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RPA2 replication protein A2 [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

Gene ID: 6118, updated on 6-Jan-2019

Summary

Official Symbol
RPA2provided by HGNC
Official Full Name
replication protein A2provided by HGNC
Primary source
HGNC:HGNC:10290
See related
Ensembl:ENSG00000117748 MIM:179836
Gene type
protein coding
RefSeq status
REVIEWED
Organism
Homo sapiens
Lineage
Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
Also known as
REPA2; RPA32; RP-A p32; RP-A p34
Summary
This gene encodes a subunit of the heterotrimeric Replication Protein A (RPA) complex, which binds to single-stranded DNA (ssDNA), forming a nucleoprotein complex that plays an important role in DNA metabolism, being involved in DNA replication, repair, recombination, telomere maintenance, and co-ordinating the cellular response to DNA damage through activation of the ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3-related protein (ATR) kinase. The RPA complex protects single-stranded DNA from nucleases, prevents formation of secondary structures that would interfere with repair, and co-ordinates the recruitment and departure of different genome maintenance factors. The heterotrimeric complex has two different modes of ssDNA binding, a low-affinity and high-affinity mode, determined by which oligonucleotide/oligosaccharide-binding (OB) domains of the complex are utilized, and differing in the length of DNA bound. This subunit contains a single OB domain that participates in high-affinity DNA binding and also contains a winged helix domain at its carboxy terminus, which interacts with many genome maintenance protein. Post-translational modifications of the RPA complex also plays a role in co-ordinating different damage response pathways. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2017]
Expression
Ubiquitous expression in testis (RPKM 29.0), lymph node (RPKM 26.6) and 25 other tissues See more
Orthologs

Genomic context

See RPA2 in Genome Data Viewer
Location:
1p35.3
Exon count:
9
Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
109 current GRCh38.p12 (GCF_000001405.38) 1 NC_000001.11 (27891524..27914797, complement)
105 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 1 NC_000001.10 (28218035..28241255, complement)

Chromosome 1 - NC_000001.11Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene protein phosphatase 1 regulatory subunit 8 Neighboring gene small Cajal body-specific RNA 1 Neighboring gene thymocyte selection associated family member 2 Neighboring gene sphingomyelin phosphodiesterase acid like 3B Neighboring gene XK related 8

Genomic regions, transcripts, and products

Expression

  • Project title: HPA RNA-seq normal tissues
  • Description: RNA-seq was performed of tissue samples from 95 human individuals representing 27 different tissues in order to determine tissue-specificity of all protein-coding genes
  • BioProject: PRJEB4337
  • Publication: PMID 24309898
  • Analysis date: Wed Apr 4 07:08:55 2018

Bibliography

GeneRIFs: Gene References Into FunctionsWhat's a GeneRIF?

HIV-1 interactions

Replication interactions

Interaction Pubs
HIV-1 replication is enhanced by RPA2 in monocyte derived macrophages PubMed
HIV-1 replication is enhanced by RPA2 in PBMCs by influencing the efficiency of reverse transcription PubMed
HIV-1 replication is enhanced by RPA2 (HeLa-CD4 cells and Jurkat T cells) as shown by shRNA-mediated knockdown of RPA2 PubMed
Depletion of RPA2 by shRNA in HIV-1-producing 293T cells inhibits viral infectivity and replication PubMed

Protein interactions

Protein Gene Interaction Pubs
Vif vif HIV-1 Vif-induced G2 delay is inhibited by caffeine and correlates with the activation of RPA-32 protein PubMed
Vpr vpr HIV-1 Vpr complexes with RPA2 via UNG2 to form a trimolecular complex (containing Vpr, UNG2 and RPA2) PubMed
vpr HIV-1 Vpr forms nuclear foci containing VPRBP and partially co-localizes with DNA repair foci components 53BP1 and phosphorylated RPA32 PubMed
vpr HIV-1 Vpr induces phosphorylation of replication protein A (RPA2) at serine 4 and 8 in an ATR-dependent manner PubMed
reverse transcriptase gag-pol Replication protein A and HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein interfere with the strand displacement DNA synthesis of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase by binding to the displaced strand and keeping it away from the newly synthesized strand PubMed

