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RAD51D RAD51 paralog D [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

Gene ID: 5892, updated on 8-Dec-2018

Summary

Official Symbol
RAD51Dprovided by HGNC
Official Full Name
RAD51 paralog Dprovided by HGNC
Primary source
HGNC:HGNC:9823
See related
Ensembl:ENSG00000185379 MIM:602954
Gene type
protein coding
RefSeq status
REVIEWED
Organism
Homo sapiens
Lineage
Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
Also known as
TRAD; R51H3; BROVCA4; RAD51L3
Summary
The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the RAD51 protein family. RAD51 family members are highly similar to bacterial RecA and Saccharomyces cerevisiae Rad51, which are known to be involved in the homologous recombination and repair of DNA. This protein forms a complex with several other members of the RAD51 family, including RAD51L1, RAD51L2, and XRCC2. The protein complex formed with this protein has been shown to catalyze homologous pairing between single- and double-stranded DNA, and is thought to play a role in the early stage of recombinational repair of DNA. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. Read-through transcription also exists between this gene and the downstream ring finger and FYVE-like domain containing 1 (RFFL) gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2011]
Expression
Ubiquitous expression in testis (RPKM 4.7), thyroid (RPKM 3.6) and 25 other tissues See more
Orthologs

Genomic context

See RAD51D in Genome Data Viewer
Location:
17q12
Exon count:
11
Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
109 current GRCh38.p12 (GCF_000001405.38) 17 NC_000017.11 (35099792..35119869, complement)
105 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 17 NC_000017.10 (33426811..33446888, complement)

Chromosome 17 - NC_000017.11Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene DNA ligase 3 Neighboring gene RAD51L3-RFFL readthrough Neighboring gene oligosaccharyltransferase complex subunit pseudogene 7 Neighboring gene ring finger and FYVE like domain containing E3 ubiquitin protein ligase Neighboring gene ribosomal protein L37 pseudogene 22 Neighboring gene fibronectin type III domain containing 8 Neighboring gene notchless homolog 1 Neighboring gene unc-45 myosin chaperone B

Genomic regions, transcripts, and products

Expression

  • Project title: HPA RNA-seq normal tissues
  • Description: RNA-seq was performed of tissue samples from 95 human individuals representing 27 different tissues in order to determine tissue-specificity of all protein-coding genes
  • BioProject: PRJEB4337
  • Publication: PMID 24309898
  • Analysis date: Wed Jun 15 11:32:44 2016

Bibliography

GeneRIFs: Gene References Into FunctionsWhat's a GeneRIF?

