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PIK3CA phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit alpha [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

Gene ID: 5290, updated on 24-Sep-2017
Official Symbol
PIK3CAprovided by HGNC
Official Full Name
phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit alphaprovided by HGNC
Primary source
HGNC:HGNC:8975
See related
Ensembl:ENSG00000121879 MIM:171834; Vega:OTTHUMG00000157311
Gene type
protein coding
RefSeq status
REVIEWED
Organism
Homo sapiens
Lineage
Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
Also known as
MCM; CWS5; MCAP; PI3K; CLOVE; MCMTC; PI3K-alpha; p110-alpha
Summary
Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase is composed of an 85 kDa regulatory subunit and a 110 kDa catalytic subunit. The protein encoded by this gene represents the catalytic subunit, which uses ATP to phosphorylate PtdIns, PtdIns4P and PtdIns(4,5)P2. This gene has been found to be oncogenic and has been implicated in cervical cancers. A pseudogene of this gene has been defined on chromosome 22. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2016]
Orthologs
Location:
3q26.32
Exon count:
23
Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
108 current GRCh38.p7 (GCF_000001405.33) 3 NC_000003.12 (179148114..179240093)
105 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 3 NC_000003.11 (178866311..178952500)

Chromosome 3 - NC_000003.12Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene zinc finger matrin-type 3 Neighboring gene uncharacterized LOC101928739 Neighboring gene potassium calcium-activated channel subfamily M regulatory beta subunit 3 Neighboring gene LRR binding FLII interacting protein 1 pseudogene 1 Neighboring gene zinc finger protein 639

  • Project title: HPA RNA-seq normal tissues
  • Description: RNA-seq was performed of tissue samples from 95 human individuals representing 27 different tissues in order to determine tissue-specificity of all protein-coding genes
  • BioProject: PRJEB4337
  • Publication: PMID 24309898
  • Analysis date: Wed Jun 15 11:32:44 2016

GeneRIFs: Gene References Into FunctionsWhat's a GeneRIF?

Associated conditions

Description Tests
Carcinoma of colon
MedGen: C0699790 OMIM: 114500 GeneReviews: Lynch Syndrome
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Congenital lipomatous overgrowth, vascular malformations, and epidermal nevi Compare labs
Cowden syndrome 5
MedGen: C3554518 OMIM: 615108 GeneReviews: Not available
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Epidermal nevus
MedGen: C0334082 OMIM: 162900 GeneReviews: Not available
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Familial cancer of breast Compare labs
Hepatocellular carcinoma
MedGen: C2239176 OMIM: 114550 GeneReviews: Not available
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Keratosis, seborrheic
MedGen: C0022603 OMIM: 182000 GeneReviews: Not available
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Lung cancer
MedGen: C0684249 OMIM: 211980 GeneReviews: Not available
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Megalencephaly cutis marmorata telangiectatica congenita Compare labs
Neoplasm of ovary
MedGen: C0919267 OMIM: 167000 GeneReviews: Not available
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Neoplasm of stomach
MedGen: C0038356 OMIM: 613659 GeneReviews: Not available
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Copy number response

Description
Copy number response
Haploinsufficency

No evidence available (Last evaluated (2015-03-12)

ClinGen Genome Curation Page
Triplosensitivity

No evidence available (Last evaluated (2015-03-12)

ClinGen Genome Curation Page

Protein interactions

Protein Gene Interaction Pubs
Envelope surface glycoprotein gp120 env HIV-1 gp120 upregulates the expression of IL-6 and IL-8 via the p38 signaling pathway and the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway in astrocytes PubMed
env HIV-1 gp120-induced PI3-kinase activity and calcium mobilization are inhibited by pertussis toxin and blocking antibodies directed against CCR5 and CXCR4, suggesting that this signaling is mediated through these chemokine receptors PubMed
env Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and erythropoietin treatment protect against HIV/gp120-mediated neuronal damage in culture and in vivo, in part, through cooperative activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt/GSK-3beta signaling PubMed
env Concomitant activation of Lyn, Pyk2, and class IA PI3K are required for gp120-induced IL-1beta production PubMed
env CCR5 activation by gp120 triggers the assembly of endogenous Lyn, PI3K, and Pyk2 and is associated with PI3K and Pyk2 translocation from the cytoplasm to the membrane where they colocalized with Lyn PubMed
env CD45 modulates HIV-1 gp120-induced apoptosis by regulating Fas ligand induction and activation of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt pathway PubMed
env Pre-treatment of endothelial cells with fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) protects cells from HIV-1 gp120 angiotoxicity; this protection is regulated by crosstalk among the ERK, PI3K-AKT and PKC signaling pathways PubMed
env HIV-1 gp120-induced TNF-alpha production by primary human macrophages is mediated by phosphatidylinositol-3 (PI-3) kinase and mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase pathways PubMed
Envelope surface glycoprotein gp160, precursor env HIV-1 gp160 disrupts the association between phospholipase C gamma-1 and phosphoinositide 3 kinase (PI3-kinase), and this effect is dependent on PI3-kinase activity PubMed
env PI3-kinase activation induced by HIV-1 gp160 leads to downregulation of LFA-1-mediated T cell adhesion to B cells PubMed
Nef nef HIV-1 Nef interacts with AKT1 and PI3K via its C and N terminal extremity, respectively PubMed
nef HIV-1 Nef activation of AKT1 is mediated by PI3K in peripheral blood lymphocytes PubMed
nef HIV-1 Nef involves the PI3K-PKC pathway for induction of IL6 and CXCL8 (IL8) expression PubMed
nef HIV-1 Nef synergizes with KSHV oncoprotein K1 to activate PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway, and induces cell proliferation and microtubule formation in endothelial cells PubMed
nef In the context of Nef-associated kinase complex (NAKC), hnRNP-K interacts with HIV-1 Nef and recruits LCK, PKCdelta, and PI-3 kinase PubMed
nef The presence of HIV-1 Nef in Jurkat cells stimulated with a combination of PMA and anti-CD28 upregulates the levels of PI3K production PubMed
nef Downregulation of cell surface major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I) protein expression by HIV-1 Nef depends on a phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)-regulated signaling pathway, suggesting an interaction between Nef and PI3K PubMed
nef The association of phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase with platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) activated receptor was downregulated by HIV-1 nef expression PubMed
Tat tat HIV-1 Tat and cocaine treatment activates PI3K and AKT in human pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells PubMed
tat HIV-1 Tat induces phosphorylation of PI3K, AKT, PTEN, and GSK-3beta activating PI3K and AKT and inactivating PTEN and GSK-3beta in vIL-6 expressing cells PubMed
tat HIV-1 Tat-induced upregulation of IDO production requires the activity of IFN-gamma signaling pathway such as JAK and PI3K in human monocyte derived-dendritic cells PubMed
tat PI3K/Akt, TRPC, and GSK3beta signaling pathways are all involved in PDGF-C mediated neuroprotection against HIV-1 Tat in human neuroblastoma cells PubMed
tat Arctigenin regulates the upstream PI3K enzyme from converting PIP2 to PIP3 in Tat-expressing CHME5 cells PubMed
tat Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt signaling pathway is involved in HIV-1 Tat-induced NADPH oxidase stimulation and LTR transactivation PubMed
tat HIV-1 Tat in combination with KSHV kaposin A activates the MEK/ERK, STAT3, and PI3K/Akt signals in NIH3T3 cells PubMed
tat HIV-1 Tat-mediated cytopathic changes in human brain micro vascular endothelial cells involves its interaction with phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) PubMed
tat Pro-survival effects of intracellular HIV-1 Tat in a microglial cell line is attributed to activation of the PI-3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway via decreasing expression of PTEN, a negative regulator of the PI-3-K pathway PubMed
tat HIV-1 Tat activates phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), leading to the activation of Akt/PKB, decreased levels of cAMP and CREB phosphorylation, and the protection of cells from apoptosis PubMed
tat Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibits HIV-1 Tat-mediated transactivation of the HIV-1 LTR promoter by affecting the formation of the Tat-associated kinase transactivating complex PubMed
tat HIV-1 Tat induced release of MCP-1 from human lung microvascular endothelial cells involves an interaction between Tat and PI3 kinase PubMed
tat Activation of protein kinase C-epsilon by HIV-1 Tat involves an interaction with PI 3-kinase PubMed
Vpr vpr PI3K/Akt mediated activation of NFKB1 (NF-kappa-B) is involved in HIV-1 Vpr induced upregulation of IL6 in astrocytes PubMed
vpr PI3K/Akt mediated activation of NFKB1 (NF-kappa-B) is involved in HIV-1 Vpr induced upregulation of CXCL8 (IL8) in astrocytes PubMed