Go to the HIV-1, Human Interaction Database

Pathways from BioSystems

  • Activation of ATR in response to replication stress, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Activation of ATR in response to replication stress, organism-specific biosystemGenotoxic stress caused by DNA damage or stalled replication forks can lead to genomic instability. To guard against such instability, genotoxically-stressed cells activate checkpoint factors that ha...
  • Activation of the pre-replicative complex, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Activation of the pre-replicative complex, organism-specific biosystemIn S. cerevisiae, two ORC subunits, Orc1 and Orc5, both bind ATP, and Orc1 in addition has ATPase activity. Both ATP binding and ATP hydrolysis appear to be essential functions in vivo. ATP binding b...
  • Base Excision Repair, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Base Excision Repair, organism-specific biosystemOf the three major pathways involved in the repair of nucleotide damage in DNA, base excision repair (BER) involves the greatest number of individual enzymatic activities. This is the consequence of ...
  • Cell Cycle, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Cell Cycle, organism-specific biosystem
    Cell Cycle
  • Cell Cycle Checkpoints, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Cell Cycle Checkpoints, organism-specific biosystemA hallmark of the human cell cycle in normal somatic cells is its precision. This remarkable fidelity is achieved by a number of signal transduction pathways, known as checkpoints, which monitor cell...
  • Cell Cycle, Mitotic, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Cell Cycle, Mitotic, organism-specific biosystemThe replication of the genome and the subsequent segregation of chromosomes into daughter cells are controlled by a series of events collectively known as the cell cycle. DNA replication is carried o...
  • Cellular response to heat stress, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Cellular response to heat stress, organism-specific biosystemIn response to exposure to elevated temperature and certain other proteotoxic stimuli (e.g., hypoxia, free radicals) cells activate a number of cytoprotective mechanisms known collectively as "heat s...
  • Cellular responses to stress, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Cellular responses to stress, organism-specific biosystemCells are subject to external molecular and physical stresses such as foreign molecules that perturb metabolic or signaling processes, and changes in temperature or pH. The ability of cells and tissu...
  • Chromosome Maintenance, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Chromosome Maintenance, organism-specific biosystemChromosome maintenance is critical for stable chromosome function in mammalian and other eukaryotic cells. Aspects of telomere maintenance and nucleosome assembly are covered here.
  • DNA Damage Bypass, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    DNA Damage Bypass, organism-specific biosystemIn addition to various processes for removing lesions from the DNA, cells have developed specific mechanisms for tolerating unrepaired damage during the replication of the genome. These mechanisms ar...
  • DNA Damage Response, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    DNA Damage Response, organism-specific biosystemThis is the first pathway out of two pathways which deals with DNA damage response. It has two central gene products (ATM and ATR) which are connected to the sources of DNA damage (in blue). The two ...
  • DNA Double-Strand Break Repair, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    DNA Double-Strand Break Repair, organism-specific biosystemNumerous types of DNA damage can occur within a cell due to the endogenous production of oxygen free radicals, normal alkylation reactions, or exposure to exogenous radiations and chemicals. Double-s...
  • DNA Repair, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    DNA Repair, organism-specific biosystemDNA repair is a phenomenal multi-enzyme, multi-pathway system required to ensure the integrity of the cellular genome. Living organisms are constantly exposed to harmful metabolic by-products, enviro...
  • DNA Replication, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    DNA Replication, organism-specific biosystemStudies in the past decade have suggested that the basic mechanism of DNA replication initiation is conserved in all kingdoms of life. Initiation in unicellular eukaryotes, in particular Saccharomyce...
  • DNA Replication, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    DNA Replication, organism-specific biosystemStudies in the past decade have suggested that the basic mechanism of DNA replication initiation is conserved in all kingdoms of life. Initiation in unicellular eukaryotes, in particular Saccharomyce...
  • DNA Replication Pre-Initiation, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    DNA Replication Pre-Initiation, organism-specific biosystemAlthough, DNA replication occurs in the S phase of the cell cycle, the formation of the DNA replication pre-initiation complex begins during G1 phase.
  • DNA replication, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    DNA replication, organism-specific biosystemA complex network of interacting proteins and enzymes is required for DNA replication. Generally, DNA replication follows a multistep enzymatic pathway. At the DNA replication fork, a DNA helicase (D...
  • DNA replication, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    DNA replication, conserved biosystemA complex network of interacting proteins and enzymes is required for DNA replication. Generally, DNA replication follows a multistep enzymatic pathway. At the DNA replication fork, a DNA helicase (D...