Pathways from BioSystems

  • DNA Double-Strand Break Repair, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    DNA Double-Strand Break Repair, organism-specific biosystemNumerous types of DNA damage can occur within a cell due to the endogenous production of oxygen free radicals, normal alkylation reactions, or exposure to exogenous radiations and chemicals. Double-s...
  • DNA Repair, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    DNA Repair, organism-specific biosystemDNA repair is a phenomenal multi-enzyme, multi-pathway system required to ensure the integrity of the cellular genome. Living organisms are constantly exposed to harmful metabolic by-products, enviro...
  • Gene Expression, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Gene Expression, organism-specific biosystemGene Expression covers the pathways by which genomic DNA is transcribed to yield RNA, the regulation of these transcription processes, and the pathways by which newly-made RNA Transcripts are process...
  • Generic Transcription Pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Generic Transcription Pathway, organism-specific biosystemOVERVIEW OF TRANSCRIPTION REGULATION: Detailed studies of gene transcription regulation in a wide variety of eukaryotic systems has revealed the general principles and mechanisms by which cell- or t...
  • HDR through Homologous Recombination (HR) or Single Strand Annealing (SSA), organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    HDR through Homologous Recombination (HR) or Single Strand Annealing (SSA), organism-specific biosystemHomology directed repair (HDR) of replication-independent DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) via homologous recombination repair (HRR) or single strand annealing (SSA) requires the activation of ATM fol...
  • HDR through Homologous Recombination (HRR), organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    HDR through Homologous Recombination (HRR), organism-specific biosystemHomology directed repair (HDR) through homologous recombination is known as homologous recombination repair (HRR). HRR occurs after extensive resection of DNA double strand break (DSB) ends, which cr...
  • Homologous DNA Pairing and Strand Exchange, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Homologous DNA Pairing and Strand Exchange, organism-specific biosystemThe presynaptic phase of homologous DNA pairing and strand exchange begins with the displacement of RPA from 3'-ssDNA overhangs created by extensive resection of DNA double strand break (DSB) ends. R...
  • Homologous recombination, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Homologous recombination, organism-specific biosystemHomologous recombination (HR) is essential for the accurate repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), potentially lethal lesions. HR takes place in the late S-G2 phase of the cell cycle and involves...
  • Homologous recombination, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Homologous recombination, conserved biosystemHomologous recombination (HR) is essential for the accurate repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), potentially lethal lesions. HR takes place in the late S-G2 phase of the cell cycle and involves...
  • Homology Directed Repair, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Homology Directed Repair, organism-specific biosystemHomology directed repair (HDR) of DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) requires resection of DNA DSB ends. Resection creates 3'-ssDNA overhangs which then anneal with a homologous DNA sequence. This homol...
  • Presynaptic phase of homologous DNA pairing and strand exchange, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Presynaptic phase of homologous DNA pairing and strand exchange, organism-specific biosystemThe presynaptic phase of homologous DNA pairing and strand exchange during homologous recombination repair (HRR) begins with the displacement of RPA from ssDNA (Thompson and Limoli 2003) by the joint...
  • Resolution of D-Loop Structures, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Resolution of D-Loop Structures, organism-specific biosystemOnce repair synthesis has occurred, the D-loop structure may be resolved either through Holliday junction intermediates or through synthesis-dependent strand-annealing (SDSA) (Prado and Aguilera 2003...
  • Resolution of D-loop Structures through Holliday Junction Intermediates, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Resolution of D-loop Structures through Holliday Junction Intermediates, organism-specific biosystemD-loops generated after strand invasion and DNA repair synthesis during homologous recombination repair (HRR) can be resolved through Holliday junction intermediates.A D-loop can be cleaved by the co...
  • Resolution of D-loop Structures through Synthesis-Dependent Strand Annealing (SDSA), organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Resolution of D-loop Structures through Synthesis-Dependent Strand Annealing (SDSA), organism-specific biosystemIn the synthesis-dependent strand-annealing (SDSA) model of D-loop resolution, D-loop strands extended by DNA repair synthesis dissociate from their sister chromatid complements and reanneal with the...
  • TP53 Regulates Transcription of DNA Repair Genes, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    TP53 Regulates Transcription of DNA Repair Genes, organism-specific biosystemSeveral DNA repair genes contain p53 response elements and their transcription is positively regulated by TP53 (p53). TP53-mediated regulation probably ensures increased protein level of DNA repair g...
  • Transcriptional Regulation by TP53, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Transcriptional Regulation by TP53, organism-specific biosystemThe tumor suppressor TP53 (encoded by the gene p53) is a transcription factor. Under stress conditions, it recognizes specific responsive DNA elements and thus regulates the transcription of many gen...

Interactions

Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

General gene information

Markers

Readthrough RAD51L3-RFFL

Readthrough gene: RAD51L3-RFFL, Included gene: RFFL

Homology

Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

Function Evidence Code Pubs
ATP binding IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
DNA binding TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
DNA-dependent ATPase activity IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
DNA-dependent ATPase activity IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
contributes_to four-way junction DNA binding IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
contributes_to four-way junction DNA binding IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
gamma-tubulin binding IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
protein binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
single-stranded DNA binding IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
single-stranded DNA binding IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
Process Evidence Code Pubs
DNA repair TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
double-strand break repair via homologous recombination IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
double-strand break repair via homologous recombination IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
interstrand cross-link repair IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
reciprocal meiotic recombination TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
regulation of cell cycle IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
strand invasion IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
telomere maintenance IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
telomere maintenance IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
Component Evidence Code Pubs
Rad51B-Rad51C-Rad51D-XRCC2 complex IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
Rad51B-Rad51C-Rad51D-XRCC2 complex IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
centrosome IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
chromosome, telomeric region IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
cytoplasm IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
nuclear chromosome, telomeric region IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
nuclear chromosome, telomeric region IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
nucleoplasm TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
nucleus TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
replication fork IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
replication fork IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 

