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PSME2 proteasome activator subunit 2 [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

Gene ID: 5721, updated on 13-May-2022


Official Symbol
PSME2provided by HGNC
Official Full Name
proteasome activator subunit 2provided by HGNC
Primary source
See related
Ensembl:ENSG00000100911 MIM:602161; AllianceGenome:HGNC:9569
Gene type
protein coding
RefSeq status
Homo sapiens
Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
Also known as
PA28B; REGbeta; PA28beta
The 26S proteasome is a multicatalytic proteinase complex with a highly ordered structure composed of 2 complexes, a 20S core and a 19S regulator. The 20S core is composed of 4 rings of 28 non-identical subunits; 2 rings are composed of 7 alpha subunits and 2 rings are composed of 7 beta subunits. The 19S regulator is composed of a base, which contains 6 ATPase subunits and 2 non-ATPase subunits, and a lid, which contains up to 10 non-ATPase subunits. Proteasomes are distributed throughout eukaryotic cells at a high concentration and cleave peptides in an ATP/ubiquitin-dependent process in a non-lysosomal pathway. An essential function of a modified proteasome, the immunoproteasome, is the processing of class I MHC peptides. The immunoproteasome contains an alternate regulator, referred to as the 11S regulator or PA28, that replaces the 19S regulator. Three subunits (alpha, beta and gamma) of the 11S regulator have been identified. This gene encodes the beta subunit of the 11S regulator, one of the two 11S subunits that is induced by gamma-interferon. Three beta and three alpha subunits combine to form a heterohexameric ring. Six pseudogenes have been identified on chromosomes 4, 5, 8, 10 and 13. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Ubiquitous expression in duodenum (RPKM 84.1), small intestine (RPKM 71.2) and 24 other tissues See more
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Genomic context

See PSME2 in Genome Data Viewer
Exon count:
Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
110 current GRCh38.p14 (GCF_000001405.40) 14 NC_000014.9 (24143365..24146610, complement)
110 current T2T-CHM13v2.0 (GCF_009914755.1) 14 NC_060938.1 (18341674..18344919, complement)
105.20220307 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 14 NC_000014.8 (24612574..24615819, complement)

Chromosome 14 - NC_000014.9Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene proteasome activator subunit 1 Neighboring gene ER membrane protein complex subunit 9 Neighboring gene microRNA 7703 Neighboring gene Sharpr-MPRA regulatory region 11827 Neighboring gene ring finger protein 31 Neighboring gene RNA, 5S ribosomal pseudogene 383

Genomic regions, transcripts, and products


  • Project title: HPA RNA-seq normal tissues
  • Description: RNA-seq was performed of tissue samples from 95 human individuals representing 27 different tissues in order to determine tissue-specificity of all protein-coding genes
  • BioProject: PRJEB4337
  • Publication: PMID 24309898
  • Analysis date: Wed Apr 4 07:08:55 2018


GeneRIFs: Gene References Into Functions

What's a GeneRIF?

HIV-1 interactions

Replication interactions

Interaction Pubs
Knockdown of proteasome activator subunit 2 (PSME2) by siRNA inhibits HIV-1 replication in HeLa-derived TZM-bl cells PubMed

Protein interactions

Protein Gene Interaction Pubs
Tat tat HIV-1 Tat upregulates the expression of proteasome activator subunit 2 (PSME2) in human primary T cells PubMed
tat HIV-1 Tat slightly enhances the activity of the purified 26 S proteasome PubMed
tat Amino acids Lys51, Arg52, and Asp67 of HIV-1 Tat represent the proteasome binding site of Tat, and Tat amino acids 37-72 are necessary for proteasomal interaction and suppression of 11 S regulator-mediated antigen presentation PubMed
tat HIV-1 Tat inhibits the peptidase activity of the 20 S proteasome and interferes with the formation of the 20 S proteasome-11 S regulator complex PubMed
tat HIV-1 Tat binds to the alpha2, alpha4, alpha6, alpha7, beta1, beta2, beta3, beta5, beta6, beta7, LMP7/beta5i, and MECL1/beta2i subunits of the proteasome 20 S core structure and can inhibit cellular proteasome function PubMed
Vif vif HIV-1 Vif binds to the cellular cytidine deaminase APOBEC3G and targets it for degradation through an interaction with the proteasome, thereby inhibiting APOBEC3G mediated restriction of HIV-1 replication PubMed
capsid gag HIV-1 CA downregulates PA28beta and the beta2i subunit of the immunoproteasome complex in a dendritic cell line (JAWS II), whereas in primary dendritic cells, PA28alpha, beta2i, and beta5i are downregulated by CA PubMed
integrase gag-pol Proteasomal degradation of HIV-1 integrase in mammalian cells occurs by the N-end rule pathway PubMed

Go to the HIV-1, Human Interaction Database

Pathways from PubChem


Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

General gene information



Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

Function Evidence Code Pubs
enables endopeptidase activator activity IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
enables identical protein binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
enables protein binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
Process Evidence Code Pubs
involved_in positive regulation of endopeptidase activity IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
involved_in regulation of G1/S transition of mitotic cell cycle IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
involved_in regulation of proteasomal protein catabolic process IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
Component Evidence Code Pubs
is_active_in cytoplasm IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
located_in cytosol TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
located_in extracellular exosome HDA PubMed 
located_in membrane HDA PubMed 
is_active_in nucleoplasm IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
located_in nucleoplasm TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
part_of proteasome activator complex IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
part_of proteasome complex TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info

General protein information

Preferred Names
proteasome activator complex subunit 2
11S regulator complex beta subunit
11S regulator complex subunit beta
MCP activator, 31-kD subunit
activator of multicatalytic protease subunit 2
cell migration-inducing protein 22
proteasome (prosome, macropain) activator subunit 2 (PA28 beta)
proteasome activator 28 subunit beta
proteasome activator 28-beta
proteasome activator hPA28 subunit beta

NCBI Reference Sequences (RefSeq)

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RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. NM_002818.3NP_002809.2  proteasome activator complex subunit 2

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_002809.2

    Status: REVIEWED

    Source sequence(s)
    Consensus CDS
    ENSP00000216802.5, ENST00000216802.10
    Conserved Domains (2) summary
    PA28_alpha; Proteasome activator pa28 alpha subunit
    PA28_beta; Proteasome activator pa28 beta subunit

RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: Homo sapiens Annotation Release 110 details...Open this link in a new tab

The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

Reference GRCh38.p14 Primary Assembly


  1. NC_000014.9 Reference GRCh38.p14 Primary Assembly

    24143365..24146610 complement
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. XM_006720213.3XP_006720276.1  proteasome activator complex subunit 2 isoform X1

    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    PA28_beta; Proteasome activator pa28 beta subunit

Reference GRCh38.p14 PATCHES


  1. NW_018654722.1 Reference GRCh38.p14 PATCHES

    444343..447588 complement
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

Alternate T2T-CHM13v2.0


  1. NC_060938.1 Alternate T2T-CHM13v2.0

    18341674..18344919 complement
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)