  • DNA strand elongation, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    DNA strand elongation, organism-specific biosystemAccurate and efficient genome duplication requires coordinated processes to replicate two template strands at eucaryotic replication forks. Knowledge of the fundamental reactions involved in replicat...
  • Dual Incision in GG-NER, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Dual Incision in GG-NER, organism-specific biosystemDouble incision at the damaged DNA strand excises the oligonucleotide that contains the lesion from the open bubble. The excised oligonucleotide is ~27-30 bases long. Incision 5' to the damage site, ...
  • Dual incision in TC-NER, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Dual incision in TC-NER, organism-specific biosystemIn transcription-coupled nucleotide excision repair (TC-NER), similar to global genome nucleotide excision repair (GG-NER), the oligonucleotide that contains the lesion is excised from the open bubbl...
  • Extension of Telomeres, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Extension of Telomeres, organism-specific biosystemTelomerase acts as reverse transcriptase in the elongation of telomeres (Smogorzewska and de Lange 2004).
  • Fanconi Anemia Pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Fanconi Anemia Pathway, organism-specific biosystemFanconi anemia (FA) is a genetic disease of genome instability characterized by congenital skeletal defects, aplastic anemia, susceptibility to leukemias, and cellular sensitivity to DNA damaging age...
  • Fanconi anemia pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Fanconi anemia pathway, organism-specific biosystemThe Fanconi anemia pathway is required for the efficient repair of damaged DNA, especially interstrand cross-links (ICLs). DNA ICL is directly recognized by FANCM and associated proteins, that recrui...
  • Fanconi anemia pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Fanconi anemia pathway, conserved biosystemThe Fanconi anemia pathway is required for the efficient repair of damaged DNA, especially interstrand cross-links (ICLs). DNA ICL is directly recognized by FANCM and associated proteins, that recrui...
  • Formation of Incision Complex in GG-NER, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Formation of Incision Complex in GG-NER, organism-specific biosystemAfter the XPC complex and the UV-DDB complex bind damaged DNA, a basal transcription factor TFIIH is recruited to the nucleotide excision repair (NER) site (Volker et al. 2001, Riedl et al. 2003). DN...
  • G1 to S cell cycle control, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    G1 to S cell cycle control, organism-specific biosystemIn the G1 phase there are two types of DNA damage responses, the p53-dependent and the p53-independent pathways. The p53-dependent responses inhibit CDKs through the up-regulation of genes encoding C...
  • G1/S Transition, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    G1/S Transition, organism-specific biosystemCyclin E - Cdk2 complexes control the transition from G1 into S-phase. In this case, the binding of p21Cip1/Waf1 or p27kip1 is inhibitory. Important substrates for Cyclin E - Cdk2 complexes include p...
  • G2/M Checkpoints, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    G2/M Checkpoints, organism-specific biosystemG2/M checkpoints include the checks for damaged DNA, unreplicated DNA, and checks that ensure that the genome is replicated once and only once per cell cycle. If cells pass these checkpoints, they f...
  • G2/M DNA damage checkpoint, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    G2/M DNA damage checkpoint, organism-specific biosystemThroughout the cell cycle, the genome is constantly monitored for damage, resulting either from errors of replication, by-products of metabolism or through extrinsic sources such as ultra-violet or i...
  • Gap-filling DNA repair synthesis and ligation in GG-NER, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Gap-filling DNA repair synthesis and ligation in GG-NER, organism-specific biosystemGlobal genome nucleotide excision repair (GG-NER) is completed by DNA repair synthesis that fills the single stranded gap created after dual incision of the damaged DNA strand and excision of the ~27...
  • Gap-filling DNA repair synthesis and ligation in TC-NER, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Gap-filling DNA repair synthesis and ligation in TC-NER, organism-specific biosystemIn transcription-coupled nucleotide excision repair (TC-NER), similar to global genome nucleotide excision repair (GG-NER), DNA polymerases delta or epsilon, or the Y family DNA polymerase kappa, fil...
  • Gene Expression, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Gene Expression, organism-specific biosystemGene Expression covers the pathways by which genomic DNA is transcribed to yield RNA, the regulation of these transcription processes, and the pathways by which newly-made RNA Transcripts are process...
  • Generic Transcription Pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Generic Transcription Pathway, organism-specific biosystemOVERVIEW OF TRANSCRIPTION REGULATION: Detailed studies of gene transcription regulation in a wide variety of eukaryotic systems has revealed the general principles and mechanisms by which cell- or t...
  • Global Genome Nucleotide Excision Repair (GG-NER), organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Global Genome Nucleotide Excision Repair (GG-NER), organism-specific biosystemThe DNA damage in GG-NER is recognized by the joint action of two protein complexes. The first complex is composed of XPC, RAD23A or RAD23B and CETN2. The second complex, known as the UV-DDB complex,...
