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RLN1 relaxin 1 [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

Gene ID: 6013, updated on 31-Jan-2024


Official Symbol
RLN1provided by HGNC
Official Full Name
relaxin 1provided by HGNC
Primary source
See related
Ensembl:ENSG00000107018 MIM:179730; AllianceGenome:HGNC:10026
Gene type
protein coding
RefSeq status
Homo sapiens
Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
Also known as
H1; H1RLX; RLXH1; bA12D24.3.1; bA12D24.3.2
Relaxins are known endocrine and autocrine/paracrine hormones, belonging to the insulin gene superfamily. In humans there are three non-allelic relaxin genes, RLN1, RLN2 and RLN3, where RLN1 and RLN2 share high sequence homology. The protein encoded by this gene is synthesized as a single-chain polypeptide but the active form consists of an A chain and a B chain linked by disulfide bonds. Relaxin is produced by the ovary, and targets the mammalian reproductive system to ripen the cervix, elongate the pubic symphysis and inhibit uterine contraction. It may have additional roles in enhancing sperm motility, regulating blood pressure, controlling heart rate and releasing oxytocin and vasopressin. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2013]
Biased expression in prostate (RPKM 8.0) and testis (RPKM 0.2) See more
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Genomic context

See RLN1 in Genome Data Viewer
Exon count:
Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
RS_2023_10 current GRCh38.p14 (GCF_000001405.40) 9 NC_000009.12 (5334930..5340916, complement)
RS_2023_10 current T2T-CHM13v2.0 (GCF_009914755.1) 9 NC_060933.1 (5340023..5345993, complement)
105.20220307 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 9 NC_000009.11 (5334930..5339876, complement)

Chromosome 9 - NC_000009.12Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene INSL4 promoter region Neighboring gene NANOG-H3K27ac hESC enhancer GRCh37_chr9:5269083-5269618 Neighboring gene insulin like 4 Neighboring gene H3K27ac-H3K4me1 hESC enhancer GRCh37_chr9:5293254-5293796 Neighboring gene ATAC-STARR-seq lymphoblastoid active region 28157 Neighboring gene NANOG-H3K27ac hESC enhancer GRCh37_chr9:5327251-5327751 Neighboring gene high mobility group nucleosomal binding domain 2 pseudogene 31 Neighboring gene relaxin 2 Neighboring gene plasminogen receptor with a C-terminal lysine Neighboring gene ReSE screen-validated silencer GRCh37_chr9:5418516-5418928 Neighboring gene P300/CBP strongly-dependent group 1 enhancer GRCh37_chr9:5437227-5438426 Neighboring gene ATAC-STARR-seq lymphoblastoid active region 28159 Neighboring gene ring finger protein 152 pseudogene 1 Neighboring gene ATAC-STARR-seq lymphoblastoid active region 28160 Neighboring gene ATAC-STARR-seq lymphoblastoid active region 28161 Neighboring gene uncharacterized LOC124902114 Neighboring gene Sharpr-MPRA regulatory region 9164 Neighboring gene CD274 molecule

Genomic regions, transcripts, and products


  • Project title: HPA RNA-seq normal tissues
  • Description: RNA-seq was performed of tissue samples from 95 human individuals representing 27 different tissues in order to determine tissue-specificity of all protein-coding genes
  • BioProject: PRJEB4337
  • Publication: PMID 24309898
  • Analysis date: Wed Apr 4 07:08:55 2018


GeneRIFs: Gene References Into Functions

What's a GeneRIF?

Pathways from PubChem


Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

General gene information


Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

Function Evidence Code Pubs
enables hormone activity IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
enables protein binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
Process Evidence Code Pubs
involved_in female pregnancy NAS
Non-traceable Author Statement
more info
involved_in signal transduction NAS
Non-traceable Author Statement
more info
Component Evidence Code Pubs
located_in extracellular region IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info

General protein information

Preferred Names
prorelaxin H1
preprorelaxin H1

NCBI Reference Sequences (RefSeq)

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RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. NM_006911.4NP_008842.1  prorelaxin H1 preproprotein

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_008842.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Source sequence(s)
    AI363233, AL135786, AV742436, BC005956
    Consensus CDS
    P04808, Q99936, Q9UQJ1
    ENSP00000223862.1, ENST00000223862.2
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    IlGF_relaxin_like; IlGF_like family, relaxin_like subgroup, specific to vertebrates. Members include a number of active peptides including (pro)relaxin, mammalian Leydig cell-specific insulin-like peptide (gene INSL3), early placenta insulin-like peptide (ELIP; gene INSL4), ...

RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: GCF_000001405.40-RS_2023_10

The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

Reference GRCh38.p14 Primary Assembly


  1. NC_000009.12 Reference GRCh38.p14 Primary Assembly

    5334930..5340916 complement
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. XM_047423706.1XP_047279662.1  prorelaxin H1 isoform X2

  2. XM_047423703.1XP_047279659.1  prorelaxin H1 isoform X1

  3. XM_047423705.1XP_047279661.1  prorelaxin H1 isoform X2

  4. XM_047423704.1XP_047279660.1  prorelaxin H1 isoform X2


Alternate T2T-CHM13v2.0


  1. NC_060933.1 Alternate T2T-CHM13v2.0

    5340023..5345993 complement
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. XM_054363495.1XP_054219470.1  prorelaxin H1 isoform X2

  2. XM_054363492.1XP_054219467.1  prorelaxin H1 isoform X1

  3. XM_054363494.1XP_054219469.1  prorelaxin H1 isoform X2

  4. XM_054363493.1XP_054219468.1  prorelaxin H1 isoform X2