Go to the HIV-1, Human Interaction Database

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  • Amoebiasis, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
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  • Apoptosis, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
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  • Apoptosis, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
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  • Atypical NF-kappaB pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    Atypical NF-kappaB pathway, organism-specific biosystem
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  • Axon guidance, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
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  • Bacterial invasion of epithelial cells, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Bacterial invasion of epithelial cells, organism-specific biosystemMany pathogenic bacteria can invade phagocytic and non-phagocytic cells and colonize them intracellularly, then become disseminated to other cells. Invasive bacteria induce their own uptake by non-ph...
  • Bacterial invasion of epithelial cells, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
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  • Breast cancer, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
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  • Breast cancer, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
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  • CDC42 signaling events, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
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  • CXCR3-mediated signaling events, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
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  • CXCR4-mediated signaling events, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
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  • Carbohydrate digestion and absorption, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
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  • Cell surface interactions at the vascular wall, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
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  • Chronic myeloid leukemia, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
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  • Class I PI3K signaling events, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
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  • Constitutive Signaling by Aberrant PI3K in Cancer, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
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  • Downstream TCR signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
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  • Downstream signal transduction, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
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  • Downstream signaling of activated FGFR3, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
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  • Downstream signaling of activated FGFR4, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
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  • E-cadherin signaling in keratinocytes, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    E-cadherin signaling in keratinocytes, organism-specific biosystem
    E-cadherin signaling in keratinocytes
  • E-cadherin signaling in the nascent adherens junction, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    E-cadherin signaling in the nascent adherens junction, organism-specific biosystem
    E-cadherin signaling in the nascent adherens junction
  • EGF receptor (ErbB1) signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    EGF receptor (ErbB1) signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem
    EGF receptor (ErbB1) signaling pathway
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    EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor resistance, conserved biosystemEGFR is a tyrosine kinase that participates in the regulation of cellular homeostasis. EGFR also serves as a stimulus for cancer growth. EGFR gene mutations and protein overexpression, both of which ...
  • EPHA2 forward signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    EPHA2 forward signaling, organism-specific biosystem
    EPHA2 forward signaling
  • EPHB forward signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    EPHB forward signaling, organism-specific biosystem
    EPHB forward signaling
  • Endocrine resistance, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Endocrine resistance, organism-specific biosystemEndocrine therapy is a key treatment strategy to control or eradicate hormone-responsive breast cancer. The most commonly used endocrine therapy agents are selective estrogen receptor modulators (SER...
  • Endocrine resistance, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Endocrine resistance, conserved biosystemEndocrine therapy is a key treatment strategy to control or eradicate hormone-responsive breast cancer. The most commonly used endocrine therapy agents are selective estrogen receptor modulators (SER...
  • Endometrial cancer, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Endometrial cancer, organism-specific biosystemEndometrial cancer (EC) is the most common gynaecological malignancy and the fourth most common malignancy in women in the developed world after breast, colorectal and lung cancer. Two types of endom...
  • Endometrial cancer, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Endometrial cancer, conserved biosystemEndometrial cancer (EC) is the most common gynaecological malignancy and the fourth most common malignancy in women in the developed world after breast, colorectal and lung cancer. Two types of endom...
  • Ephrin B reverse signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    Ephrin B reverse signaling, organism-specific biosystem
    Ephrin B reverse signaling
  • Epstein-Barr virus infection, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Epstein-Barr virus infection, organism-specific biosystemEpstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a ubiquitous human herpesvirus that is associated with oncogenesis. EBV infection to primary human B lymphocytes leads to induction of EBV-specific HLA-restricted cytotoxi...
  • Epstein-Barr virus infection, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Epstein-Barr virus infection, conserved biosystemEpstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a ubiquitous human herpesvirus that is associated with oncogenesis. EBV infection to primary human B lymphocytes leads to induction of EBV-specific HLA-restricted cytotoxi...
  • ErbB signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    ErbB signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemThe ErbB family of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) couples binding of extracellular growth factor ligands to intracellular signaling pathways regulating diverse biologic responses, including prolife...
  • ErbB signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    ErbB signaling pathway, conserved biosystemThe ErbB family of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) couples binding of extracellular growth factor ligands to intracellular signaling pathways regulating diverse biologic responses, including prolife...
  • ErbB1 downstream signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    ErbB1 downstream signaling, organism-specific biosystem
    ErbB1 downstream signaling
  • ErbB2/ErbB3 signaling events, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    ErbB2/ErbB3 signaling events, organism-specific biosystem
    ErbB2/ErbB3 signaling events
  • ErbB4 signaling events, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    ErbB4 signaling events, organism-specific biosystem
    ErbB4 signaling events
  • Estrogen signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Estrogen signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemEstrogens are steroid hormones that regulate a plethora of physiological processes in mammals, including reproduction, cardiovascular protection, bone integrity, cellular homeostasis, and behavior. E...