General protein information

Preferred Names
DNA repair protein RAD51 homolog 4
Names
RAD51 homolog D
RAD51-like protein 3
recombination repair protein

NCBI Reference Sequences (RefSeq)

RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

Genomic

  1. NG_031858.1 RefSeqGene

    Range
    5001..25078
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics), LRG_516

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. NM_001142571.1NP_001136043.1  DNA repair protein RAD51 homolog 4 isoform 6

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001136043.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (6) lacks an in-frame exon but instead includes a different in-frame exon in the 5' coding region, compared to variant 1. The encoded isoform (6) is longer than isoform 1.
    Source sequence(s)
    AK296241, AL117459, BI916871, BX647297
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS45646.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    O75771
    Related
    ENSP00000466399.1, ENST00000590016.5
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    cl21455
    Location:109337
    P-loop_NTPase; P-loop containing Nucleoside Triphosphate Hydrolases
  2. NM_002878.3NP_002869.3  DNA repair protein RAD51 homolog 4 isoform 1

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_002869.3

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (1, also known as TRAD) encodes isoform 1.
    Source sequence(s)
    AL117459, BI916871, BX647297
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS11287.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    O75771
    Related
    ENSP00000338790.6, ENST00000345365.10
    Conserved Domains (2) summary
    cl27598
    Location:855
    TOP1Bc; Bacterial DNA topoisomeraes I ATP-binding domain
    cl28885
    Location:82317
    RecA-like_NTPases; RecA-like NTPases. This family includes the NTP binding domain of F1 and V1 H+ATPases, DnaB and related helicases as well as bacterial RecA and related eukaryotic and archaeal recombinases. This group also includes bacterial conjugation proteins and ...
  3. NM_133629.2NP_598332.1  DNA repair protein RAD51 homolog 4 isoform 4

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_598332.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (4, also known as TRAD-d3) lacks three alternate exons which results in the loss of an in-frame segment in the central coding region, compared to variant 1. The encoded isoform (4) is shorter than isoform 1.
    Source sequence(s)
    AL117459, BI916871, BX647297
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS11288.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    O75771
    Related
    ENSP00000338408.6, ENST00000335858.11
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    cl21455
    Location:36205
    P-loop_NTPase; P-loop containing Nucleoside Triphosphate Hydrolases

RNA

  1. NR_037711.1 RNA Sequence

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (2, also known as TRAD-d1) lacks an alternate exon in the 5' region, compared to variant 1. This variant is represented as non-coding because the use of the supported translational start codon, as used in variant 1, renders the transcript a candidate for nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD).
    Source sequence(s)
    AB016223, AL117459, BI916871
  2. NR_037712.1 RNA Sequence

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (5, also known as TRAD-d2) lacks an alternate exon in both the 5' and central regions, compared to variant 1. This variant is represented as non-coding because the use of the supported translational start codon, as used in variant 1, renders the transcript a candidate for nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD).
    Source sequence(s)
    AB016224, AL117459, BI916871

RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: Homo sapiens Annotation Release 109 details...Open this link in a new tab

The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

Reference GRCh38.p12 Primary Assembly

Genomic

  1. NC_000017.11 Reference GRCh38.p12 Primary Assembly

    Range
    35099792..35119869 complement
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

Suppressed Reference Sequence(s)

The following Reference Sequences have been suppressed. Explain

  1. NM_133627.1: Suppressed sequence

    Description
    NM_133627.1: This RefSeq was permanently suppressed because it is a nonsense-mediated decay (NMD) candidate
  2. NM_133628.1: Suppressed sequence

    Description
    NM_133628.1: This RefSeq was permanently suppressed because it is a nonsense-mediated decay (NMD) candidate.
  3. NM_133630.1: Suppressed sequence

    Description
    NM_133630.1: This RefSeq was permanently suppressed because it is a nonsense-mediated decay (NMD) candidate.
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