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PPP2R5D protein phosphatase 2 regulatory subunit B'delta [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

Gene ID: 5528, updated on 9-Dec-2018

Summary

Official Symbol
PPP2R5Dprovided by HGNC
Official Full Name
protein phosphatase 2 regulatory subunit B'deltaprovided by HGNC
Primary source
HGNC:HGNC:9312
See related
Ensembl:ENSG00000112640 MIM:601646
Gene type
protein coding
RefSeq status
REVIEWED
Organism
Homo sapiens
Lineage
Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
Also known as
B56D; MRD35; B56delta
Summary
The product of this gene belongs to the phosphatase 2A regulatory subunit B family. Protein phosphatase 2A is one of the four major Ser/Thr phosphatases, and it is implicated in the negative control of cell growth and division. It consists of a common heteromeric core enzyme, which is composed of a catalytic subunit and a constant regulatory subunit, that associates with a variety of regulatory subunits. The B regulatory subunit might modulate substrate selectivity and catalytic activity. This gene encodes a delta isoform of the regulatory subunit B56 subfamily. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Expression
Ubiquitous expression in testis (RPKM 23.6), brain (RPKM 18.9) and 25 other tissues See more
Orthologs

Genomic context

See PPP2R5D in Genome Data Viewer
Location:
6p21.1
Exon count:
16
Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
109 current GRCh38.p12 (GCF_000001405.38) 6 NC_000006.12 (42984499..43012345)
105 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 6 NC_000006.11 (42952218..42980083)

Chromosome 6 - NC_000006.12Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene CNPY3-GNMT readthrough Neighboring gene ribosomal protein L24 pseudogene 4 Neighboring gene glycine N-methyltransferase Neighboring gene peroxisomal biogenesis factor 6 Neighboring gene male-enhanced antigen 1 Neighboring gene kelch domain containing 3 Neighboring gene ribosomal RNA processing 36

Genomic regions, transcripts, and products

Expression

  • Project title: HPA RNA-seq normal tissues
  • Description: RNA-seq was performed of tissue samples from 95 human individuals representing 27 different tissues in order to determine tissue-specificity of all protein-coding genes
  • BioProject: PRJEB4337
  • Publication: PMID 24309898
  • Analysis date: Wed Apr 4 07:08:55 2018

Bibliography

GeneRIFs: Gene References Into FunctionsWhat's a GeneRIF?

HIV-1 interactions

Protein interactions

Protein Gene Interaction Pubs
Tat tat HIV-1 Tat upregulates the total levels of PP2A protein and downregulates the inactive form of phosphorylated PP2A, which leads to inhibit hTERT activity directly or indirectly in CD4+ T cells PubMed
tat Protein phosphatase-2A (PP2A) and protein phosphatase-1 (PP1) regulate HIV-1 Tat-activated transcription through dephosphorylation of CDK9 PubMed
tat An increase in the amount of PP2A core enzyme with a concomitant decrease in the amount of PP2A holoenzyme inhibits HIV-1 Tat-stimulated transcription from the HIV-1 LTR promoter, indicating a role for PP2A in the modulation of HIV-1 gene expression PubMed
Vpr vpr Amino-acid peptide sequence (residues 77-92) of HIV-1 Vpr binds to PP2A1. The sequence from HIV-1 89.6 strain is a cell penetrating and death domain PubMed
vpr HIV-1 Vpr was found to upregulate PP2A in fission yeast PubMed
vpr HIV-1 Vpr forms a complex with HIV-1 nucleocapsid that directly activates PP2A PubMed
nucleocapsid gag HIV-1 Vpr forms a complex with HIV-1 nucleocapsid that directly activates PP2A PubMed

