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PRKCB protein kinase C beta [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

Gene ID: 5579, updated on 20-Apr-2020

Summary

Official Symbol
PRKCBprovided by HGNC
Official Full Name
protein kinase C betaprovided by HGNC
Primary source
HGNC:HGNC:9395
See related
Ensembl:ENSG00000166501 MIM:176970
Gene type
protein coding
RefSeq status
REVIEWED
Organism
Homo sapiens
Lineage
Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
Also known as
PKCB; PRKCB1; PRKCB2; PKCI(2); PKCbeta; PKC-beta
Summary
Protein kinase C (PKC) is a family of serine- and threonine-specific protein kinases that can be activated by calcium and second messenger diacylglycerol. PKC family members phosphorylate a wide variety of protein targets and are known to be involved in diverse cellular signaling pathways. PKC family members also serve as major receptors for phorbol esters, a class of tumor promoters. Each member of the PKC family has a specific expression profile and is believed to play a distinct role in cells. The protein encoded by this gene is one of the PKC family members. This protein kinase has been reported to be involved in many different cellular functions, such as B cell activation, apoptosis induction, endothelial cell proliferation, and intestinal sugar absorption. Studies in mice also suggest that this kinase may also regulate neuronal functions and correlate fear-induced conflict behavior after stress. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been reported. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Expression
Biased expression in brain (RPKM 51.2), lymph node (RPKM 21.8) and 9 other tissues See more
Orthologs

Genomic context

See PRKCB in Genome Data Viewer
Location:
16p12.2-p12.1
Exon count:
17
Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
109.20200228 current GRCh38.p13 (GCF_000001405.39) 16 NC_000016.10 (23835983..24220611)
105 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 16 NC_000016.9 (23847300..24231932)

Chromosome 16 - NC_000016.10Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene CRISPRi-validated cis-regulatory element chr16.1866 Neighboring gene CRISPRi-validated cis-regulatory element chr16.1867 Neighboring gene GATA motif-containing MPRA enhancer 73 Neighboring gene uncharacterized LOC105371141 Neighboring gene microRNA 1273h Neighboring gene long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 2194 Neighboring gene calcium voltage-gated channel auxiliary subunit gamma 3

Genomic regions, transcripts, and products

Expression

  • Project title: HPA RNA-seq normal tissues
  • Description: RNA-seq was performed of tissue samples from 95 human individuals representing 27 different tissues in order to determine tissue-specificity of all protein-coding genes
  • BioProject: PRJEB4337
  • Publication: PMID 24309898
  • Analysis date: Wed Apr 4 07:08:55 2018

Bibliography

GeneRIFs: Gene References Into Functions

What's a GeneRIF?

Phenotypes

NHGRI GWAS Catalog

Description
Host-microbe interactions have shaped the genetic architecture of inflammatory bowel disease.
NHGRI GWA Catalog
Meta-analysis identifies nine new loci associated with rheumatoid arthritis in the Japanese population.
NHGRI GWA Catalog

