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TREM2 triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

Gene ID: 54209, updated on 11-Sep-2019

Summary

Official Symbol
TREM2provided by HGNC
Official Full Name
triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2provided by HGNC
Primary source
HGNC:HGNC:17761
See related
Ensembl:ENSG00000095970 MIM:605086
Gene type
protein coding
RefSeq status
REVIEWED
Organism
Homo sapiens
Lineage
Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
Also known as
PLOSL2; TREM-2; Trem2a; Trem2b; Trem2c
Summary
This gene encodes a membrane protein that forms a receptor signaling complex with the TYRO protein tyrosine kinase binding protein. The encoded protein functions in immune response and may be involved in chronic inflammation by triggering the production of constitutive inflammatory cytokines. Defects in this gene are a cause of polycystic lipomembranous osteodysplasia with sclerosing leukoencephalopathy (PLOSL). Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2012]
Expression
Broad expression in brain (RPKM 11.5), lung (RPKM 7.7) and 14 other tissues See more
Orthologs

Genomic context

See TREM2 in Genome Data Viewer
Location:
6p21.1
Exon count:
5
Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
109.20190905 current GRCh38.p13 (GCF_000001405.39) 6 NC_000006.12 (41158508..41163116, complement)
105 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 6 NC_000006.11 (41126244..41130924, complement)

Chromosome 6 - NC_000006.12Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene nuclear transcription factor Y subunit alpha Neighboring gene ADCY10 pseudogene 1 Neighboring gene uncharacterized LOC105375056 Neighboring gene triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells like 1 Neighboring gene uncharacterized LOC107986595 Neighboring gene triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells like 2

Genomic regions, transcripts, and products

Expression

  • Project title: HPA RNA-seq normal tissues
  • Description: RNA-seq was performed of tissue samples from 95 human individuals representing 27 different tissues in order to determine tissue-specificity of all protein-coding genes
  • BioProject: PRJEB4337
  • Publication: PMID 24309898
  • Analysis date: Wed Apr 4 07:08:55 2018

Bibliography

GeneRIFs: Gene References Into Functions

What's a GeneRIF?

Phenotypes

Associated conditions

Description Tests
POLYCYSTIC LIPOMEMBRANOUS OSTEODYSPLASIA WITH SCLEROSING LEUKOENCEPHALOPATHY 2
MedGen: C4748657 OMIM: 618193 GeneReviews: Not available
Compare labs

NHGRI GWAS Catalog

Description
Genome-wide association and population genetic analysis of C-reactive protein in African American and Hispanic American women.
NHGRI GWA Catalog
Variant of TREM2 associated with the risk of Alzheimer's disease.
NHGRI GWA Catalog

HIV-1 interactions

Protein interactions

Protein Gene Interaction Pubs
Envelope transmembrane glycoprotein gp41 env A synthetic peptide corresponding to the immunosuppressive domain (amino acids 574-592) of HIV-1 gp41 downregulates the expression of triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (TREM2) in peptide-treated PBMCs PubMed

Go to the HIV-1, Human Interaction Database

Pathways from BioSystems

  • Adaptive Immune System, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Adaptive Immune System, organism-specific biosystemAdaptive immunity refers to antigen-specific immune response efficiently involved in clearing the pathogens. The adaptive immune system is comprised of B and T lymphocytes that express receptors with...
  • Axon guidance, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Axon guidance, organism-specific biosystemAxon guidance / axon pathfinding is the process by which neurons send out axons to reach the correct targets. Growing axons have a highly motile structure at the growing tip called the growth cone, w...
  • DAP12 interactions, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    DAP12 interactions, organism-specific biosystemDNAX activation protein of 12kDa (DAP12) is an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM)-bearing adapter molecule that transduces activating signals in natural killer (NK) and myeloid cel...
  • DAP12 signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    DAP12 signaling, organism-specific biosystemIn response to receptor ligation, the tyrosine residues in DAP12's immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM) are phosphorylated by Src family kinases. These phosphotyrosines form the dock...
  • Developmental Biology, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Developmental Biology, organism-specific biosystemAs a first step towards capturing the array of processes by which a fertilized egg gives rise to the diverse tissues of the body, examples of three kinds of processes have been annotated. These are a...
  • Immune System, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Immune System, organism-specific biosystemHumans are exposed to millions of potential pathogens daily, through contact, ingestion, and inhalation. Our ability to avoid infection depends on the adaptive immune system and during the first crit...
  • Immunoregulatory interactions between a Lymphoid and a non-Lymphoid cell, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Immunoregulatory interactions between a Lymphoid and a non-Lymphoid cell, organism-specific biosystemA number of receptors and cell adhesion molecules play a key role in modifying the response of cells of lymphoid origin (such as B-, T- and NK cells) to self and tumor antigens, as well as to pathoge...
  • Innate Immune System, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Innate Immune System, organism-specific biosystemInnate immunity encompases the nonspecific part of immunity tha are part of an individual's natural biologic makeup
  • Osteoclast differentiation, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Osteoclast differentiation, organism-specific biosystemThe osteoclasts, multinucleared cells originating from the hematopoietic monocyte-macrophage lineage, are responsible for bone resorption. Osteoclastogenesis is mainly regulated by signaling pathways...
  • Osteoclast differentiation, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Osteoclast differentiation, conserved biosystemThe osteoclasts, multinucleared cells originating from the hematopoietic monocyte-macrophage lineage, are responsible for bone resorption. Osteoclastogenesis is mainly regulated by signaling pathways...
  • Other semaphorin interactions, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Other semaphorin interactions, organism-specific biosystemThere are eight classes of semaphorins and four types of plexins. Semaphorin (SEMA) classes 1 and 2 are found in invertebrates and classes 3-7 are vertebrate sempahorines. Sempahorin class 3 is secre...
  • Semaphorin interactions, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Semaphorin interactions, organism-specific biosystemSemaphorins are a large family of cell surface and secreted guidance molecules divided into eight classes on the basis of their structures. They all have an N-terminal conserved sema domain. Semaphor...