Go to the HIV-1, Human Interaction Database

Pathways from BioSystems

  • AMER1 mutants destabilize the destruction complex, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    AMER1 mutants destabilize the destruction complex, organism-specific biosystemAMER1/WTX is a component of the destruction complex that interacts directly with beta-catenin through its C-terminal half. Depletion of AMER1 through siRNA stabilizes cellular beta-catenin levels an...
  • AMPK signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    AMPK signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemAMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a serine threonine kinase that is highly conserved through evolution. AMPK system acts as a sensor of cellular energy status. It is activated by increases in th...
  • AMPK signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    AMPK signaling pathway, conserved biosystemAMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a serine threonine kinase that is highly conserved through evolution. AMPK system acts as a sensor of cellular energy status. It is activated by increases in th...
  • APC truncation mutants have impaired AXIN binding, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    APC truncation mutants have impaired AXIN binding, organism-specific biosystemMutations in the APC tumor suppressor gene are common in colorectal and other cancers and cluster in the central mutation cluster region (MCR) of the gene (Miyoshi et al, 1992; Nagase and Nakamura, ...
  • ARMS-mediated activation, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    ARMS-mediated activation, organism-specific biosystemARMS (Ankyrin-Rich Membrane Spanning/Kidins 220) is a 220kD tetraspanning adaptor protein which becomes rapidly tyrosine phosphorylated by active Trk receptors. ARMS is another adaptor protein which ...
  • AXIN missense mutants destabilize the destruction complex, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    AXIN missense mutants destabilize the destruction complex, organism-specific biosystemAlterations in AXIN1 have been detected in a number of different cancers including liver and colorectal cancer and medullablastoma, among others (reviewed in Salahshor and Woodgett, 2005). Missense ...
  • AXIN mutants destabilize the destruction complex, activating WNT signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    AXIN mutants destabilize the destruction complex, activating WNT signaling, organism-specific biosystemAXIN1 and AXIN2 are critical scaffolding proteins of the beta-catenin destruction complex and make protein-protein interactions with several of the other complex components including APC, GSK3, CK1 a...
  • Activated TLR4 signalling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Activated TLR4 signalling, organism-specific biosystemTLR4 is unique among the TLR family in its ability to recruit four adapters to activate two distinct signaling pathways. One pathway is activated by the pair of the adapters Mal or TIRAP (Toll/inter...
  • Adaptive Immune System, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Adaptive Immune System, organism-specific biosystemAdaptive immunity refers to antigen-specific immune response efficiently involved in clearing the pathogens. The adaptive immune system is comprised of B and T lymphocytes that express receptors with...
  • Adrenergic signaling in cardiomyocytes, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Adrenergic signaling in cardiomyocytes, organism-specific biosystemCardiac myocytes express at least six subtypes of adrenergic receptor (AR) which include three subtypes of beta-AR (beta-1, beta-2, beta-3) and three subtypes of the alpha-1-AR (alpha-1A, alpha-1B, a...
  • Adrenergic signaling in cardiomyocytes, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Adrenergic signaling in cardiomyocytes, conserved biosystemCardiac myocytes express at least six subtypes of adrenergic receptor (AR) which include three subtypes of beta-AR (beta-1, beta-2, beta-3) and three subtypes of the alpha-1-AR (alpha-1A, alpha-1B, a...
  • Alpha-synuclein signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    Alpha-synuclein signaling, organism-specific biosystem
    Alpha-synuclein signaling
  • Aurora A signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    Aurora A signaling, organism-specific biosystem
    Aurora A signaling
  • Aurora B signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    Aurora B signaling, organism-specific biosystem
    Aurora B signaling
  • Axon guidance, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Axon guidance, organism-specific biosystemAxon guidance / axon pathfinding is the process by which neurons send out axons to reach the correct targets. Growing axons have a highly motile structure at the growing tip called the growth cone, w...
  • Beta-catenin phosphorylation cascade, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Beta-catenin phosphorylation cascade, organism-specific biosystemDegradation of beta-catenin is initiated following amino-terminal serine/threonine phosphorylation. Phosphorylation of B-catenin at S45 by CK1 alpha primes the subsequent sequential GSK-3-mediated p...
  • CTLA4 inhibitory signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    CTLA4 inhibitory signaling, organism-specific biosystemCTLA4 is one of the best studied inhibitory receptors of the CD28 superfamily. CTLA4 inhibits Tcell activation by reducing IL2 production and IL2 expression, and by arresting T cells at the G1 phase ...
  • Cell Cycle, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Cell Cycle, organism-specific biosystem
    Cell Cycle
  • Cell Cycle, Mitotic, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Cell Cycle, Mitotic, organism-specific biosystemThe replication of the genome and the subsequent segregation of chromosomes into daughter cells are controlled by a series of events collectively known as the cell cycle. DNA replication is carried o...
  • Costimulation by the CD28 family, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Costimulation by the CD28 family, organism-specific biosystemOptimal activation of T-lymphocytes requires at least two signals. A primary one is delivered by the T-cell receptor (TCR) complex after antigen recognition and additional costimulatory signals are d...
  • Cytokine Signaling in Immune system, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Cytokine Signaling in Immune system, organism-specific biosystemCytokines are small proteins that regulate and mediate immunity, inflammation, and hematopoiesis. They are secreted in response to immune stimuli, and usually act briefly, locally, at very low concen...
  • DAP12 interactions, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    DAP12 interactions, organism-specific biosystemDNAX activation protein of 12kDa (DAP12) is an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM)-bearing adapter molecule that transduces activating signals in natural killer (NK) and myeloid cel...
  • DAP12 signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    DAP12 signaling, organism-specific biosystemIn response to receptor ligation, the tyrosine residues in DAP12's immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM) are phosphorylated by Src family kinases. These phosphotyrosines form the dock...
  • DARPP-32 events, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    DARPP-32 events, organism-specific biosystemDopamine- and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein, Mr 32 kDa (DARPP-32), was identified as a major target for dopamine and protein kinase A (PKA) in striatum. Recent advances now indicate that regulation D...
  • Degradation of beta-catenin by the destruction complex, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Degradation of beta-catenin by the destruction complex, organism-specific biosystemThe beta-catenin destruction complex plays a key role in the canonical Wnt signaling pathway. In the absence of Wnt signaling, this complex controls the levels of cytoplamic beta-catenin. Beta-cateni...