  • HDR through Homologous Recombination (HR) or Single Strand Annealing (SSA), organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    HDR through Homologous Recombination (HR) or Single Strand Annealing (SSA), organism-specific biosystemHomology directed repair (HDR) of replication-independent DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) via homologous recombination repair (HRR) or single strand annealing (SSA) requires the activation of ATM fol...
  • HDR through Homologous Recombination (HRR), organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    HDR through Homologous Recombination (HRR), organism-specific biosystemHomology directed repair (HDR) through homologous recombination is known as homologous recombination repair (HRR). HRR occurs after extensive resection of DNA double strand break (DSB) ends, which cr...
  • HDR through Single Strand Annealing (SSA), organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    HDR through Single Strand Annealing (SSA), organism-specific biosystemHomology directed repair (HDR) through single strand annealing (SSA), similar to HDR through homologous recombination repair (HRR), involves extensive resection of DNA double strand break ends (DSBs)...
  • HSF1 activation, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    HSF1 activation, organism-specific biosystemHeat shock factor 1 (HSF1) is a transcription factor that activates gene expression in response to a variety of stresses, including heat shock, oxidative stress, as well as inflammation and infection...
  • Homologous DNA Pairing and Strand Exchange, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Homologous DNA Pairing and Strand Exchange, organism-specific biosystemThe presynaptic phase of homologous DNA pairing and strand exchange begins with the displacement of RPA from 3'-ssDNA overhangs created by extensive resection of DNA double strand break (DSB) ends. R...
  • Homologous recombination, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Homologous recombination, organism-specific biosystemHomologous recombination (HR) is essential for the accurate repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), potentially lethal lesions. HR takes place in the late S-G2 phase of the cell cycle and involves...
  • Homologous recombination, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Homologous recombination, conserved biosystemHomologous recombination (HR) is essential for the accurate repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), potentially lethal lesions. HR takes place in the late S-G2 phase of the cell cycle and involves...
  • Homology Directed Repair, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Homology Directed Repair, organism-specific biosystemHomology directed repair (HDR) of DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) requires resection of DNA DSB ends. Resection creates 3'-ssDNA overhangs which then anneal with a homologous DNA sequence. This homol...
  • Lagging Strand Synthesis, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Lagging Strand Synthesis, organism-specific biosystemDue to the antiparallel nature of DNA, DNA polymerization is unidirectional, and one strand is synthesized discontinuously. This strand is called the lagging strand. Although the polymerase switching...
  • M/G1 Transition, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    M/G1 Transition, organism-specific biosystemFinally, progression out of mitosis and division of the cell into two daughters (cytokinesis) requires the inactivation of Cyclin B - Cdc2 by ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis of Cyclin A and B, which ...
  • Meiosis, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Meiosis, organism-specific biosystemDuring meiosis the replicated chromosomes of a single diploid cell are segregated into 4 haploid daughter cells by two successive divisions, meiosis I and meiosis II. In meiosis I, the distinguishing...
  • Meiotic recombination, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Meiotic recombination, organism-specific biosystemMeiotic recombination exchanges segments of duplex DNA between chromosomal homologs, generating genetic diversity (reviewed in Handel and Schimenti 2010, Inagaki et al. 2010, Cohen et al. 2006). Ther...
  • Mismatch Repair, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Mismatch Repair, organism-specific biosystemThe mismatch repair (MMR) system corrects single base mismatches and small insertion and deletion loops (IDLs) of unpaired bases. MMR is primarily associated with DNA replication and is highly conser...
  • Mismatch repair, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Mismatch repair, organism-specific biosystemDNA mismatch repair (MMR) is a highly conserved biological pathway that plays a key role in maintaining genomic stability. MMR corrects DNA mismatches generated during DNA replication, thereby preven...
  • Mismatch repair, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Mismatch repair, conserved biosystemDNA mismatch repair (MMR) is a highly conserved biological pathway that plays a key role in maintaining genomic stability. MMR corrects DNA mismatches generated during DNA replication, thereby preven...
  • Mismatch repair (MMR) directed by MSH2:MSH3 (MutSbeta), organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Mismatch repair (MMR) directed by MSH2:MSH3 (MutSbeta), organism-specific biosystemMSH2:MSH3 (MutSbeta) binds unpaired loops of 2 or more nucleotides (Palombo et al. 1996, Genschel et al. 1998). Human cells contain about 6-fold more MSH2:MSH6 than MSH2:MSH3 (MutSbeta) and an imbala...