Interactions

Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

General gene information

Markers

Homology

Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

Function Evidence Code Pubs
amyloid-beta binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
apolipoprotein A-I binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
apolipoprotein binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
high-density lipoprotein particle binding IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
lipid binding TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
lipopolysaccharide binding IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
lipoprotein particle binding IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
lipoteichoic acid binding IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
low-density lipoprotein particle binding IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
peptidoglycan binding IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
phospholipid binding IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
protein binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
protein tyrosine kinase binding ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
PubMed 
protein-containing complex binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
scaffold protein binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
signaling receptor activity ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
PubMed 
very-low-density lipoprotein particle binding IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
Process Evidence Code Pubs
amyloid-beta clearance IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
apoptotic cell clearance ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
astrocyte activation ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
cellular response to amyloid-beta ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
PubMed 
cellular response to lipoteichoic acid IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
cellular response to peptidoglycan IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
complement-mediated synapse pruning IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
defense response to bacterium IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
dendritic cell differentiation IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
detection of lipopolysaccharide IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
detection of lipoteichoic acid IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
detection of peptidoglycan IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
humoral immune response TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
import into cell ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
innate immune response TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
microglial cell activation ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
PubMed 
microglial cell activation involved in immune response IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
microglial cell proliferation IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
negative regulation of apoptotic process IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
negative regulation of autophagic cell death ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
negative regulation of autophagy ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
negative regulation of interleukin-1 beta production IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
negative regulation of tumor necrosis factor production IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
osteoclast differentiation IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
phagocytosis, engulfment IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
positive regulation of ATP biosynthetic process ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
positive regulation of C-C chemokine receptor CCR7 signaling pathway IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of CAMKK-AMPK signaling cascade ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
positive regulation of CD40 signaling pathway IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of ERK1 and ERK2 cascade IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of ERK1 and ERK2 cascade IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of NIK/NF-kappaB signaling IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
positive regulation of TOR signaling ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
positive regulation of amyloid-beta clearance ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
positive regulation of antigen processing and presentation of peptide antigen via MHC class II IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of calcium-mediated signaling IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of chemotaxis ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
positive regulation of engulfment of apoptotic cell IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of gene expression ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
positive regulation of interleukin-10 production IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
positive regulation of inward rectifier potassium channel activity ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of macrophage fusion ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
positive regulation of microglial cell activation IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of microglial cell migration ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of mitochondrion organization ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
positive regulation of osteoclast differentiation IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
positive regulation of peptidyl-tyrosine phosphorylation IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of phagocytosis, engulfment IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of proteasomal protein catabolic process ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of protein localization to plasma membrane IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of protein phosphorylation ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of protein secretion IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
regulation of TOR signaling ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
regulation of gene expression ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
PubMed 
regulation of immune response TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
regulation of innate immune response IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
regulation of interleukin-6 production ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
PubMed 
regulation of intracellular signal transduction ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
PubMed 
regulation of macrophage inflammatory protein 1 alpha production ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
PubMed 
regulation of peptidyl-tyrosine phosphorylation ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
PubMed 
regulation of plasma membrane bounded cell projection organization IGI
Inferred from Genetic Interaction
more info
PubMed 
regulation of plasma membrane bounded cell projection organization ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
regulation of resting membrane potential ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
PubMed 
response to ischemia IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
Component Evidence Code Pubs
extracellular region IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
integral component of membrane IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
integral component of plasma membrane IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
intrinsic component of plasma membrane IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
plasma membrane IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
plasma membrane IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
plasma membrane TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 

General protein information

Preferred Names
triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2
Names
triggering receptor expressed on monocytes 2
triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2a

NCBI Reference Sequences (RefSeq)

RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

Genomic

  1. NG_011561.1 RefSeqGene

    Range
    4999..9679
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics), LRG_631

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. NM_001271821.2NP_001258750.1  triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 precursor isoform 2 precursor

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (2), alternately referred to as TREM-2V, lacks a 3' coding exon which results in a frameshift, compared to variant 1. The resulting isoform (2) is shorter compared to isoform 1.
    Source sequence(s)
    AB062787
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS64422.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    Q9NZC2
    Related
    ENSP00000342651.4, ENST00000338469.3
    Conserved Domains (2) summary
    smart00410
    Location:26111
    IG_like; Immunoglobulin like
    cl11960
    Location:23128
    Ig; Immunoglobulin domain
  2. NM_018965.4NP_061838.1  triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 precursor isoform 1 precursor

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_061838.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (1) represents the longer transcript and encodes the longer isoform (1).
    Source sequence(s)
    AF213457, BC032362
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS4852.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    Q9NZC2
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    Q5TCX1
    Related
    ENSP00000362205.3, ENST00000373113.7
    Conserved Domains (2) summary
    smart00410
    Location:26111
    IG_like; Immunoglobulin like
    cl11960
    Location:23128
    Ig; Immunoglobulin domain

RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: Homo sapiens Annotation Release 109 details...Open this link in a new tab

The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

Reference GRCh38.p13 Primary Assembly

Genomic

  1. NC_000006.12 Reference GRCh38.p13 Primary Assembly

    Range
    41158508..41163116 complement
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)
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