  • Developmental Biology, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Developmental Biology, organism-specific biosystemAs a first step towards capturing the array of processes by which a fertilized egg gives rise to the diverse tissues of the body, examples of three kinds of processes have been annotated. These are a...
  • Disassembly of the destruction complex and recruitment of AXIN to the membrane, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Disassembly of the destruction complex and recruitment of AXIN to the membrane, organism-specific biosystemUpon stimulation with WNT ligand, AXIN and GSK3beta are recruited to the plasma membrane through interaction with DVL (Tamai et al, 2004; Mao et al, 2001; reviewed in He et al, 2004). Polymerization...
  • Disease, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Disease, organism-specific biosystemBiological processes are captured in Reactome by identifying the molecules (DNA, RNA, protein, small molecules) involved in them and describing the details of their interactions. From this molecular ...
  • Diseases of signal transduction, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Diseases of signal transduction, organism-specific biosystemSignaling processes are central to human physiology (e.g., Pires-da Silva & Sommer 2003), and their disruption by either germ-line and somatic mutation can lead to serious disease. Here, the molecula...
  • Dopaminergic synapse, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Dopaminergic synapse, organism-specific biosystemDopamine (DA) is an important and prototypical slow neurotransmitter in the mammalian brain, where it controls a variety of functions including locomotor activity, motivation and reward, learning an...
  • Dopaminergic synapse, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Dopaminergic synapse, conserved biosystemDopamine (DA) is an important and prototypical slow neurotransmitter in the mammalian brain, where it controls a variety of functions including locomotor activity, motivation and reward, learning an...
  • Downstream signal transduction, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Downstream signal transduction, organism-specific biosystemThe role of autophosphorylation sites on PDGF receptors are to provide docking sites for downstream signal transduction molecules which contain SH2 domains. The SH2 domain is a conserved motif of aro...
  • Downstream signaling events of B Cell Receptor (BCR), organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Downstream signaling events of B Cell Receptor (BCR), organism-specific biosystemSecond messengers (calcium, diacylglycerol, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate, and phosphatidyinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate) trigger signaling pathways: NF-kappaB is activated via protein kinase C beta, RA...
  • ERK/MAPK targets, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    ERK/MAPK targets, organism-specific biosystemERK/MAPK kinases have a number of targets within the nucleus, usually transcription factors or other kinases. The best known targets, ELK1, ETS1, ATF2, MITF, MAPKAPK2, MSK1, RSK1/2/3 and MEF2 are ann...
  • ERKs are inactivated, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    ERKs are inactivated, organism-specific biosystemMAP Kinases are inactivated by a family of protein named MAP Kinase Phosphatases (MKPs). They act through dephosphorylation of threonine and/or tyrosine residues within the signature sequence -pTXpY-...
  • FCERI mediated MAPK activation, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    FCERI mediated MAPK activation, organism-specific biosystemFormation of the LAT signaling complex leads to activation of MAPK and production of cytokines. The sequence of events that leads from LAT to cytokine production has not been as clearly defined as th...
  • Fc epsilon receptor (FCERI) signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Fc epsilon receptor (FCERI) signaling, organism-specific biosystemMast cells (MC) are distributed in tissues throughout the human body and have long been recognized as key cells of type I hypersensitivity reactions. They also play important roles in inflammatory an...
  • Frs2-mediated activation, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Frs2-mediated activation, organism-specific biosystemThe adaptor protein Frs2 (Fibroblast growth factor receptor substrate 2) can mediate the prolonged activation of the MAPK (ERK) cascade.
  • GAB1 signalosome, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    GAB1 signalosome, organism-specific biosystemGAB1 is recruited to the activated EGFR indirectly, through GRB2. GAB1 acts as an adaptor protein that enables formation of an active PIK3, through recruitment of PIK3 regulatory subunit PIK3R1 (also...
  • GRB2 events in EGFR signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    GRB2 events in EGFR signaling, organism-specific biosystemAutophosphorylated EGFR tyrosine residues are docking sites for many downstream effectors in EGFR signaling. The adaptor protein GRB2 binds to phosphotyrosine residues in the C-tail of EGFR through i...
  • Gastrin-CREB signalling pathway via PKC and MAPK, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Gastrin-CREB signalling pathway via PKC and MAPK, organism-specific biosystemGastrin is a hormone whose main function is to stimulate secretion of hydrochloric acid by the gastric mucosa, which results in gastrin formation inhibition. This hormone also acts as a mitogenic fac...
  • Glucose metabolism, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Glucose metabolism, organism-specific biosystemGlucose is the major form in which dietary sugars are made available to cells of the human body. Its breakdown is a major source of energy for all cells, and is essential for the brain and red blood ...
  • Glycogen Metabolism, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Glycogen Metabolism, organism-specific biosystemGlycogen is a very large, branched polymer of glucose residues. Within skeletal muscle and liver glucose is stored as glycogen. In the liver, glycogen synthesis and degradation are regulated to maint...
  • Glycolysis, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Glycolysis, organism-specific biosystemThe reactions of glycolysis (e.g., van Wijk and van Solinge 2005) convert glucose 6-phosphate to pyruvate. The entire process is cytosolic. Glucose 6-phosphate is reversibly isomerized to form fructo...
  • Hemostasis, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Hemostasis, organism-specific biosystemHemostasis is a physiological response that culminates in the arrest of bleeding from an injured vessel. Under normal conditions the vascular endothelium supports vasodilation, inhibits platelet adhe...
  • IGF1R signaling cascade, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    IGF1R signaling cascade, organism-specific biosystemAfter autophosphorylation the type 1 insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF1R) binds and phosphorylates scaffold proteins, IRS1/2/4 and SHC1, which in turn bind effectors possessing enzymatic activ...
  • IL2-mediated signaling events, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    IL2-mediated signaling events, organism-specific biosystem
    IL2-mediated signaling events
  • IRS-mediated signalling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    IRS-mediated signalling, organism-specific biosystemRelease of phospho-IRS from the insulin receptor triggers a cascade of signalling events via PI3K, SOS, RAF and the MAP kinases.
  • IRS-related events triggered by IGF1R, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    IRS-related events triggered by IGF1R, organism-specific biosystemThe phosphorylated type 1 insulin-like growth factor receptor phosphorylates IR1, IRS2, IRS4 and possibly other IRS/DOK family members (reviewed in Pavelic et al. 2007, Chitnis et al. 2008, Maki et a...
  • Immune System, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Immune System, organism-specific biosystemHumans are exposed to millions of potential pathogens daily, through contact, ingestion, and inhalation. Our ability to avoid infection depends on the adaptive immune system and during the first crit...