HIV-1 interactions

Protein interactions

Protein Gene Interaction Pubs
Envelope surface glycoprotein gp120 env HIV-1 gp120 activates forward trafficking and surface clustering of NMDA receptors in membrane micro domains by a PKA-dependent phosphorylation of the NR1 C-terminal Ser897, followed by a PKC-dependent phosphorylation of Ser896 PubMed
env Pre-treatment of endothelial cells with fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) protects cells from HIV-1 gp120 angiotoxicity; this protection is regulated by crosstalk among the ERK, PI3K-AKT and PKC signaling pathways PubMed
env PKC-dependent pathway, particularly PKCalpha and PKCbeta1, requires HIV-1 gp120-mediated Rac-1 activation and membrane fusion PubMed
env c-FLIPL inhibits Bax activation via modulating PKC expression at the transcriptional level involving AP-2 during gp120 treatment PubMed
env A specific interaction between CD4 and HIV-1 gp120 is required for phosphorylation of CD4, which could involve protein kinase C PubMed
env IL-16 induces rapid translocation of PKC from the cytosol to the membrane in CD4+ cells; PKC inhibitors completely block IL-16-induced lymphocyte migration as well as the motile response induced by HIV-1 gp120 and anti-CD4 antibody binding to CD4 PubMed
env Down modulation of the interaction between HIV-1 gp120 and CD4 by TPA is blocked by protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitors, suggesting PKC may play an important role in HIV-1 infection PubMed
env HIV-1 gp120 increases the levels of calcium-dependent and -independent PKC isozymes; the most striking change is observed in PKC-zeta isozyme levels PubMed
env Induction of apoptosis in cell cultures through binding of HIV-1 gp120 or gp160 to CXCR4 involves protein kinase C, basic fibroblast growth factor, caspase-3, and the pro-apoptotic molecule Bax PubMed
Envelope surface glycoprotein gp160, precursor env HIV-1 gp160-induced Ca(2+) influx reduction is antagonized by an inhibitor acting especially on PKC alpha and PKC beta I; Western blotting analyses show that the cellular distribution of PKC alpha and -beta I are significantly modified by gp160 PubMed
env HIV-1 gp160-induced AP-1 complex formation is dependent upon protein tyrosine phosphorylation and is abolished by inhibitors of protein kinase C, but it is unaffected by calcium channel blockers or cyclosporine A PubMed
Envelope transmembrane glycoprotein gp41 env A synthetic peptide corresponding to cytoplasmic domain residues 828-848 of HIV-1 gp41 inhibits pKC-catalysed phosphorylation of a protein substrate PubMed
env A synthetic peptide containing residues 581-597 from HIV-1 gp41 inhibits protein kinase C (pkC)-mediated phosphorylation of the CD3 gamma-chain in intact cells and directly inhibits partially purified pkC PubMed
Nef nef HIV-1 Nef selectively downregulates beta II and epsilon PKC isoforms in human astrocytoma cells PubMed
Tat tat HIV-1 Tat protein activates RELA (p65), MAP kinases ERK1/2 and p38, and PKC-bII in a TLR4-dependent manner in human monocytes PubMed
tat HIV-1 Tat activates protein kinase C, resulting in the induction of TNF-alpha, IL-6 and IL-10 expression and the secretion of MCP-1 PubMed
tat HIV-1 Tat-mediated stimulation of IL-10 production through the activation of PKC beta(II), but not TNF-alpha, requires p38 MAP kinase in human macrophages PubMed
tat HIV-1 Tat-mediated stimulation of IL-10 and TNF-alpha production through the activation of PKC beta(II) requires ERK1/2 MAP kinase and NF-kappaB transcription factor in human macrophages PubMed
tat HIV-1 Tat activates the activity of PKC beta(II), which is essential for the activation of TNF-alpha production in human macrophages PubMed
tat HIV-1 Tat activates the activity of PKC beta(II), which is essential for the activation of IL-10 production in human monocytes and macrophages PubMed
tat Phospholipase C/protein kinase C signaling pathway-dependent phosphorylation of p44/42 and JNK MAP kinases participates partially in IL-1beta induction by TAT PubMed
tat Protein kinase C is required for HIV-1 Tat-mediated transactivation of the viral LTR promoter, indicating protein kinase C regulates the process of HIV-1 transactivation and may play a role in the transition of HIV from latency to productive growth PubMed
tat Protein kinase C phosphorylates HIV-1 Tat on serine residue 46 PubMed
matrix gag Protein kinase C (PKC) phosphorylates HIV-1 Matrix on serine residue 111 resulting in a shift in localization of Matrix from the cytosol to the cellular membrane, suggesting a myristoyl-protein switch regulated by PKC phosphorylation PubMed
retropepsin gag-pol Phosphorylation of human recombinant vimentin by PKC inhibits the proteolytic processing of the vimentin head domain by HIV-1 protease PubMed
reverse transcriptase gag-pol HIV-1 RT heterodimer expressed in bacteria can be phosphorylated in vitro by several purified mammalian protein kinases including auto-activated protein kinase (PK), CKII, cytosolic protamine kinase (CPK), myelin basic protein kinase 1 (MBPK1), and PRKC PubMed