  • Estrogen signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Estrogen signaling pathway, conserved biosystemEstrogens are steroid hormones that regulate a plethora of physiological processes in mammals, including reproduction, cardiovascular protection, bone integrity, cellular homeostasis, and behavior. E...
  • Estrogen signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Estrogen signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemEstrogen receptor refers to a group of receptors which are activated by the hormone 17-beta-estradiol (estrogen). Two types of estrogen receptor exist: ER which is a member of the nuclear hormone fam...
  • FAS (CD95) signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    FAS (CD95) signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem
    FAS (CD95) signaling pathway
  • FGF signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    FGF signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem
    FGF signaling pathway
  • FGFR1 mutant receptor activation, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    FGFR1 mutant receptor activation, organism-specific biosystemThe FGFR1 gene has been shown to be subject to activating mutations, chromosomal rearrangements and gene amplification leading to a variety of proliferative and developmental disorders depending on w...
  • Fc epsilon RI signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Fc epsilon RI signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemFc epsilon RI-mediated signaling pathways in mast cells are initiated by the interaction of antigen (Ag) with IgE bound to the extracellular domain of the alpha chain of Fc epsilon RI. The activation...
  • Fc epsilon RI signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Fc epsilon RI signaling pathway, conserved biosystemFc epsilon RI-mediated signaling pathways in mast cells are initiated by the interaction of antigen (Ag) with IgE bound to the extracellular domain of the alpha chain of Fc epsilon RI. The activation...
  • Fc epsilon receptor (FCERI) signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Fc epsilon receptor (FCERI) signaling, organism-specific biosystemMast cells (MC) are distributed in tissues throughout the human body and have long been recognized as key cells of type I hypersensitivity reactions. They also play important roles in inflammatory an...
  • Fc gamma R-mediated phagocytosis, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Fc gamma R-mediated phagocytosis, organism-specific biosystemPhagocytosis plays an essential role in host-defense mechanisms through the uptake and destruction of infectious pathogens. Specialized cell types including macrophages, neutrophils, and monocytes ta...
  • Fc gamma R-mediated phagocytosis, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Fc gamma R-mediated phagocytosis, conserved biosystemPhagocytosis plays an essential role in host-defense mechanisms through the uptake and destruction of infectious pathogens. Specialized cell types including macrophages, neutrophils, and monocytes ta...
  • Fc-epsilon receptor I signaling in mast cells, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    Fc-epsilon receptor I signaling in mast cells, organism-specific biosystem
    Fc-epsilon receptor I signaling in mast cells
  • Fcgamma receptor (FCGR) dependent phagocytosis, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Fcgamma receptor (FCGR) dependent phagocytosis, organism-specific biosystemPhagocytosis is one of the important innate immune responses that function to eliminate invading infectious agents. Monocytes, macrophages, and neutrophils are the professional phagocytic cells. Phag...
  • Fluid shear stress and atherosclerosis, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Fluid shear stress and atherosclerosis, organism-specific biosystemShear stress represents the frictional force that the flow of blood exerts at the endothelial surface of the vessel wall and plays a central role in vascular biology and contributes to the progress o...
  • Fluid shear stress and atherosclerosis, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Fluid shear stress and atherosclerosis, conserved biosystemShear stress represents the frictional force that the flow of blood exerts at the endothelial surface of the vessel wall and plays a central role in vascular biology and contributes to the progress o...
  • Focal Adhesion, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Focal Adhesion, organism-specific biosystemCell-matrix adhesions play essential roles in important biological processes including cell motility, cell proliferation, cell differentiation, regulation of gene expression and cell survival. At the...
  • Focal adhesion, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Focal adhesion, organism-specific biosystemCell-matrix adhesions play essential roles in important biological processes including cell motility, cell proliferation, cell differentiation, regulation of gene expression and cell survival. At the...
  • Focal adhesion, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Focal adhesion, conserved biosystemCell-matrix adhesions play essential roles in important biological processes including cell motility, cell proliferation, cell differentiation, regulation of gene expression and cell survival. At the...
  • FoxO signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    FoxO signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemThe forkhead box O (FOXO) family of transcription factors regulates the expression of genes in cellular physiological events including apoptosis, cell-cycle control, glucose metabolism, oxidative str...
  • G alpha (12/13) signalling events, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    G alpha (12/13) signalling events, organism-specific biosystemThe G12/13 family is probably the least well characterized subtype, partly because G12/13 coupling is difficult to determine when compared with the other subtypes which predominantly rely on assay te...
  • G alpha (q) signalling events, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    G alpha (q) signalling events, organism-specific biosystemThe classic signalling route for G alpha (q) is activation of phospholipase C beta thereby triggering phosphoinositide hydrolysis, calcium mobilization and protein kinase C activation. This provides ...
  • G beta:gamma signalling through PI3Kgamma, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    G beta:gamma signalling through PI3Kgamma, organism-specific biosystemPI3K gamma (PI3KG) is a heterodimer consisting of a p110 catalytic subunit associated with a regulatory p101 or p84 subunit. PI3KG is most highly expressed in neutrophils, where the p101 form predomi...
  • G-protein beta:gamma signalling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    G-protein beta:gamma signalling, organism-specific biosystemThe classical role of the G-protein beta/gamma dimer was believed to be the inactivation of the alpha subunit, Gbeta/gamma was viewed as a negative regulator of Galpha signalling. It is now known tha...
  • G13 Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    G13 Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystemThe G13 subunit is an alpha unit of heterotrimeric G proteins that regulates cell processes through the use of guanine nucleotide exchange factors. G13 regulates actin cytoskeletal remodeling in cell...
  • GAB1 signalosome, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    GAB1 signalosome, organism-specific biosystemGAB1 is recruited to the activated EGFR indirectly, through GRB2. GAB1 acts as an adaptor protein that enables formation of an active PIK3, through recruitment of PIK3 regulatory subunit PIK3R1 (also...
  • GPCR downstream signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    GPCR downstream signaling, organism-specific biosystemG protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are classically defined as the receptor, G-protein and downstream effectors, the alpha subunit of the G-protein being the primary signaling molecule. However, it h...