  • Innate Immune System, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Innate Immune System, organism-specific biosystemInnate immunity encompases the nonspecific part of immunity tha are part of an individual's natural biologic makeup
  • Insulin receptor signalling cascade, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Insulin receptor signalling cascade, organism-specific biosystemAutophosphorylation of the insulin receptor triggers a series of signalling events, mediated by SHC or IRS, and resulting in activation of the Ras/RAF and MAP kinase cascades. A second effect of the ...
  • Integration of energy metabolism, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Integration of energy metabolism, organism-specific biosystemMany hormones that affect individual physiological processes including the regulation of appetite, absorption, transport, and oxidation of foodstuffs influence energy metabolism pathways. While insul...
  • Interleukin receptor SHC signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Interleukin receptor SHC signaling, organism-specific biosystemPhosphorylation of Shc at three tyrosine residues, 239, 240 (Gotoh et al. 1996) and 317 (Salcini et al. 1994) involves unidentified tyrosine kinases presumed to be part of the activated receptor comp...
  • Interleukin-2 signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Interleukin-2 signaling, organism-specific biosystemInterleukin-2 (IL-2) is a cytokine that is produced by T cells in response to antigen stimulation. Originally, IL-2 was discovered because of its potent growth factor activity on activated T cells in...
  • Interleukin-3, 5 and GM-CSF signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Interleukin-3, 5 and GM-CSF signaling, organism-specific biosystemThe Interleukin-3 (IL-3), IL-5 and Granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) receptors form a family of heterodimeric receptors that have specific alpha chains but share a common beta...
  • Lissencephaly gene (LIS1) in neuronal migration and development, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    Lissencephaly gene (LIS1) in neuronal migration and development, organism-specific biosystem
    Lissencephaly gene (LIS1) in neuronal migration and development
  • M Phase, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    M Phase, organism-specific biosystemMitosis, or the M phase, involves nuclear division and cytokinesis, where two identical daughter cells are produced. Mitosis involves prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase. Fin...
  • MAP kinase activation in TLR cascade, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    MAP kinase activation in TLR cascade, organism-specific biosystemThe mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade, one of the most ancient and evolutionarily conserved signaling pathways, is involved in many processes of immune responses. The MAP kinases cascad...
  • MAPK family signaling cascades, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    MAPK family signaling cascades, organism-specific biosystemThe mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are a family of conserved protein serine threonine kinases that respond to varied extracellular stimuli to activate intracellular processes including gen...
  • MAPK targets/ Nuclear events mediated by MAP kinases, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    MAPK targets/ Nuclear events mediated by MAP kinases, organism-specific biosystemMAPKs are protein kinases that, once activated, phosphorylate their specific cytosolic or nuclear substrates at serine and/or threonine residues. Such phosphorylation events can either positively or ...
  • MAPK1/MAPK3 signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    MAPK1/MAPK3 signaling, organism-specific biosystemThe extracellular signal regulated kinases (ERKs) 1 and 2, also known as MAPK3 and MAPK1, are phosphorylated by the MAP2Ks 1 and 2 in response to a wide range of extracellular stimuli to promote diff...
  • Metabolism, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Metabolism, organism-specific biosystemMetabolic processes in human cells generate energy through the oxidation of molecules consumed in the diet and mediate the synthesis of diverse essential molecules not taken in the diet as well as th...
  • Metabolism of carbohydrates, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Metabolism of carbohydrates, organism-specific biosystemThese pathways together are responsible for: 1) the extraction of energy and carbon skeletons for biosyntheses from dietary sugars and related molecules; 2) the short-term storage of glucose in the b...
  • Misspliced GSK3beta mutants stabilize beta-catenin, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Misspliced GSK3beta mutants stabilize beta-catenin, organism-specific biosystemGSK3beta is subject to in-frame missplicing in CML stem cells resulting in the production of mutant protein that lacks the AXIN and FRAT binding domains. Cells containing this mutant GSK3beta show e...
  • Mitotic Anaphase, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Mitotic Anaphase, organism-specific biosystemIn anaphase, the paired chromosomes separate at the centromeres, and move to the opposite sides of the cell. The movement of the chromosomes is facilitated by a combination of kinetochore movement al...
  • Mitotic Metaphase and Anaphase, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Mitotic Metaphase and Anaphase, organism-specific biosystemMetaphase is marked by the formation of the metaphase plate. The metaphase plate is formed when the spindle fibers align the chromosomes along the middle of the cell. Such an organization helps to ...
  • Mitotic Prometaphase, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Mitotic Prometaphase, organism-specific biosystemThe dissolution of the nuclear membrane marks the beginning of the prometaphase. Kinetochores are created when proteins attach to the centromeres. Microtubules then attach at the kinetochores, and th...
  • MyD88 cascade initiated on plasma membrane, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    MyD88 cascade initiated on plasma membrane, organism-specific biosystemMammalian myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) is Toll/interleukin (IL)-1 (TIR)-domain containing adapter protein which plays crucial role in TLR signaling. All TLRs, with only one exception of...
  • MyD88 dependent cascade initiated on endosome, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    MyD88 dependent cascade initiated on endosome, organism-specific biosystemUpon binding of their ligands, TLR7/8 and TLR9 recruit a cytoplasmic adaptor MyD88 and IRAKs, downstream of which the signaling pathways are divided to induce either inflammatory cytokines or type I ...
  • MyD88-independent TLR3/TLR4 cascade, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    MyD88-independent TLR3/TLR4 cascade, organism-specific biosystemMyD88-independent signaling pathway is shared by TLR3 and TLR4 cascades. TIR-domain-containing adapter-inducing interferon-beta (TRIF or TICAM1) is a key adapter molecule in transducing signals from ...
  • MyD88:Mal cascade initiated on plasma membrane, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    MyD88:Mal cascade initiated on plasma membrane, organism-specific biosystemThe first known downstream component of TLR4 and TLR2 signaling is the adaptor MyD88. Another adapter MyD88-adaptor-like (Mal; also known as TIR-domain-containing adaptor protein or TIRAP) has also b...
  • NCAM signaling for neurite out-growth, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    NCAM signaling for neurite out-growth, organism-specific biosystemThe neural cell adhesion molecule, NCAM, is a member of the immunoglobulin (Ig) superfamily and is involved in a variety of cellular processes of importance for the formation and maintenance of the n...