  • Mismatch repair (MMR) directed by MSH2:MSH6 (MutSalpha), organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Mismatch repair (MMR) directed by MSH2:MSH6 (MutSalpha), organism-specific biosystemMSH2:MSH6 (MutSalpha) binds single base mismatches and unpaired loops of 1-2 nucleotides (reviewed in Edelbrock et al. 2013). Human cells contain about 6-fold more MSH2:MSH6 than MSH2:MSH3 (MutSbeta)...
  • Mitotic G1-G1/S phases, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Mitotic G1-G1/S phases, organism-specific biosystem
    Mitotic G1-G1/S phases
  • Nucleotide Excision Repair, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Nucleotide Excision Repair, organism-specific biosystemNucleotide excision repair (NER) was first described in the model organism E. coli in the early 1960s as a process whereby bulky base damage is enzymatically removed from DNA, facilitating the recove...
  • Nucleotide excision repair, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Nucleotide excision repair, organism-specific biosystemNucleotide excision repair (NER) is a mechanism to recognize and repair bulky DNA damage caused by compounds, environmental carcinogens, and exposure to UV-light. In humans hereditary defects in the ...
  • Nucleotide excision repair, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Nucleotide excision repair, conserved biosystemNucleotide excision repair (NER) is a mechanism to recognize and repair bulky DNA damage caused by compounds, environmental carcinogens, and exposure to UV-light. In humans hereditary defects in the ...
  • PCNA-Dependent Long Patch Base Excision Repair, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    PCNA-Dependent Long Patch Base Excision Repair, organism-specific biosystemLong-patch base excision repair (BER) can proceed through PCNA-dependent DNA strand displacement synthesis by replicative DNA polymerases - DNA polymerase delta complex (POLD) or DNA polymerase epsil...
  • Presynaptic phase of homologous DNA pairing and strand exchange, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Presynaptic phase of homologous DNA pairing and strand exchange, organism-specific biosystemThe presynaptic phase of homologous DNA pairing and strand exchange during homologous recombination repair (HRR) begins with the displacement of RPA from ssDNA (Thompson and Limoli 2003) by the joint...
  • Processing of DNA double-strand break ends, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Processing of DNA double-strand break ends, organism-specific biosystemHomology directed repair (HDR) through homologous recombination (HRR) or single strand annealing (SSA) requires extensive resection of DNA double strand break (DSB) ends (Thompson and Limoli 2003, Ci...
  • Processive synthesis on the C-strand of the telomere, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Processive synthesis on the C-strand of the telomere, organism-specific biosystemOnce polymerase switching from pol alpha to pol delta is complete the processive synthesis of a short run of DNA called an Okazaki fragment begins. DNA synthesis is discontinuous and as the extending...
  • Processive synthesis on the lagging strand, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Processive synthesis on the lagging strand, organism-specific biosystemThe key event that allows the processive synthesis on the lagging strand, is polymerase switching from pol alpha to pol delta, as on the leading strand. However, the processive synthesis on the laggi...
  • RPA complex, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    RPA complex, organism-specific biosystemStructural complex; Genetic information processing; Replication system
  • RPA complex, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    RPA complex, conserved biosystemStructural complex; Genetic information processing; Replication system
  • Recognition of DNA damage by PCNA-containing replication complex, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Recognition of DNA damage by PCNA-containing replication complex, organism-specific biosystemDamaged double strand DNA (dsDNA) cannot be successfully used as a template by replicative DNA polymerase delta (POLD) and epsilon (POLE) complexes (Hoege et al. 2002). When the replication complex c...
  • Regulation of HSF1-mediated heat shock response, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Regulation of HSF1-mediated heat shock response, organism-specific biosystemThe ability of HSF1 to respond to cellular stresses is under negative regulation by chaperones, modulation of nucleocytoplasmic shuttling, post-translational modifications and transition from monomer...
  • Regulation of TP53 Activity, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Regulation of TP53 Activity, organism-specific biosystemProtein stability and transcriptional activity of TP53 (p53) tumor suppressor are regulated by post-translational modifications that include ubiquitination, phosphorylation, acetylation, methylation,...
  • Regulation of TP53 Activity through Phosphorylation, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Regulation of TP53 Activity through Phosphorylation, organism-specific biosystemPhosphorylation of TP53 (p53) at the N-terminal serine residues S15 and S20 plays a critical role in protein stabilization as phosphorylation at these sites interferes with binding of the ubiquitin l...
  • Removal of the Flap Intermediate, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Removal of the Flap Intermediate, organism-specific biosystemTwo endonucleases, Dna2 and flap endonuclease 1 (FEN-1), are responsible for resolving the nascent flap structure (Tsurimoto and Stillman 1991). The Dna2 endonuclease/helicase in yeast is a monomer o...
  • Removal of the Flap Intermediate from the C-strand, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Removal of the Flap Intermediate from the C-strand, organism-specific biosystemTwo endonucleases, Dna2 and flap endonuclease 1 (FEN-1), are responsible for resolving the nascent flap structure (Tsurimoto and Stillman 1991). The Dna2 endonuclease/helicase in yeast is a monomer o...