  • GPVI-mediated activation cascade, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    GPVI-mediated activation cascade, organism-specific biosystemThe GPVI receptor is a complex of the GPVI protein with Fc epsilon R1 gamma (FcR). The Src family kinases Fyn and Lyn constitutively associate with the GPVI-FcR complex in platelets and initiate plat...
  • Gastrin-CREB signalling pathway via PKC and MAPK, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Gastrin-CREB signalling pathway via PKC and MAPK, organism-specific biosystemGastrin is a hormone whose main function is to stimulate secretion of hydrochloric acid by the gastric mucosa, which results in gastrin formation inhibition. This hormone also acts as a mitogenic fac...
  • Glioma, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Glioma, organism-specific biosystemGliomas are the most common of the primary brain tumors and account for more than 40% of all central nervous system neoplasms. Gliomas include tumours that are composed predominantly of astrocytes (a...
  • Glioma, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Glioma, conserved biosystemGliomas are the most common of the primary brain tumors and account for more than 40% of all central nervous system neoplasms. Gliomas include tumours that are composed predominantly of astrocytes (a...
  • HIF-1 signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    HIF-1 signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemHypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) is a transcription factor that functions as a master regulator of oxygen homeostasis. It consists of two subunits: an inducibly-expressed HIF-1alpha subunit and a c...
  • HTLV-I infection, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    HTLV-I infection, organism-specific biosystemHuman T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is a pathogenic retrovirus that is associated with adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL). It is also strongly implicated in non-neoplastic chronic inflammato...
  • HTLV-I infection, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    HTLV-I infection, conserved biosystemHuman T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is a pathogenic retrovirus that is associated with adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL). It is also strongly implicated in non-neoplastic chronic inflammato...
  • Hemostasis, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Hemostasis, organism-specific biosystemHemostasis is a physiological response that culminates in the arrest of bleeding from an injured vessel. Under normal conditions the vascular endothelium supports vasodilation, inhibits platelet adhe...
  • Hepatitis B, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Hepatitis B, organism-specific biosystemHepatitis B virus (HBV) is an enveloped virus and contains a partially double-stranded relaxed circular DNA (RC-DNA) genome. After entry into hepatocytes, HBV RC-DNA is transported to the nucleus and...
  • Hepatitis C, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Hepatitis C, organism-specific biosystemHepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major cause of chronic liver disease. The HCV employ several strategies to perturb host cell immunity. After invasion, HCV RNA genome functions directly as an mRNA in the...
  • Hepatitis C, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Hepatitis C, conserved biosystemHepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major cause of chronic liver disease. The HCV employ several strategies to perturb host cell immunity. After invasion, HCV RNA genome functions directly as an mRNA in the...
  • Human Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Human Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemHuman thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) is a glycoprotein hormone secreted from the anterior pituitary lobe, which plays an important physiological role in regulation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-th...
  • IFN-gamma pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    IFN-gamma pathway, organism-specific biosystem
    IFN-gamma pathway
  • IGF1 pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    IGF1 pathway, organism-specific biosystem
    IGF1 pathway
  • IGF1R signaling cascade, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    IGF1R signaling cascade, organism-specific biosystemAfter autophosphorylation the type 1 insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF1R) binds and phosphorylates scaffold proteins, IRS1/2/4 and SHC1, which in turn bind effectors possessing enzymatic activ...
  • IL-4 Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    IL-4 Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystemIL-4 is a glycoprotein which is composed of 129 amino acids and has a molecular weight of 20kDa. IL-4 and IL-13 are produced by CD4+ cells and exhibit significant functional overlap. Both these cytok...
  • IL1 and megakaryocytes in obesity, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    IL1 and megakaryocytes in obesity, organism-specific biosystemSchematic of the effects of interleukin (IL)1-beta/IL1R1 on megakaryocyte and platelet function. A high fat diet will cause megakaryocytes to produce platelets with an increase in both inflammatory a...
  • IL1-mediated signaling events, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    IL1-mediated signaling events, organism-specific biosystem
    IL1-mediated signaling events
  • IL2 signaling events mediated by PI3K, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    IL2 signaling events mediated by PI3K, organism-specific biosystem
    IL2 signaling events mediated by PI3K
  • IL2 signaling events mediated by STAT5, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    IL2 signaling events mediated by STAT5, organism-specific biosystem
    IL2 signaling events mediated by STAT5
  • IL2-mediated signaling events, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    IL2-mediated signaling events, organism-specific biosystem
    IL2-mediated signaling events
  • IL23-mediated signaling events, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    IL23-mediated signaling events, organism-specific biosystem
    IL23-mediated signaling events
  • IL4-mediated signaling events, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    IL4-mediated signaling events, organism-specific biosystem
    IL4-mediated signaling events
  • IL6-mediated signaling events, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    IL6-mediated signaling events, organism-specific biosystem
    IL6-mediated signaling events
  • IRS-mediated signalling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    IRS-mediated signalling, organism-specific biosystemRelease of phospho-IRS from the insulin receptor triggers a cascade of signalling events via PI3K, SOS, RAF and the MAP kinases.
  • IRS-related events triggered by IGF1R, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    IRS-related events triggered by IGF1R, organism-specific biosystemThe phosphorylated type 1 insulin-like growth factor receptor phosphorylates IR1, IRS2, IRS4 and possibly other IRS/DOK family members (reviewed in Pavelic et al. 2007, Chitnis et al. 2008, Maki et a...
  • Immune System, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Immune System, organism-specific biosystemHumans are exposed to millions of potential pathogens daily, through contact, ingestion, and inhalation. Our ability to avoid infection depends on the adaptive immune system and during the first crit...
  • Inflammatory mediator regulation of TRP channels, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Inflammatory mediator regulation of TRP channels, organism-specific biosystemThe TRP channels that exhibit a unique response to temperature have been given the name thermo-TRPs. Among all thermo- TRP channels, TRPV1-4, TRPM8, and TRPA1 are expressed in subsets of nociceptive...
  • Inflammatory mediator regulation of TRP channels, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Inflammatory mediator regulation of TRP channels, conserved biosystemThe TRP channels that exhibit a unique response to temperature have been given the name thermo-TRPs. Among all thermo- TRP channels, TRPV1-4, TRPM8, and TRPA1 are expressed in subsets of nociceptive...