  • NGF signalling via TRKA from the plasma membrane, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    NGF signalling via TRKA from the plasma membrane, organism-specific biosystemTrk receptors signal from the plasma membrane and from intracellular membranes, particularly from early endosomes. Signalling from the plasma membrane is fast but transient; signalling from endosomes...
  • Negative regulation of MAPK pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Negative regulation of MAPK pathway, organism-specific biosystemThe duration and extent of activated MAPK signaling is regulated at many levels through mechanisms that include phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, changes to protein interacting partners and subc...
  • Negative regulation of the PI3K/AKT network, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Negative regulation of the PI3K/AKT network, organism-specific biosystemThe PI3K/AKT network is negatively regulated by phosphatases that dephosphorylate PIP3, thus hampering AKT activation.
  • Nuclear Events (kinase and transcription factor activation), organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Nuclear Events (kinase and transcription factor activation), organism-specific biosystemAn important function of the kinase cascade triggered by neurotrophins is to induce the phosphorylation and activation of transcription factors in the nucleus to initiate new programs of gene express...
  • Oocyte meiosis, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Oocyte meiosis, organism-specific biosystemDuring meiosis, a single round of DNA replication is followed by two rounds of chromosome segregation, called meiosis I and meiosis II. At meiosis I, homologous chromosomes recombine and then segrega...
  • Oocyte meiosis, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Oocyte meiosis, conserved biosystemDuring meiosis, a single round of DNA replication is followed by two rounds of chromosome segregation, called meiosis I and meiosis II. At meiosis I, homologous chromosomes recombine and then segrega...
  • Opioid Signalling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Opioid Signalling, organism-specific biosystemOpioids are chemical substances similar to opiates, the active substances found in opium (morphine, codeine etc.). Opioid action is mediated by the receptors for endogenous opioids; peptides such as...
  • PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemThe phosphatidylinositol 3' -kinase(PI3K)-Akt signaling pathway is activated by many types of cellular stimuli or toxic insults and regulates fundamental cellular functions such as transcription, tra...
  • PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, conserved biosystemThe phosphatidylinositol 3' -kinase(PI3K)-Akt signaling pathway is activated by many types of cellular stimuli or toxic insults and regulates fundamental cellular functions such as transcription, tra...
  • PI3K/AKT activation, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    PI3K/AKT activation, organism-specific biosystemPI3K/AKT signalling is a major regulator of neuron survival. It blocks cell death by both impinging on the cytoplasmic cell death machinery and by regulating the expression of genes involved in cell...
  • PI5P, PP2A and IER3 Regulate PI3K/AKT Signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    PI5P, PP2A and IER3 Regulate PI3K/AKT Signaling, organism-specific biosystemPhosphatidylinositol-5-phosphate (PI5P) may modulate PI3K/AKT signaling in several ways. PI5P is used as a substrate for production of phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate, PI(4,5)P2 (Rameh et al. 1...
  • PIP3 activates AKT signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    PIP3 activates AKT signaling, organism-specific biosystemSignaling by AKT is one of the key outcomes of receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) activation. AKT is activated by the cellular second messenger PIP3, a phospholipid that is generated by PI3K. In ustimula...
  • PP2A-mediated dephosphorylation of key metabolic factors, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    PP2A-mediated dephosphorylation of key metabolic factors, organism-specific biosystemA member of the PP2A family of phosphatases dephosphorylates both cytosolic and nuclear forms of ChREBP (Carbohydrate Response Elemant Binding Protein). In the nucleus, dephosphorylated ChREBP comple...
  • Platelet homeostasis, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Platelet homeostasis, organism-specific biosystemUnder normal conditions the vascular endothelium supports vasodilation, inhibits platelet adhesion and activation, suppresses coagulation, enhances fibrin cleavage and is anti-inflammatory in charact...
  • Platelet sensitization by LDL, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Platelet sensitization by LDL, organism-specific biosystemPhysiological concentrations (1g/L) of Low density lipoprotein (LDL) enhance platelet aggregation responses initiated by thrombin, collagen, and ADP. This enhancement involves the rapid phosphorylati...
  • Presenilin action in Notch and Wnt signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    Presenilin action in Notch and Wnt signaling, organism-specific biosystem
    Presenilin action in Notch and Wnt signaling
  • Prolonged ERK activation events, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Prolonged ERK activation events, organism-specific biosystemAfter NGF binding, activated Trk receptors provide multiple docking sites for adaptor proteins and enzymes. Two docking proteins, the Ankyrin-Rich Membrane Spanning protein (ARMS/Kidins220) and Fibro...
  • RAF activation, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    RAF activation, organism-specific biosystemMammals have three RAF isoforms, A, B and C, that are activated downstream of RAS and stimulate the MAPK pathway. Although CRAF (also known as RAF-1) was the first identified and remains perhaps the ...
  • RAF/MAP kinase cascade, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    RAF/MAP kinase cascade, organism-specific biosystemThe RAS-RAF-MEK-ERK pathway regulates processes such as proliferation, differentiation, survival, senescence and cell motility in response to growth factors, hormones and cytokines, among others. Bin...
  • RET signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    RET signaling, organism-specific biosystemThe RET proto-oncogene encodes a receptor tyrosine kinase expressed primarily in urogenital precursor cells, spermatogonocytes, dopaminergic neurons, motor neurons and neural crest progenitors and de...
  • RHO GTPase Effectors, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    RHO GTPase Effectors, organism-specific biosystemRHO GTPases regulate cell behaviour by activating a number of downstream effectors that regulate cytoskeletal organization, intracellular trafficking and transcription (reviewed by Sahai and Marshall...
  • RHO GTPases Activate Formins, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    RHO GTPases Activate Formins, organism-specific biosystemFormins are a family of proteins with 15 members in mammals, organized into 8 subfamilies. Formins are involved in the regulation of actin cytoskeleton. Many but not all formin family members are act...
  • Resolution of Sister Chromatid Cohesion, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Resolution of Sister Chromatid Cohesion, organism-specific biosystemThe resolution of sister chromatids in mitotic prometaphase involves removal of cohesin complexes from chromosomal arms, with preservation of cohesion at centromeres (Losada et al. 1998, Hauf et al. ...
  • Role of LAT2/NTAL/LAB on calcium mobilization, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Role of LAT2/NTAL/LAB on calcium mobilization, organism-specific biosystemThe lipid raft resident adaptor molecules LAT1 and Non-T cell activation linker (NTAL), also known as linker for activation of B cells (LAB)/LAT2 are known participants in the regulation of mast cell...
  • S33 mutants of beta-catenin aren't phosphorylated, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    S33 mutants of beta-catenin aren't phosphorylated, organism-specific biosystemS33 mutations of beta-catenin interfere with GSK3 phosphorylation and result in stabilization and nuclear localization of the protein and enhanced WNT signaling (Groen et al, 2008; Nhieu et al, 1999;...