  • Resolution of AP sites via the multiple-nucleotide patch replacement pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Resolution of AP sites via the multiple-nucleotide patch replacement pathway, organism-specific biosystemWhile the single nucleotide replacement pathway appears to facilitate the repair of most damaged bases, an alternative BER pathway is evoked when the structure of the 5'-terminal sugar phosphate is s...
  • Resolution of Abasic Sites (AP sites), organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Resolution of Abasic Sites (AP sites), organism-specific biosystemResolution of AP sites can occur through the single nucleotide replacement pathway or through the multiple nucleotide patch replacement pathway, also known as the long-patch base excision repair (BER...
  • Retinoblastoma (RB) in Cancer, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Retinoblastoma (RB) in Cancer, organism-specific biosystemDescribes the role of retinoblastoma (RB) gene in cancer.
  • S Phase, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    S Phase, organism-specific biosystemDNA synthesis occurs in the S phase, or the synthesis phase, of the cell cycle. The cell duplicates its hereditary material, and two copies of the chromosome are formed. As DNA replication continues,...
  • Synthesis of DNA, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Synthesis of DNA, organism-specific biosystemThe actual synthesis of DNA occurs in the S phase of the cell cycle. This includes the initiation of DNA replication, when the first nucleotide of the new strand is laid down during the synthesis of ...
  • Telomere C-strand (Lagging Strand) Synthesis, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Telomere C-strand (Lagging Strand) Synthesis, organism-specific biosystemDue to the antiparallel nature of DNA, DNA polymerization is unidirectional, and one strand is synthesized discontinuously. This strand is called the lagging strand. Although the polymerase switching...
  • Telomere Maintenance, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Telomere Maintenance, organism-specific biosystemTelomeres are protein-DNA complexes at the ends of linear chromosomes that are important for genome stability. Telomeric DNA in humans, as in many eukaryotic organisms, consists of tandem repeats (B...
  • Termination of translesion DNA synthesis, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Termination of translesion DNA synthesis, organism-specific biosystemThe initiation and extent of translesion DNA synthesis (TLS) has to be tightly controlled in order to limit TLS-induced mutagenesis, caused by the low fidelity of TLS-participating DNA polymerases. S...
  • Transcription-Coupled Nucleotide Excision Repair (TC-NER), organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Transcription-Coupled Nucleotide Excision Repair (TC-NER), organism-specific biosystemDNA damage in transcribed strands of active genes is repaired through a specialized nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway known as transcription-coupled nucleotide excision repair (TC-NER). TC-NER...
  • Transcriptional Regulation by TP53, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Transcriptional Regulation by TP53, organism-specific biosystemThe tumor suppressor TP53 (encoded by the gene p53) is a transcription factor. Under stress conditions, it recognizes specific responsive DNA elements and thus regulates the transcription of many gen...
  • Translesion Synthesis by POLH, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Translesion Synthesis by POLH, organism-specific biosystemDNA polymerase eta (POLH) consists of 713 amino acids and can bypass thymidine-thymidine dimers, correctly adding two dAMPs opposite to the lesion. Mutations in the POLH gene result in the loss of th...
  • Translesion synthesis by POLI, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Translesion synthesis by POLI, organism-specific biosystemDNA polymerase iota (POLI) is a Y family DNA polymerase with an active site that favours Hoogsteen base pairing instead of Watson-Crick base pairing. POLI-mediated Hoogsteen base pairing and rotation...
  • Translesion synthesis by POLK, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Translesion synthesis by POLK, organism-specific biosystemDNA polymerase kappa (POLK) is a Y family DNA polymerase that is most efficient in translesion DNA synthesis (TLS) across oxidation derivatives of DNA bases, such as thymine glycol (Tg) and 8-oxoguan...
  • Translesion synthesis by REV1, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Translesion synthesis by REV1, organism-specific biosystemREV1 (hREV1) encodes a template-dependent dCMP transferase that can insert a C residue opposite an abasic site (Lin et al. 1999, Gibbs et al. 2000). Interaction with monoubiquitinated PCNA at a DNA d...
  • Translesion synthesis by Y family DNA polymerases bypasses lesions on DNA template, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Translesion synthesis by Y family DNA polymerases bypasses lesions on DNA template, organism-specific biosystemUbiquitous environmental and endogenous genotoxic agents cause DNA lesions that can interfere with normal DNA metabolism including DNA replication, eventually resulting in mutations that lead to carc...
  • miRNA Regulation of DNA Damage Response, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    miRNA Regulation of DNA Damage Response, organism-specific biosystemThis is the first out of two pathways which deals with the DNA damage response. It is comprised of two central gene products (ATM and ATR) influenced by different sources of DNA damage (in blue). The...

