Send to:

Choose Destination

PPY pancreatic polypeptide [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

Gene ID: 5539, updated on 12-Oct-2019


Official Symbol
PPYprovided by HGNC
Official Full Name
pancreatic polypeptideprovided by HGNC
Primary source
See related
Ensembl:ENSG00000108849 MIM:167780
Gene type
protein coding
RefSeq status
Homo sapiens
Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
Also known as
This gene encodes a member of the neuropeptide Y (NPY) family of peptides. The encoded 95 aa preproprotein is synthesized in the pancreatic islets of Langerhans and proteolytically processed to generate two peptide products. These products include the active pancreatic hormone of 36 aa and an icosapeptide of unknown function. This hormone acts as a regulator of pancreatic and gastrointestinal functions and may be important in the regulation of food intake. Plasma level of this hormone has been shown to be reduced in conditions associated with increased food intake and elevated in anorexia nervosa. In addition, infusion of this hormone in obese rodents has shown to decrease weight gain. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants, at least one of which encodes an isoform that is proteolytically processed. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2016]
Biased expression in pancreas (RPKM 7.7), colon (RPKM 0.9) and 1 other tissue See more

Genomic context

See PPY in Genome Data Viewer
Exon count:
Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
109.20190905 current GRCh38.p13 (GCF_000001405.39) 17 NC_000017.11 (43940802..43944212, complement)
105 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 17 NC_000017.10 (42018172..42019833, complement)

Chromosome 17 - NC_000017.11Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene Wnt family member 9-like Neighboring gene long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 1976 Neighboring gene peptide YY Neighboring gene N-acetylglutamate synthase

Genomic regions, transcripts, and products


  • Project title: HPA RNA-seq normal tissues
  • Description: RNA-seq was performed of tissue samples from 95 human individuals representing 27 different tissues in order to determine tissue-specificity of all protein-coding genes
  • BioProject: PRJEB4337
  • Publication: PMID 24309898
  • Analysis date: Wed Apr 4 07:08:55 2018


GeneRIFs: Gene References Into Functions

What's a GeneRIF?

Pathways from BioSystems

  • Class A/1 (Rhodopsin-like receptors), organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Class A/1 (Rhodopsin-like receptors), organism-specific biosystemRhodopsin-like receptors (class A/1) are the largest group of GPCRs and are the best studied group from a functional and structural point of view. They show great diversity at the sequence level and ...
  • G alpha (i) signalling events, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    G alpha (i) signalling events, organism-specific biosystemThe classical signalling mechanism for G alpha (i) is inhibition of the cAMP dependent pathway through inhibition of adenylate cyclase. Decreased production of cAMP from ATP results in decreased act...
  • GPCR downstream signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    GPCR downstream signaling, organism-specific biosystemG protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are classically defined as the receptor, G-protein and downstream effectors, the alpha subunit of the G-protein being the primary signaling molecule. However, it h...
  • GPCR ligand binding, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    GPCR ligand binding, organism-specific biosystemThere are more than 800 G-protein coupled receptor (GPCRs) in the human genome, making it the largest receptor superfamily. GPCRs are also the largest class of drug targets, involved in virtually all...
  • Peptide ligand-binding receptors, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Peptide ligand-binding receptors, organism-specific biosystemThese receptors, a subset of the Class A/1 (Rhodopsin-like) family, all bind peptide ligands which include the chemokines, opioids and somatostatins.
  • Signal Transduction, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signal Transduction, organism-specific biosystemSignal transduction is a process in which extracellular signals elicit changes in cell state and activity. Transmembrane receptors sense changes in the cellular environment by binding ligands, such a...
  • Signaling by GPCR, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signaling by GPCR, organism-specific biosystemG protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs; 7TM receptors; seven transmembrane domain receptors; heptahelical receptors; G protein-linked receptors [GPLR]) are the largest family of transmembrane receptors i...


Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

General gene information



Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

Function Evidence Code Pubs
G protein-coupled receptor binding IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
G protein-coupled receptor binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
hormone activity TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
neuropeptide hormone activity IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
Process Evidence Code Pubs
G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
neuropeptide signaling pathway IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
protein secretion TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
Component Evidence Code Pubs
cytoplasm IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
extracellular region TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
extracellular space IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info

General protein information

Preferred Names
pancreatic prohormone
pancreatic polypeptide Y
prepro-PP (prepropancreatic polypeptide)

NCBI Reference Sequences (RefSeq)

RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. NM_001319209.1NP_001306138.1  pancreatic prohormone isoform 2 precursor

    Status: REVIEWED

    Transcript Variant: This variant (2) includes an alternate 5' terminal exon, resulting in a different 5' UTR and 5' coding region, and the use of an alternate translation start site compared to variant 1. The encoded isoform (2) has a longer N-terminus than isoform 1. This isoform (2) may undergo proteolytic processing similar to isoform 1.
    Source sequence(s)
    BP384893, BP388331
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    PAH; Pancreatic hormones / neuropeptide F / peptide YY family
  2. NM_002722.5NP_002713.1  pancreatic prohormone isoform 1 preproprotein

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_002713.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Transcript Variant: This variant (1) represents the shorter transcript and encodes the shorter isoform (1).
    Source sequence(s)
    AC007993, BP388331, BP394217
    Consensus CDS
    ENSP00000225992.2, ENST00000225992.7
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    PAH; Pancreatic hormones / neuropeptide F / peptide YY family

RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: Homo sapiens Annotation Release 109.20190905

The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

Reference GRCh38.p13 Primary Assembly


  1. NC_000017.11 Reference GRCh38.p13 Primary Assembly

    43940802..43944212 complement
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. XM_011524978.3XP_011523280.1  pancreatic prohormone isoform X1

    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    PAH; Pancreatic hormones / neuropeptide F / peptide YY family
Support Center