  • S37 mutants of beta-catenin aren't phosphorylated, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    S37 mutants of beta-catenin aren't phosphorylated, organism-specific biosystemS37 mutations of beta-catenin interfere with GSK3 phosphorylation and stabilize the protein, resulting in enhanced WNT pathway signaling (Nhieu et al, 1999; Clements et al, 2002; reviewed in Polakis,...
  • S45 mutants of beta-catenin aren't phosphorylated, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    S45 mutants of beta-catenin aren't phosphorylated, organism-specific biosystemS45 mutants of beta-catenin have been identified in colorectal and hepatocellular carcinomas, soft tissue cancer and Wilms Tumors, among others (reviewed in Polakis, 2000). These mutations abolish th...
  • SHC1 events in EGFR signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    SHC1 events in EGFR signaling, organism-specific biosystemGRB2 can bind EGFR directly or through another SH2-containing protein, SHC1. This association leads to RAS activation.
  • SOS-mediated signalling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    SOS-mediated signalling, organism-specific biosystemSOS is recruited to the plasma membrane and mediates activation of Ras.
  • Separation of Sister Chromatids, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Separation of Sister Chromatids, organism-specific biosystemWhile sister chromatids resolve in prometaphase, separating along chromosomal arms, the cohesion of sister centromeres persists until anaphase. At the anaphase onset, the anaphase promoting complex/c...
  • Signal Transduction, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signal Transduction, organism-specific biosystemSignal transduction is a process in which extracellular signals elicit changes in cell state and activity. Transmembrane receptors sense changes in the cellular environment by binding ligands, such a...
  • Signaling by EGFR, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signaling by EGFR, organism-specific biosystemThe epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is one member of the ERBB family of transmembrane glycoprotein tyrosine receptor kinases (RTK). Binding of EGFR to its ligands induces conformational chang...
  • Signaling by GPCR, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signaling by GPCR, organism-specific biosystemG protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs; 7TM receptors; seven transmembrane domain receptors; heptahelical receptors; G protein-linked receptors [GPLR]) are the largest family of transmembrane receptors i...
  • Signaling by Insulin receptor, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signaling by Insulin receptor, organism-specific biosystemInsulin binding to its receptor results in receptor autophosphorylation on tyrosine residues and the tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrates (e.g. IRS and Shc) by the insulin receptor...
  • Signaling by Interleukins, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signaling by Interleukins, organism-specific biosystemInterleukins are low molecular weight proteins that bind to cell surface receptors and act in an autocrine and/or paracrine fashion. They were first identified as factors produced by leukocytes but a...
  • Signaling by Leptin, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signaling by Leptin, organism-specific biosystemLeptin (LEP, OB, OBS), a circulating adipokine, and its receptor LEPR (DB, OBR) control food intake and energy balance and are implicated in obesity-related diseases (recently reviewed in Amitani et ...
  • Signaling by PDGF, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signaling by PDGF, organism-specific biosystemPlatelet-derived Growth Factor (PDGF) is a potent stimulator of growth and motility of connective tissue cells such as fibroblasts and smooth muscle cells as well as other cells such as capillary end...
  • Signaling by Rho GTPases, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signaling by Rho GTPases, organism-specific biosystemThe Rho family of small guanine nucleotide binding proteins is one of five generally recognized branches of the Ras superfamily. Like most Ras superfamily members, typical Rho proteins function as bi...
  • Signaling by SCF-KIT, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signaling by SCF-KIT, organism-specific biosystemStem cell factor (SCF) is a growth factor with membrane bound and soluble forms. It is expressed by fibroblasts and endothelial cells throughout the body, promoting proliferation, migration, survival...
  • Signaling by Type 1 Insulin-like Growth Factor 1 Receptor (IGF1R), organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signaling by Type 1 Insulin-like Growth Factor 1 Receptor (IGF1R), organism-specific biosystemBinding of IGF1 (IGF-I) or IGF2 (IGF-II) to the extracellular alpha peptides of the type 1 insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF1R) triggers the activation of two major signaling pathways: the SOS...
  • Signaling by VEGF, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signaling by VEGF, organism-specific biosystemIn normal development vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGFs) are crucial regulators of vascular development during embryogenesis (vasculogenesis) and blood-vessel formation in the adult (angioge...
  • Signaling by WNT in cancer, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signaling by WNT in cancer, organism-specific biosystemThe WNT signaling pathway has been linked with cancer ever since the identification of the first WNT as a gene activated by integration of mouse mammary tumor virus proviral DNA in virally-induced br...
  • Signaling by Wnt, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signaling by Wnt, organism-specific biosystemWNT signaling pathways control a wide range of developmental and adult process in metozoans including cell proliferation, cell fate decisions, cell polarity and stem cell maintenance (reviewed in Sai...
  • Signaling by the B Cell Receptor (BCR), organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signaling by the B Cell Receptor (BCR), organism-specific biosystemMature B cells express IgM and IgD immunoglobulins which are complexed at the plasma membrane with Ig-alpha (CD79A, MB-1) and Ig-beta (CD79B, B29) to form the B cell receptor (BCR) (Fu et al. 1974, F...
  • Signalling by NGF, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signalling by NGF, organism-specific biosystemNeurotrophins (NGF, BDNF, NT-3, NT-4/5) play pivotal roles in survival, differentiation, and plasticity of neurons in the peripheral and central nervous system. They are produced, and secreted in mi...
  • Signalling to ERKs, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signalling to ERKs, organism-specific biosystemNeurotrophins utilize multiple pathways to activate ERKs (ERK1 and ERK2), a subgroup of the large MAP kinase (MAPK) family, from the plasma membrane. The major signalling pathways to ERKs are via RAS...
  • Signalling to RAS, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signalling to RAS, organism-specific biosystemSignalling through Shc adaptor proteins appears to be identical for both NGF and EGF. It leads to a fast, but transient, MAPK/ERK activation, which is insufficient to explain the prolonged activation...
  • Signalling to p38 via RIT and RIN, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signalling to p38 via RIT and RIN, organism-specific biosystemRIT and RIN are two small guanine nucleotide binding proteins that share more than 50% sequence identity with RAS, including highly conserved core effector domains. Unlike RAS, the C termini of RIT a...
  • Sphingolipid signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Sphingolipid signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemSphingomyelin (SM) and its metabolic products are now known to have second messenger functions in a variety of cellular signaling pathways. Particularly, the sphingolipid metabolites, ceramide (Cer) ...