  • Influenza A, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Influenza A, organism-specific biosystemInfluenza is a contagious respiratory disease caused by influenza virus infection. Influenza A virus is responsible for both annual seasonal epidemics and periodic worldwide pandemics. Novel strains ...
  • Influenza A, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Influenza A, conserved biosystemInfluenza is a contagious respiratory disease caused by influenza virus infection. Influenza A virus is responsible for both annual seasonal epidemics and periodic worldwide pandemics. Novel strains ...
  • Innate Immune System, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Innate Immune System, organism-specific biosystemInnate immunity encompases the nonspecific part of immunity tha are part of an individual's natural biologic makeup
  • Inositol phosphate metabolism, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Inositol phosphate metabolism, organism-specific biosystem
    Inositol phosphate metabolism
  • Inositol phosphate metabolism, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Inositol phosphate metabolism, conserved biosystem
    Inositol phosphate metabolism
  • Insulin Pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    Insulin Pathway, organism-specific biosystem
    Insulin Pathway
  • Insulin Signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Insulin Signaling, organism-specific biosystemInsulin signaling influences energy metabolism as well as growth. The presence of insulin signals the fed state, and this signal is passed via the AKT branch, which leads to the uptake of glucose fro...
  • Insulin receptor signalling cascade, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Insulin receptor signalling cascade, organism-specific biosystemAutophosphorylation of the insulin receptor triggers a series of signalling events, mediated by SHC or IRS, and resulting in activation of the Ras/RAF and MAP kinase cascades. A second effect of the ...
  • Insulin resistance, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Insulin resistance, organism-specific biosystemInsulin resistance is a condition where cells become resistant to the effects of insulin. It is often found in people with health disorders, including obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, non-alcoholic...
  • Insulin signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Insulin signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemInsulin binding to its receptor results in the tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrates (IRS) by the insulin receptor tyrosine kinase (INSR). This allows association of IRSs with the r...
  • Insulin signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Insulin signaling pathway, conserved biosystemInsulin binding to its receptor results in the tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrates (IRS) by the insulin receptor tyrosine kinase (INSR). This allows association of IRSs with the r...
  • Integrated Pancreatic Cancer Pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Integrated Pancreatic Cancer Pathway, organism-specific biosystemAn integrated pathway model which displays the protein-protein interactions (PPIs) among the relevant proteins for pancreatic cancer. This pathway is a collection of different mechanistic protein pat...
  • Integrins in angiogenesis, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    Integrins in angiogenesis, organism-specific biosystem
    Integrins in angiogenesis
  • Interleukin receptor SHC signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Interleukin receptor SHC signaling, organism-specific biosystemPhosphorylation of Shc at three tyrosine residues, 239, 240 (Gotoh et al. 1996) and 317 (Salcini et al. 1994) involves unidentified tyrosine kinases presumed to be part of the activated receptor comp...
  • Interleukin-2 signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Interleukin-2 signaling, organism-specific biosystemInterleukin-2 (IL-2) is a cytokine that is produced by T cells in response to antigen stimulation. Originally, IL-2 was discovered because of its potent growth factor activity on activated T cells in...
  • Interleukin-3, 5 and GM-CSF signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Interleukin-3, 5 and GM-CSF signaling, organism-specific biosystemThe Interleukin-3 (IL-3), IL-5 and Granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) receptors form a family of heterodimeric receptors that have specific alpha chains but share a common beta...
  • Internalization of ErbB1, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    Internalization of ErbB1, organism-specific biosystem
    Internalization of ErbB1
  • Jak-STAT signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Jak-STAT signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemThe Janus kinase/signal transducers and activators of transcription (JAK/STAT) pathway is one of a handful of pleiotropic cascades used to transduce a multitude of signals for development and homeost...
  • Jak-STAT signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Jak-STAT signaling pathway, conserved biosystemThe Janus kinase/signal transducers and activators of transcription (JAK/STAT) pathway is one of a handful of pleiotropic cascades used to transduce a multitude of signals for development and homeost...
  • Leukocyte transendothelial migration, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Leukocyte transendothelial migration, organism-specific biosystemLeukocyte migaration from the blood into tissues is vital for immune surveillance and inflammation. During this diapedesis of leukocytes, the leukocytes bind to endothelial cell adhesion molecules (C...
  • Leukocyte transendothelial migration, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Leukocyte transendothelial migration, conserved biosystemLeukocyte migaration from the blood into tissues is vital for immune surveillance and inflammation. During this diapedesis of leukocytes, the leukocytes bind to endothelial cell adhesion molecules (C...
  • Longevity regulating pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Longevity regulating pathway, organism-specific biosystemRegulation of longevity depends on genetic and environmental factors. Caloric restriction (CR), that is limiting food intake, is recognized in mammals as the best characterized and most reproducible ...
  • Longevity regulating pathway - multiple species, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Longevity regulating pathway - multiple species, organism-specific biosystemAging is a complex process of accumulation of molecular, cellular, and organ damage, leading to loss of function and increased vulnerability to disease and death. Despite the complexity of aging, rec...
  • Longevity regulating pathway - multiple species, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Longevity regulating pathway - multiple species, conserved biosystemAging is a complex process of accumulation of molecular, cellular, and organ damage, leading to loss of function and increased vulnerability to disease and death. Despite the complexity of aging, rec...
  • MET activates PI3K/AKT signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    MET activates PI3K/AKT signaling, organism-specific biosystemMET binds and phosphorylates the adapter protein GAB1, thus creating a docking site for the regulatory subunit PIK3R1 of the PI3K complex. Recruitment of PI3K to MET-bound phosphorylated GAB1 results...
  • Measles, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Measles, organism-specific biosystemMeasles virus (MV) is highly contagious virus that leads infant death worldwide. Humans are the unique natural reservoir for this virus. It causes severe immunosuppression favouring secondary bacteri...
  • Measles, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Measles, conserved biosystemMeasles virus (MV) is highly contagious virus that leads infant death worldwide. Humans are the unique natural reservoir for this virus. It causes severe immunosuppression favouring secondary bacteri...
