
cellular response to mechanical stimulus IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
cellular response to organic cyclic compound IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
cellular response to transforming growth factor beta stimulus IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
cellular response to transforming growth factor beta stimulus IGI
Inferred from Genetic Interaction
more info
PubMed 
chondrocyte differentiation IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
common-partner SMAD protein phosphorylation IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
connective tissue replacement involved in inflammatory response wound healing TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
cytokine-mediated signaling pathway TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
defense response to fungus, incompatible interaction IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
digestive tract development IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
embryonic liver development ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
endoderm development IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
epidermal growth factor receptor signaling pathway IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
epithelial to mesenchymal transition IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
evasion or tolerance of host defenses by virus IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
extracellular matrix assembly IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
extrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
face morphogenesis IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
female pregnancy IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
frontal suture morphogenesis IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
germ cell migration IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
heart development ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
heart valve morphogenesis ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
hematopoietic progenitor cell differentiation IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
hyaluronan catabolic process IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
inflammatory response IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
inner ear development IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
lens fiber cell differentiation IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
leukocyte migration TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
lipopolysaccharide-mediated signaling pathway IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
liver regeneration IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
lymph node development ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
macrophage derived foam cell differentiation IC
Inferred by Curator
more info
PubMed 
mammary gland branching involved in thelarche IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
membrane protein intracellular domain proteolysis IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
mitotic cell cycle checkpoint IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
mononuclear cell proliferation IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
muscle cell cellular homeostasis IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
myelination IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
myeloid dendritic cell differentiation IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
negative regulation of T cell proliferation IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
negative regulation of biomineral tissue development IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of blood vessel endothelial cell migration IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of cell cycle IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of cell differentiation IEP
Inferred from Expression Pattern
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of cell growth IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of cell proliferation IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of cell proliferation IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of cell-cell adhesion IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of cytolysis IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of epithelial cell proliferation IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of epithelial cell proliferation IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of extracellular matrix disassembly IC
Inferred by Curator
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of fat cell differentiation IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of gene expression IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of gene expression IGI
Inferred from Genetic Interaction
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of gene expression ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
negative regulation of gene silencing by miRNA IGI
Inferred from Genetic Interaction
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of hyaluronan biosynthetic process IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of interleukin-17 production IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
negative regulation of macrophage cytokine production IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of mitotic cell cycle IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of myoblast differentiation IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of neuroblast proliferation IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
negative regulation of ossification IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
negative regulation of phagocytosis IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
negative regulation of production of miRNAs involved in gene silencing by miRNA IGI
Inferred from Genetic Interaction
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of protein localization to plasma membrane IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of protein phosphorylation IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of release of sequestered calcium ion into cytosol IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
negative regulation of skeletal muscle tissue development IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
negative regulation of transcription, DNA-templated IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of transforming growth factor beta receptor signaling pathway TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
neural tube closure ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
neural tube development ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
oligodendrocyte development IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
ossification involved in bone remodeling IEP
Inferred from Expression Pattern
more info
PubMed 
osteoclast differentiation IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
pathway-restricted SMAD protein phosphorylation IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
phosphate-containing compound metabolic process IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
platelet degranulation TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
positive regulation of ERK1 and ERK2 cascade IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of MAP kinase activity IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of NAD+ ADP-ribosyltransferase activity IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of NF-kappaB transcription factor activity IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
positive regulation of SMAD protein signal transduction IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of apoptotic process IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
positive regulation of blood vessel endothelial cell migration IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of bone mineralization IEP
Inferred from Expression Pattern
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of branching involved in ureteric bud morphogenesis IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
positive regulation of cardiac muscle cell differentiation IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of cell cycle arrest IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
positive regulation of cell division IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
positive regulation of cell migration IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of cell migration IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of cell proliferation IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of cell proliferation IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of cellular protein metabolic process IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of chemotaxis IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of collagen biosynthetic process IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of collagen biosynthetic process IGI
Inferred from Genetic Interaction
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of collagen biosynthetic process IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of epithelial cell proliferation IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
positive regulation of epithelial to mesenchymal transition IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of epithelial to mesenchymal transition NAS
Non-traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of exit from mitosis IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
positive regulation of extracellular matrix assembly IC
Inferred by Curator
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of fibroblast migration IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of fibroblast proliferation IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
positive regulation of gene expression IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of gene expression IGI
Inferred from Genetic Interaction
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of gene expression IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of gene expression ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
positive regulation of histone acetylation IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
positive regulation of histone deacetylation IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
positive regulation of interleukin-17 production IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of isotype switching to IgA isotypes IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of microglia differentiation ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
positive regulation of mononuclear cell migration IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
positive regulation of odontogenesis IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
positive regulation of pathway-restricted SMAD protein phosphorylation IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of pathway-restricted SMAD protein phosphorylation IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of peptidyl-serine phosphorylation IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of peptidyl-threonine phosphorylation IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of peptidyl-tyrosine phosphorylation IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activity IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of pri-miRNA transcription by RNA polymerase II IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of production of miRNAs involved in gene silencing by miRNA IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of protein complex assembly IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of protein dephosphorylation IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of protein import into nucleus IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of protein kinase B signaling IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of protein localization to nucleus IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of protein phosphorylation IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of protein secretion IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of receptor clustering IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
positive regulation of regulatory T cell differentiation IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
positive regulation of smooth muscle cell differentiation IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
positive regulation of superoxide anion generation IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of transcription regulatory region DNA binding IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of transcription, DNA-templated IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of transcription, DNA-templated ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
positive regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor production TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of vascular permeability IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
protein export from nucleus IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
protein kinase B signaling IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
protein phosphorylation ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
receptor catabolic process IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
regulation of DNA binding ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
regulation of MAPK cascade IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
regulation of SMAD protein signal transduction IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
regulation of actin cytoskeleton reorganization IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
regulation of apoptotic process IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
regulation of binding ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
regulation of blood vessel remodeling IC
Inferred by Curator
more info
PubMed 
regulation of blood vessel remodeling NAS
Non-traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
regulation of branching involved in mammary gland duct morphogenesis IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
regulation of cartilage development IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
regulation of cell migration TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
regulation of cell proliferation IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
NOT regulation of epithelial to mesenchymal transition involved in endocardial cushion formation ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
regulation of interleukin-23 production IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
NOT regulation of pri-miRNA transcription by RNA polymerase II IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
regulation of protein import into nucleus ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
regulation of sodium ion transport IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
regulation of striated muscle tissue development ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
regulation of transforming growth factor beta receptor signaling pathway IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
regulatory T cell differentiation IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
response to cholesterol IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
response to estradiol IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
response to glucose IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
response to hypoxia IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
response to immobilization stress IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
response to laminar fluid shear stress IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
response to progesterone IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
response to salt IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
response to vitamin D IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
response to wounding IEP
Inferred from Expression Pattern
more info
PubMed 
salivary gland morphogenesis IEP
Inferred from Expression Pattern
more info
PubMed 
tolerance induction to self antigen IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
transforming growth factor beta receptor signaling pathway IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
transforming growth factor beta receptor signaling pathway IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
transforming growth factor beta receptor signaling pathway TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
transforming growth factor beta receptor signaling pathway involved in heart development ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
ureteric bud development IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
vasculogenesis ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
ventricular cardiac muscle tissue morphogenesis ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
Component Evidence Code Pubs
Golgi lumen TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
axon IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
blood microparticle HDA PubMed 
cell surface IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
collagen-containing extracellular matrix HDA PubMed 
cytoplasm IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
extracellular matrix ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
extracellular region TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
extracellular space IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
extracellular space IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
colocalizes_with microvillus IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
neuronal cell body IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
nucleus IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
plasma membrane TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
platelet alpha granule lumen TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 