  • Sphingolipid signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Sphingolipid signaling pathway, conserved biosystemSphingomyelin (SM) and its metabolic products are now known to have second messenger functions in a variety of cellular signaling pathways. Particularly, the sphingolipid metabolites, ceramide (Cer) ...
  • T41 mutants of beta-catenin aren't phosphorylated, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    T41 mutants of beta-catenin aren't phosphorylated, organism-specific biosystemT41 mutations of beta-catenin interfere with GSK3 phosphorylation and result in stabilization and nuclear accumulation of the protein (Moreno-Bueno et al, 2002; Taniguchi et al, 2002; reviewed in Pol...
  • TCF dependent signaling in response to WNT, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    TCF dependent signaling in response to WNT, organism-specific biosystem19 WNT ligands and 10 FZD receptors have been identified in human cells; interactions amongst these ligands and receptors vary in a developmental and tissue-specific manner and lead to activation of ...
  • TRAF6 mediated induction of NFkB and MAP kinases upon TLR7/8 or 9 activation, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    TRAF6 mediated induction of NFkB and MAP kinases upon TLR7/8 or 9 activation, organism-specific biosystemTRAF6 mediates NFkB activation via canonical phosphorylation of IKK complex by TAK1. TRAF6 and TAK1 also regulate MAPK cascades leading to the activation of AP-1.
  • TRIF-mediated TLR3/TLR4 signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    TRIF-mediated TLR3/TLR4 signaling, organism-specific biosystemTRIF(TICAM1) was shown to induce IRF3/7 and NF-?B activation and apoptosis through distinct intracellular signaling pathways [Han KJ et al 2004; Kaiser WJ and Offermann MK et al 2005]. TRIF consists...
  • Toll Like Receptor 10 (TLR10) Cascade, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Toll Like Receptor 10 (TLR10) Cascade, organism-specific biosystemLittle is known about TLR10 ligands. It has been established that the receptor homodimerizes upon binding and signals in an MyD88-dependent manner (Hasan U et al 2005; Nyman T et al 2008). It may als...
  • Toll Like Receptor 2 (TLR2) Cascade, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Toll Like Receptor 2 (TLR2) Cascade, organism-specific biosystemTLR2 is involved in recognition of peptidoglycan from gram-positive bacteria, bacterial lipoproteins, mycoplasma lipoprotein and mycobacterial products. It is quite possible that recognition of at le...
  • Toll Like Receptor 3 (TLR3) Cascade, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Toll Like Receptor 3 (TLR3) Cascade, organism-specific biosystemToll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) as was shown for mammals is expressed on myeloid dendritic cells, respiratory epithelium, macrophages, and appears to play a central role in mediating the antiviral and in...
  • Toll Like Receptor 4 (TLR4) Cascade, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Toll Like Receptor 4 (TLR4) Cascade, organism-specific biosystemToll-like Receptor 4 is a Microbe Associated Molecular Pattern receptor well known for it's sensitivity to Bacterial Lipopolysaccharides (LPS). LPS is assembled within diverse Gram-negative bacteria,...
  • Toll Like Receptor 5 (TLR5) Cascade, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Toll Like Receptor 5 (TLR5) Cascade, organism-specific biosystemTLR5 is the receptor for flagellin, the protein that forms bacterial flagella. Unlike most other Pathogen-Associated Molecular Patterns (PAMPs), flagellin does not undergo any posttranslational modif...
  • Toll Like Receptor 7/8 (TLR7/8) Cascade, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Toll Like Receptor 7/8 (TLR7/8) Cascade, organism-specific biosystemRNA can serve as a danger signal, both in its double-stranded form (that is associated with viral infection), as well as single-stranded RNA (ssRNA). Specifically, guanosine (G)- and uridine (U)-rich...
  • Toll Like Receptor 9 (TLR9) Cascade, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Toll Like Receptor 9 (TLR9) Cascade, organism-specific biosystemCpG DNA is an unusual Pathogen-Associated Molecular Pattern (PAMP). Cytosine methylation exists in mammalian but not bacterial cells, and most (but not all) CpG in the mammalian genome is methylated....
  • Toll Like Receptor TLR1:TLR2 Cascade, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Toll Like Receptor TLR1:TLR2 Cascade, organism-specific biosystemTLR1 is expressed by monocytes. TLR1 and TLR2 cotranslationally form heterodimeric complexes on the cell surface and in the cytosol. The TLR2:TLR1 complex recognizes Neisserial PorB and Mycobacterial...
  • Toll Like Receptor TLR6:TLR2 Cascade, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Toll Like Receptor TLR6:TLR2 Cascade, organism-specific biosystemTLR2 and TLR4 recognize different bacterial cell wall components. While TLR4 is trained onto Gram-negative lipopolysaccharide components, TLR2 - in combination with TLR6 - plays a major role in recog...
  • Toll-Like Receptors Cascades, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Toll-Like Receptors Cascades, organism-specific biosystemIn human, ten members of the Toll-like receptor (TLR) family (TLR1-TLR10) have been identified (TLR11 has been found in mouse, but not in human). All TLRs have a similar Toll/IL-1 receptor (TIR) doma...
  • Truncations of AMER1 destabilize the destruction complex, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Truncations of AMER1 destabilize the destruction complex, organism-specific biosystemAMER1/WTX is a known component of the destruction complex and interacts directly with beta-catenin through the C-terminal half (Major et al, 2007). siRNA depletion of AMER1 in mammalian cells stabil...
  • VEGFA-VEGFR2 Pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    VEGFA-VEGFR2 Pathway, organism-specific biosystemAngiogenesis is the formation of new blood vessels from preexisting vasculature. One of the most important proangiogenic factors is vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). VEGF exerts its biologic...
  • VEGFR2 mediated cell proliferation, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    VEGFR2 mediated cell proliferation, organism-specific biosystemVEGFR2 stimulates ERK not via GRB2-SOS-RAS, but via pY1175-dependent phosphorylation of PLC gamma and subsequent activation of PKCs. PKC plays an important mediatory role in the proliferative Ras/Raf...
  • mRNA surveillance pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    mRNA surveillance pathway, organism-specific biosystemThe mRNA surveillance pathway is a quality control mechanism that detects and degrades abnormal mRNAs. These pathways include nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD), nonstop mRNA decay (NSD), and no-go ...
  • mRNA surveillance pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    mRNA surveillance pathway, conserved biosystemThe mRNA surveillance pathway is a quality control mechanism that detects and degrades abnormal mRNAs. These pathways include nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD), nonstop mRNA decay (NSD), and no-go ...
  • phosphorylation site mutants of CTNNB1 are not targeted to the proteasome by the destruction complex, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    phosphorylation site mutants of CTNNB1 are not targeted to the proteasome by the destruction complex, organism-specific biosystemMutations in exon 3 of the beta-catenin gene have been identified in a number of human cancers (Morin et al, 1997; Rubinfeld et al, 1997; reviewed in Polakis, 2000; Polakis, 2007). These mutations g...
  • truncated APC mutants destabilize the destruction complex, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    truncated APC mutants destabilize the destruction complex, organism-specific biosystemAPC is a large and central component of the destruction complex, which limits signaling in the absence of WNT ligand by promoting the ubiquitin-mediated degradation of beta-catenin. APC interacts wi...