  • Melanoma, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Melanoma, organism-specific biosystemMelanoma is a form of skin cancer that has a poor prognosis and which is on the rise in Western populations. Melanoma arises from the malignant transformation of pigment-producing cells, melanocytes...
  • Melanoma, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Melanoma, conserved biosystemMelanoma is a form of skin cancer that has a poor prognosis and which is on the rise in Western populations. Melanoma arises from the malignant transformation of pigment-producing cells, melanocytes...
  • Metabolism, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Metabolism, organism-specific biosystemMetabolic processes in human cells generate energy through the oxidation of molecules consumed in the diet and mediate the synthesis of diverse essential molecules not taken in the diet as well as th...
  • Metabolism of lipids and lipoproteins, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Metabolism of lipids and lipoproteins, organism-specific biosystemLipids are hydrophobic but otherwise chemically diverse molecules that play a wide variety of roles in human biology. They include ketone bodies, fatty acids, triacylglycerols, phospholipids and sphi...
  • MicroRNAs in cancer, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    MicroRNAs in cancer, organism-specific biosystemMicroRNA (miRNA) is a cluster of small non-encoding RNA molecules of 21 - 23 nucleotides in length, which controls gene expression post-transcriptionally either via the degradation of target mRNAs or...
  • MicroRNAs in cancer, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    MicroRNAs in cancer, conserved biosystemMicroRNA (miRNA) is a cluster of small non-encoding RNA molecules of 21 - 23 nucleotides in length, which controls gene expression post-transcriptionally either via the degradation of target mRNAs or...
  • MicroRNAs in cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    MicroRNAs in cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, organism-specific biosystemThis pathway shows the role of microRNAs in the process of cardiac hypertrophy. MicroRNA targets were predicted by the TargetScan algorithm, and the predicted interactions are shown in red dashed lin...
  • N-cadherin signaling events, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    N-cadherin signaling events, organism-specific biosystem
    N-cadherin signaling events
  • NGF signalling via TRKA from the plasma membrane, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    NGF signalling via TRKA from the plasma membrane, organism-specific biosystemTrk receptors signal from the plasma membrane and from intracellular membranes, particularly from early endosomes. Signalling from the plasma membrane is fast but transient; signalling from endosomes...
  • Natural killer cell mediated cytotoxicity, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Natural killer cell mediated cytotoxicity, organism-specific biosystemNatural killer (NK) cells are lymphocytes of the innate immune system that are involved in early defenses against both allogeneic (nonself) cells and autologous cells undergoing various forms of stre...
  • Natural killer cell mediated cytotoxicity, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Natural killer cell mediated cytotoxicity, conserved biosystemNatural killer (NK) cells are lymphocytes of the innate immune system that are involved in early defenses against both allogeneic (nonself) cells and autologous cells undergoing various forms of stre...
  • Nectin adhesion pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    Nectin adhesion pathway, organism-specific biosystem
    Nectin adhesion pathway
  • Negative regulation of the PI3K/AKT network, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Negative regulation of the PI3K/AKT network, organism-specific biosystemThe PI3K/AKT network is negatively regulated by phosphatases that dephosphorylate PIP3, thus hampering AKT activation.
  • Nephrin interactions, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Nephrin interactions, organism-specific biosystemNephrin is a member of the Super-IgG-Molecule family and is most prominently expressed in kidney podocytes. It is a major if not the most important structural component of the slit diaphragm, a modif...
  • Nephrin/Neph1 signaling in the kidney podocyte, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    Nephrin/Neph1 signaling in the kidney podocyte, organism-specific biosystem
    Nephrin/Neph1 signaling in the kidney podocyte
  • Neurotrophic factor-mediated Trk receptor signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    Neurotrophic factor-mediated Trk receptor signaling, organism-specific biosystem
    Neurotrophic factor-mediated Trk receptor signaling
  • Neurotrophin signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Neurotrophin signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemNeurotrophins are a family of trophic factors involved in differentiation and survival of neural cells. The neurotrophin family consists of nerve growth factor (NGF), brain derived neurotrophic facto...
  • Neurotrophin signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Neurotrophin signaling pathway, conserved biosystemNeurotrophins are a family of trophic factors involved in differentiation and survival of neural cells. The neurotrophin family consists of nerve growth factor (NGF), brain derived neurotrophic facto...
  • Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), organism-specific biosystemNon-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) represents a spectrum ranging from simple steatosis to more severe steatohepatitis with hepatic inflammation and fibrosis, known as nonalcoholic steatohepati...
  • Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), conserved biosystemNon-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) represents a spectrum ranging from simple steatosis to more severe steatohepatitis with hepatic inflammation and fibrosis, known as nonalcoholic steatohepati...
  • Non-small cell lung cancer, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Non-small cell lung cancer, organism-specific biosystemLung cancer is a leading cause of cancer death among men and women in industrialized countries. Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) accounts for approximately 85% of lung cancer and represents a heter...
  • Non-small cell lung cancer, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Non-small cell lung cancer, conserved biosystemLung cancer is a leading cause of cancer death among men and women in industrialized countries. Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) accounts for approximately 85% of lung cancer and represents a heter...
  • Nongenotropic Androgen signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    Nongenotropic Androgen signaling, organism-specific biosystem
    Nongenotropic Androgen signaling
  • Osteoclast differentiation, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Osteoclast differentiation, organism-specific biosystemThe osteoclasts, multinucleared cells originating from the hematopoietic monocyte-macrophage lineage, are responsible for bone resorption. Osteoclastogenesis is mainly regulated by signaling pathways...
  • Osteoclast differentiation, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Osteoclast differentiation, conserved biosystemThe osteoclasts, multinucleared cells originating from the hematopoietic monocyte-macrophage lineage, are responsible for bone resorption. Osteoclastogenesis is mainly regulated by signaling pathways...
  • Osteopontin-mediated events, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    Osteopontin-mediated events, organism-specific biosystem
    Osteopontin-mediated events
  • PDGFR-alpha signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    PDGFR-alpha signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem
    PDGFR-alpha signaling pathway
  • PDGFR-beta signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    PDGFR-beta signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem
    PDGFR-beta signaling pathway