Go to the HIV-1, Human Interaction Database

Pathways from PubChem

Interactions

Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

General gene information

Markers

Homology

Clone Names

  • MGC41878

Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

Function Evidence Code Pubs
ATP binding IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
androgen receptor binding IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
calcium channel regulator activity IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
calcium-dependent protein kinase C activity IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
chromatin binding IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
histone binding IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
histone kinase activity (H3-T6 specific) IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
nuclear receptor transcription coactivator activity IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
protein binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
protein kinase C activity IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
protein kinase C binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
protein serine/threonine kinase activity EXP
Inferred from Experiment
more info
PubMed 
protein serine/threonine kinase activity IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
protein serine/threonine kinase activity TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
zinc ion binding IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
Process Evidence Code Pubs
B cell activation ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
B cell receptor signaling pathway ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
adaptive immune response IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
apoptotic process IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
calcium ion transport IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
cellular calcium ion homeostasis IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
cellular response to carbohydrate stimulus IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
histone H3-T6 phosphorylation IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
intracellular signal transduction IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
lipoprotein transport TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
mitotic nuclear envelope disassembly TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
negative regulation of glucose transmembrane transport ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
negative regulation of insulin receptor signaling pathway ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
peptidyl-serine phosphorylation IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
platelet activation TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
positive regulation of B cell receptor signaling pathway ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
positive regulation of I-kappaB kinase/NF-kappaB signaling ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
positive regulation of NF-kappaB transcription factor activity ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
positive regulation of angiogenesis ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
positive regulation of nucleic acid-templated transcription IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
positive regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor signaling pathway ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
presynaptic modulation of chemical synaptic transmission IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
protein phosphorylation TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
regulation of glucose transmembrane transport IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
regulation of myeloid cell differentiation TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
regulation of synaptic vesicle exocytosis IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
signal transduction NAS
Non-traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
Component Evidence Code Pubs
calyx of Held IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
cell IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
cytoplasm IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
cytosol IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
 
cytosol TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
extracellular exosome HDA PubMed 
nucleoplasm IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
 
nucleoplasm TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
nucleus IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
plasma membrane IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
plasma membrane TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
presynaptic cytosol IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
spectrin IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 

General protein information

Preferred Names
protein kinase C beta type
Names
PKC-B
protein kinase C, beta 1 polypeptide
NP_002729.2
NP_997700.1

NCBI Reference Sequences (RefSeq)

RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

Genomic

  1. NG_029003.2 RefSeqGene

    Range
    5005..389633
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. NM_002738.7NP_002729.2  protein kinase C beta type isoform 2

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_002729.2

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (2) represents the longer transcript and encodes the longer isoform (2).
    Source sequence(s)
    AC130448, BC036472, DB456157
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS10619.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P05771
    Related
    ENSP00000496129.1, ENST00000643927.1
    Conserved Domains (3) summary
    cd04026
    Location:159289
    C2_PKC_alpha_gamma; C2 domain in Protein Kinase C (PKC) alpha and gamma
    cd05616
    Location:341663
    STKc_cPKC_beta; Catalytic domain of the Serine/Threonine Kinase, Classical Protein Kinase C beta
    pfam00130
    Location:102152
    C1_1; Phorbol esters/diacylglycerol binding domain (C1 domain)
  2. NM_212535.3NP_997700.1  protein kinase C beta type isoform 1

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_997700.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (1) uses an alternate splice junction at the 5' end of the last exon compared to variant 2. The resulting isoform (1) has a distinct and shorter C-terminus compared to isoform 2.
    Source sequence(s)
    AC130448, BC036472, DB456157, X06318
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS10618.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P05771
    Related
    ENSP00000318315.7, ENST00000321728.12
    Conserved Domains (3) summary
    cd04026
    Location:159289
    C2_PKC_alpha_gamma; C2 domain in Protein Kinase C (PKC) alpha and gamma
    cd05616
    Location:341664
    STKc_cPKC_beta; Catalytic domain of the Serine/Threonine Kinase, Classical Protein Kinase C beta
    pfam00130
    Location:102152
    C1_1; Phorbol esters/diacylglycerol binding domain (C1 domain)

RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: Homo sapiens Updated Annotation Release 109.

The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

Reference GRCh38.p13 Primary Assembly

Genomic

  1. NC_000016.10 Reference GRCh38.p13 Primary Assembly

    Range
    23835983..24220611
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)
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