Interactions

Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

General gene information

Markers

Homology

Clone Names

  • MGC2134, MGC8949

Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

Function Evidence Code Pubs
phosphoprotein phosphatase activity IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
protein binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
protein phosphatase activator activity IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
protein phosphatase regulator activity TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
protein serine/threonine phosphatase activity TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
Process Evidence Code Pubs
negative regulation of peptidyl-threonine phosphorylation IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
nervous system development TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of protein dephosphorylation IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
protein dephosphorylation IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
protein dephosphorylation IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
regulation of phosphoprotein phosphatase activity IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
regulation of protein autophosphorylation IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
signal transduction IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
Component Evidence Code Pubs
cytosol IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
cytosol TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
nucleoplasm TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
nucleus IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
protein phosphatase type 2A complex IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 

General protein information

Preferred Names
serine/threonine-protein phosphatase 2A 56 kDa regulatory subunit delta isoform
Names
PP2A, B subunit, B' delta isoform
PP2A, B subunit, B56 delta isoform
PP2A, B subunit, PR61 delta isoform
PP2A, B subunit, R5 delta isoform
Serine/threonine protein phosphatase 2A, 56 kDa regulatory subunit, delta isoform
protein phosphatase 2, regulatory subunit B (B56), delta isoform

NCBI Reference Sequences (RefSeq)

RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

Genomic

  1. NG_050636.1 RefSeqGene

    Range
    5001..32847
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. NM_001270476.1NP_001257405.1  serine/threonine-protein phosphatase 2A 56 kDa regulatory subunit delta isoform isoform 4

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001257405.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (4) uses an alternate splice junction at the 5' end of an exon compared to variant 1, resulting in a transcript that is translated from a downstream AUG. The resulting isoform (4) is shorter at the N-terminus compared to isoform 1.
    Source sequence(s)
    AK122701, AL136304, BC001095, DA388594
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    Q14738
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    pfam01603
    Location:1362
    B56; Protein phosphatase 2A regulatory B subunit (B56 family)
  2. NM_006245.4NP_006236.1  serine/threonine-protein phosphatase 2A 56 kDa regulatory subunit delta isoform isoform 1

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_006236.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (1) represents the longest transcript, and encodes the longest isoform (1).
    Source sequence(s)
    BC010692, DA388594
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS4878.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    Q14738
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    A0A024RD11
    Related
    ENSP00000417963.1, ENST00000485511.5
    Conserved Domains (2) summary
    pfam01603
    Location:108513
    B56; Protein phosphatase 2A regulatory B subunit (B56 family)
    cl27532
    Location:56122
    B56; Protein phosphatase 2A regulatory B subunit (B56 family)
  3. NM_180976.2NP_851307.1  serine/threonine-protein phosphatase 2A 56 kDa regulatory subunit delta isoform isoform 2

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_851307.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (2) lacks an in-frame segment of the coding region, compared to variant 1. It encodes a shorter isoform (2), that is missing an internal segment compared to isoform 1.
    Source sequence(s)
    BC001095, BC001175, DA388594
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS55002.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    Q14738
    Related
    ENSP00000377669.3, ENST00000394110.7
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    pfam01603
    Location:82481
    B56; Protein phosphatase 2A regulatory B subunit (B56 family)
  4. NM_180977.2NP_851308.1  serine/threonine-protein phosphatase 2A 56 kDa regulatory subunit delta isoform isoform 3

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_851308.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (3) lacks an in-frame segment of the coding region, compared to variant 1. It encodes a shorter isoform (3), that is missing an internal segment compared to isoform 1.
    Source sequence(s)
    AB000635, BC001095, DA388594
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS43464.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    Q14738
    Related
    ENSP00000420674.1, ENST00000461010.5
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    pfam01603
    Location:6407
    B56; Protein phosphatase 2A regulatory B subunit (B56 family)

RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: Homo sapiens Annotation Release 109

The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

Reference GRCh38.p12 Primary Assembly

Genomic

  1. NC_000006.12 Reference GRCh38.p12 Primary Assembly

    Range
    42984499..43012345
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)
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