  • PI Metabolism, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    PI Metabolism, organism-specific biosystemPhosphatidylinositol (PI), a membrane phospholipid, can be reversibly phosphorylated at the 3, 4, and 5 positions of the inositol ring to generate seven phosphoinositides: phosphatidylinositol 3-phos...
  • PI-3K cascade:FGFR1, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    PI-3K cascade:FGFR1, organism-specific biosystemThe ability of growth factors to protect from apoptosis is primarily due to the activation of the AKT survival pathway. P-I-3-kinase dependent activation of PDK leads to the activation of AKT which i...
  • PI-3K cascade:FGFR2, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    PI-3K cascade:FGFR2, organism-specific biosystemThe ability of growth factors to protect from apoptosis is primarily due to the activation of the AKT survival pathway. P-I-3-kinase dependent activation of PDK leads to the activation of AKT which i...
  • PI-3K cascade:FGFR3, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    PI-3K cascade:FGFR3, organism-specific biosystemThe ability of growth factors to protect from apoptosis is primarily due to the activation of the AKT survival pathway. P-I-3-kinase dependent activation of PDK leads to the activation of AKT which i...
  • PI-3K cascade:FGFR4, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    PI-3K cascade:FGFR4, organism-specific biosystemThe ability of growth factors to protect from apoptosis is primarily due to the activation of the AKT survival pathway. P-I-3-kinase dependent activation of PDK leads to the activation of AKT which i...
  • PI3K Cascade, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    PI3K Cascade, organism-specific biosystem
    PI3K Cascade
  • PI3K events in ERBB2 signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    PI3K events in ERBB2 signaling, organism-specific biosystemERBB2:ERBB3 and ERBB2:ERBB4cyt1 heterodimers activate PI3K signaling by direct binding of PI3K regulatory subunit p85 (Yang et al. 2007, Cohen et al. 1996, Kaushansky et al. 2008) to phosphorylated t...
  • PI3K events in ERBB4 signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    PI3K events in ERBB4 signaling, organism-specific biosystemThe CYT1 isoforms of ERBB4 possess a C-tail tyrosine residue that, upon trans-autophosphorylation, serves as a docking site for the p85 alpha subunit of PI3K - PIK3R1 (Kaushansky et al. 2008, Cohen e...
  • PI3K-AKT-mTOR signaling pathway and therapeutic opportunities, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    PI3K-AKT-mTOR signaling pathway and therapeutic opportunities, organism-specific biosystemThis pathway is based on figure 1 from Merritt et al. (See Bibliography). The PI3K-AKT-mTOR signaling pathway has been shown to have a significant correlation with the development of castration-resis...
  • PI3K-Akt signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    PI3K-Akt signaling, organism-specific biosystemFunctional set; Cellular processes; Cell signaling
  • PI3K-Akt signaling, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    PI3K-Akt signaling, conserved biosystemFunctional set; Cellular processes; Cell signaling
  • PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemThe phosphatidylinositol 3' -kinase(PI3K)-Akt signaling pathway is activated by many types of cellular stimuli or toxic insults and regulates fundamental cellular functions such as transcription, tra...
  • PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, conserved biosystemThe phosphatidylinositol 3' -kinase(PI3K)-Akt signaling pathway is activated by many types of cellular stimuli or toxic insults and regulates fundamental cellular functions such as transcription, tra...
  • PI3K/AKT Signaling in Cancer, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    PI3K/AKT Signaling in Cancer, organism-specific biosystemClass IA PI3K is a heterodimer of a p85 regulatory subunit (encoded by PIK3R1, PIK3R2 or PIK3R3) and a p110 catalytic subunit (encoded by PIK3CA, PIK3CB or PIK3CD). In the absence of activating signa...
  • PI3K/AKT activation, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    PI3K/AKT activation, organism-specific biosystemPI3K/AKT signalling is a major regulator of neuron survival. It blocks cell death by both impinging on the cytoplasmic cell death machinery and by regulating the expression of genes involved in cell...
  • PI5P, PP2A and IER3 Regulate PI3K/AKT Signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    PI5P, PP2A and IER3 Regulate PI3K/AKT Signaling, organism-specific biosystemPhosphatidylinositol-5-phosphate (PI5P) may modulate PI3K/AKT signaling in several ways. PI5P is used as a substrate for production of phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate, PI(4,5)P2 (Rameh et al. 1...
  • PIP3 activates AKT signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    PIP3 activates AKT signaling, organism-specific biosystemSignaling by AKT is one of the key outcomes of receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) activation. AKT is activated by the cellular second messenger PIP3, a phospholipid that is generated by PI3K. In ustimula...
  • Pancreatic cancer, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Pancreatic cancer, organism-specific biosystemInfiltrating ductal adenocarcinoma is the most common malignancy of the pancreas. When most investigators use the term 'pancreatic cancer' they are referring to pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA)...
  • Pancreatic cancer, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Pancreatic cancer, conserved biosystemInfiltrating ductal adenocarcinoma is the most common malignancy of the pancreas. When most investigators use the term 'pancreatic cancer' they are referring to pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA)...
  • Pathways Affected in Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Pathways Affected in Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma, organism-specific biosystemProtein pathways altered by mutations in adenoid cystic carcinoma. Pathways include epigentic modification, DNA damage checkpoint signals, MYB/MYC signalling pathway, FGF/IGF/PI3K signalling, and not...
  • Pathways in cancer, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Pathways in cancer, organism-specific biosystem
    Pathways in cancer
  • Paxillin-dependent events mediated by a4b1, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    Paxillin-dependent events mediated by a4b1, organism-specific biosystem
    Paxillin-dependent events mediated by a4b1
  • Paxillin-independent events mediated by a4b1 and a4b7, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    Paxillin-independent events mediated by a4b1 and a4b7, organism-specific biosystem
    Paxillin-independent events mediated by a4b1 and a4b7
  • Phosphatidylinositol signaling system, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Phosphatidylinositol signaling system, organism-specific biosystem
    Phosphatidylinositol signaling system
  • Phosphatidylinositol signaling system, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Phosphatidylinositol signaling system, conserved biosystem
    Phosphatidylinositol signaling system
  • Phospholipase D signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Phospholipase D signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemPhospholipase D (PLD) is an essential enzyme responsible for the production of the lipid second messenger phosphatidic acid (PA), which is involved in fundamental cellular processes, including membra...
  • Phospholipase D signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Phospholipase D signaling pathway, conserved biosystemPhospholipase D (PLD) is an essential enzyme responsible for the production of the lipid second messenger phosphatidic acid (PA), which is involved in fundamental cellular processes, including membra...
  • Phospholipid metabolism, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Phospholipid metabolism, organism-specific biosystemPhospholipids contain a polar head group and two long-chain fatty acyl moieties, one of which is generally unsaturated. The head group is a glycerol or serine phosphate attached to a polar group such...