Interactions

Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

General gene information

Markers

Homology

Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

Function Evidence Code Pubs
G-rich strand telomeric DNA binding IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
G-rich strand telomeric DNA binding IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
damaged DNA binding IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
damaged DNA binding IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
double-stranded DNA binding IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
enzyme binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
protein N-terminus binding IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
protein binding IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
protein binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
protein phosphatase binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
sequence-specific DNA binding IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
single-stranded DNA binding IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
single-stranded DNA binding IC
Inferred by Curator
more info
PubMed 
single-stranded DNA binding IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
single-stranded DNA binding ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
ubiquitin protein ligase binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
Process Evidence Code Pubs
DNA damage response, detection of DNA damage TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
DNA replication IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
DNA replication IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
DNA replication IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
DNA replication TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
DNA topological change IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
DNA unwinding involved in DNA replication IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
G1/S transition of mitotic cell cycle TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
base-excision repair IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
base-excision repair IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
double-strand break repair via homologous recombination IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
double-strand break repair via homologous recombination IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
error-free translesion synthesis TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
error-prone translesion synthesis TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
heteroduplex formation IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
interstrand cross-link repair TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
mismatch repair IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
mismatch repair IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
mitotic G1 DNA damage checkpoint IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
mitotic recombination IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
nucleotide-excision repair IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
nucleotide-excision repair IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
nucleotide-excision repair, DNA gap filling TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
nucleotide-excision repair, DNA incision TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
nucleotide-excision repair, DNA incision, 5'-to lesion TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
nucleotide-excision repair, preincision complex assembly TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
nucleotide-excision repair, preincision complex stabilization TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
positive regulation of helicase activity IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
protein localization to chromosome IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
reciprocal meiotic recombination IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
regulation of DNA damage checkpoint IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
regulation of DNA damage checkpoint IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
regulation of cellular response to heat TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
regulation of double-strand break repair via homologous recombination IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
telomere maintenance IC
Inferred by Curator
more info
PubMed 
telomere maintenance IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
telomere maintenance via recombination IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
telomere maintenance via semi-conservative replication TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
telomere maintenance via telomerase IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
transcription-coupled nucleotide-excision repair TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
translesion synthesis TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
Component Evidence Code Pubs
DNA replication factor A complex IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
DNA replication factor A complex IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
DNA replication factor A complex IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
PML body IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
colocalizes_with PML body IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
chromatin IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
chromatin IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
chromosome, telomeric region IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
colocalizes_with chromosome, telomeric region IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
condensed nuclear chromosome IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
nuclear body IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
 
nuclear chromosome, telomeric region HDA PubMed 
colocalizes_with nucleoplasm IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
nucleoplasm IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
 
nucleoplasm TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
nucleus IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
site of double-strand break IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
colocalizes_with site of double-strand break IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 

General protein information

Preferred Names
replication protein A 32 kDa subunit
Names
RF-A protein 2
replication factor A protein 2
replication protein A 34 kDa subunit

NCBI Reference Sequences (RefSeq)

RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. NM_001286076.1NP_001273005.1  replication protein A 32 kDa subunit isoform 2

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001273005.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (2) uses an alternate splice site in the 5' region and initiates translation at a downstream in-frame start codon, compared to variant 1. The encoded isoform (2) has a shorter N-terminus than isoform 1.
    Source sequence(s)
    AK300691, AL109927, BC001630, BG107669, DB025488
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P15927
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    B4DUL2
    Conserved Domains (2) summary
    cd04478
    Location:471
    RPA2_DBD_D; RPA2_DBD_D: A subfamily of OB folds corresponding to the OB fold of the central ssDNA-binding domain (DBD)-D of human RPA2 (also called RPA32). RPA2 is a subunit of Replication protein A (RPA). RPA is a nuclear ssDNA-binding protein (SSB) which appears ...
    pfam08784
    Location:70166
    RPA_C; Replication protein A C terminal
  2. NM_001297558.1NP_001284487.1  replication protein A 32 kDa subunit isoform 3