General protein information

Preferred Names
transforming growth factor beta-1 proprotein
Names
TGF-beta-1
latency-associated peptide
prepro-transforming growth factor beta-1
transforming growth factor beta1

NCBI Reference Sequences (RefSeq)

RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

Genomic

  1. NG_013364.1 RefSeqGene

    Range
    5005..28604
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. NM_000660.7NP_000651.3  transforming growth factor beta-1 proprotein preproprotein

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_000651.3

    Status: REVIEWED

    Source sequence(s)
    AC011462, BC000125, BM692012, X02812
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS33031.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P01137
    Related
    ENSP00000221930.4, ENST00000221930.5
    Conserved Domains (2) summary
    smart00204
    Location:293390
    TGFB; Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) family
    pfam00688
    Location:29261
    TGFb_propeptide; TGF-beta propeptide

RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: Homo sapiens Annotation Release 109 details...Open this link in a new tab

The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

Reference GRCh38.p13 Primary Assembly

Genomic

  1. NC_000019.10 Reference GRCh38.p13 Primary Assembly

    Range
    41330323..41353922 complement
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. XM_011527242.2XP_011525544.1  transforming growth factor beta-1 proprotein isoform X1

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for XP_011525544.1

    Conserved Domains (2) summary
    smart00204
    Location:294391
    TGFB; Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) family
    pfam00688
    Location:29262
    TGFb_propeptide; TGF-beta propeptide
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