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (3) uses an alternate splice site in the 5' region and initiates translation at an alternate upstream start codon, compared to variant 1. The encoded isoform (3) has a distinct N-terminus and is longer than isoform 1.
    Source sequence(s)
    BC001630, BQ006360, BX333932, DB025488
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS72740.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P15927
    Related
    ENSP00000363017.3, ENST00000373909.7
    Conserved Domains (3) summary
    COG5235
    Location:33275
    RFA2; Single-stranded DNA-binding replication protein A (RPA), medium (30 kD) subunit [DNA replication, recombination, and repair]
    cd04478
    Location:81175
    RPA2_DBD_D; RPA2_DBD_D: A subfamily of OB folds corresponding to the OB fold of the central ssDNA-binding domain (DBD)-D of human RPA2 (also called RPA32). RPA2 is a subunit of Replication protein A (RPA). RPA is a nuclear ssDNA-binding protein (SSB) which appears ...
    pfam08784
    Location:174270
    RPA_C; Replication protein A C terminal
  3. NM_001355128.1NP_001342057.1  replication protein A 32 kDa subunit isoform 2

    Status: REVIEWED

    Source sequence(s)
    BC001630, BG107669, BM839986, DB025488
    Conserved Domains (2) summary
    cd04478
    Location:471
    RPA2_DBD_D; RPA2_DBD_D: A subfamily of OB folds corresponding to the OB fold of the central ssDNA-binding domain (DBD)-D of human RPA2 (also called RPA32). RPA2 is a subunit of Replication protein A (RPA). RPA is a nuclear ssDNA-binding protein (SSB) which appears ...
    pfam08784
    Location:70166
    RPA_C; Replication protein A C terminal
  4. NM_001355129.1NP_001342058.1  replication protein A 32 kDa subunit isoform 4

    Status: REVIEWED

    Source sequence(s)
    BC001630, BG107669, CB155053, DB025488
    Conserved Domains (2) summary
    cd04478
    Location:77171
    RPA2_DBD_D; A subfamily of OB folds corresponding to the OB fold of the central ssDNA-binding domain (DBD)-D of human RPA2 (also called RPA32). RPA2 is a subunit of Replication protein A (RPA). RPA is a nuclear ssDNA-binding protein (SSB) which appears to be ...
    cl27871
    Location:29271
    RPA_C; Replication protein A C terminal
  5. NM_002946.5NP_002937.1  replication protein A 32 kDa subunit isoform 1

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_002937.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (1) encodes isoform 1.
    Source sequence(s)
    BC001630, BG107669, DB025488
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS314.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P15927
    Related
    ENSP00000363021.3, ENST00000373912.7
    Conserved Domains (2) summary
    cd04478
    Location:73167
    RPA2_DBD_D; RPA2_DBD_D: A subfamily of OB folds corresponding to the OB fold of the central ssDNA-binding domain (DBD)-D of human RPA2 (also called RPA32). RPA2 is a subunit of Replication protein A (RPA). RPA is a nuclear ssDNA-binding protein (SSB) which appears ...
    cl27871
    Location:25267
    RPA_C; Replication protein A C terminal

RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: Homo sapiens Annotation Release 109

The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

Reference GRCh38.p12 Primary Assembly

Genomic

  1. NC_000001.11 Reference GRCh38.p12 Primary Assembly

    Range
    27891524..27914797 complement
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. XM_024448864.1XP_024304632.1  replication protein A 32 kDa subunit isoform X2

    Conserved Domains (2) summary
    cd04478
    Location:73142
    RPA2_DBD_D; A subfamily of OB folds corresponding to the OB fold of the central ssDNA-binding domain (DBD)-D of human RPA2 (also called RPA32). RPA2 is a subunit of Replication protein A (RPA). RPA is a nuclear ssDNA-binding protein (SSB) which appears to be ...
    pfam08784
    Location:141237
    RPA_C; Replication protein A C terminal
  2. XM_024448862.1XP_024304630.1  replication protein A 32 kDa subunit isoform X1

    Conserved Domains (2) summary
    cd04478
    Location:81150
    RPA2_DBD_D; A subfamily of OB folds corresponding to the OB fold of the central ssDNA-binding domain (DBD)-D of human RPA2 (also called RPA32). RPA2 is a subunit of Replication protein A (RPA). RPA is a nuclear ssDNA-binding protein (SSB) which appears to be ...
    pfam08784
    Location:149245
    RPA_C; Replication protein A C terminal
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