  • Plasma membrane estrogen receptor signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    Plasma membrane estrogen receptor signaling, organism-specific biosystem
    Plasma membrane estrogen receptor signaling
  • Platelet activation, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Platelet activation, organism-specific biosystemPlatelets play a key and beneficial role for primary hemostasis on the disruption of the integrity of vessel wall. Platelet adhesion and activation at sites of vascular wall injury is initiated by ad...
  • Platelet activation, signaling and aggregation, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Platelet activation, signaling and aggregation, organism-specific biosystemPlatelet activation begins with the initial binding of adhesive ligands and of the excitatory platelet agonists (released or generated at the sites of vascular trauma) to cognate receptors on the pla...
  • Platinum drug resistance, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Platinum drug resistance, organism-specific biosystemPlatinum-based drugs cisplatin, carboplatin and oxaliplatin are widely used in the therapy of solid malignancies, including testicular, ovarian, head and neck, colorectal, bladder and lung cancers. T...
  • Platinum drug resistance, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Platinum drug resistance, conserved biosystemPlatinum-based drugs cisplatin, carboplatin and oxaliplatin are widely used in the therapy of solid malignancies, including testicular, ovarian, head and neck, colorectal, bladder and lung cancers. T...
  • Progesterone-mediated oocyte maturation, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Progesterone-mediated oocyte maturation, organism-specific biosystemXenopus oocytes are naturally arrested at G2 of meiosis I. Exposure to either insulin/IGF-1 or the steroid hormone progesterone breaks this arrest and induces resumption of the two meiotic division c...
  • Progesterone-mediated oocyte maturation, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Progesterone-mediated oocyte maturation, conserved biosystemXenopus oocytes are naturally arrested at G2 of meiosis I. Exposure to either insulin/IGF-1 or the steroid hormone progesterone breaks this arrest and induces resumption of the two meiotic division c...
  • Prolactin Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Prolactin Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystemProlactin (PRL), a pleiotropic polypeptide hormone, mostly secreted by the lactotrophic cells of anterior pituitary gland and to a lesser extent expressed in numerous extra pituitary tissues such as ...
  • Prolactin signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Prolactin signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemProlactin (PRL) is a polypeptide hormone known to be involved in a wide range of biological functions including osmoregulation, lactation, reproduction, growth and development, endocrinology and meta...
  • Prolactin signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Prolactin signaling pathway, conserved biosystemProlactin (PRL) is a polypeptide hormone known to be involved in a wide range of biological functions including osmoregulation, lactation, reproduction, growth and development, endocrinology and meta...
  • Prostate cancer, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Prostate cancer, organism-specific biosystemProstate cancer constitutes a major health problem in Western countries. It is the most frequently diagnosed cancer among men and the second leading cause of male cancer deaths. The identification of...
  • Prostate cancer, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Prostate cancer, conserved biosystemProstate cancer constitutes a major health problem in Western countries. It is the most frequently diagnosed cancer among men and the second leading cause of male cancer deaths. The identification of...
  • Proteoglycans in cancer, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Proteoglycans in cancer, organism-specific biosystemMany proteoglycans (PGs) in the tumor microenvironment have been shown to be key macromolecules that contribute to biology of various types of cancer including proliferation, adhesion, angiogenesis a...
  • Proteoglycans in cancer, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Proteoglycans in cancer, conserved biosystemMany proteoglycans (PGs) in the tumor microenvironment have been shown to be key macromolecules that contribute to biology of various types of cancer including proliferation, adhesion, angiogenesis a...
  • RET signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    RET signaling, organism-specific biosystemThe RET proto-oncogene encodes a receptor tyrosine kinase expressed primarily in urogenital precursor cells, spermatogonocytes, dopaminergic neurons, motor neurons and neural crest progenitors and de...
  • Rac1/Pak1/p38/MMP-2 pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Rac1/Pak1/p38/MMP-2 pathway, organism-specific biosystemRac1/p38 pathway from Ingenuity Pathway Analysis.
  • Rap1 signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Rap1 signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemRap1 is a small GTPase that controls diverse processes, such as cell adhesion, cell-cell junction formation and cell polarity. Like all G proteins, Rap1 cycles between an inactive GDP-bound and an ac...
  • Rap1 signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Rap1 signaling pathway, conserved biosystemRap1 is a small GTPase that controls diverse processes, such as cell adhesion, cell-cell junction formation and cell polarity. Like all G proteins, Rap1 cycles between an inactive GDP-bound and an ac...
  • Ras signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Ras signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemThe Ras proteins are GTPases that function as molecular switches for signaling pathways regulating cell proliferation, survival, growth, migration, differentiation or cytoskeletal dynamism. Ras prote...
  • Reelin signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    Reelin signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem
    Reelin signaling pathway
  • Regulation of Actin Cytoskeleton, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Regulation of Actin Cytoskeleton, organism-specific biosystemhttp://www.genome.jp/kegg/pathway/hsa/hsa04810.html
  • Regulation of actin cytoskeleton, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Regulation of actin cytoskeleton, organism-specific biosystem
    Regulation of actin cytoskeleton
  • Regulation of actin cytoskeleton, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Regulation of actin cytoskeleton, conserved biosystem
    Regulation of actin cytoskeleton
  • Regulation of lipolysis in adipocytes, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Regulation of lipolysis in adipocytes, organism-specific biosystemLipolysis in adipocytes, the hydrolysis of triacylglycerol (TAG) to release fatty acids (FAs) and glycerol for use by other organs as energy substrates, is a unique function of white adipose tissue. ...
  • Regulation of signaling by CBL, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Regulation of signaling by CBL, organism-specific biosystemCbl is an E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase that negatively regulates signaling pathways by targeting proteins for ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation (Rao et al. 2002). Cbl negatively regulates PI3...
  • Regulation of toll-like receptor signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Regulation of toll-like receptor signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem
    Regulation of toll-like receptor signaling pathway
  • Renal cell carcinoma, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Renal cell carcinoma, organism-specific biosystemRenal cell cancer (RCC) accounts for ~3% of human malignancies and its incidence appears to be rising. Although most cases of RCC seem to occur sporadically, an inherited predisposition to renal canc...
  • Renal cell carcinoma, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Renal cell carcinoma, conserved biosystemRenal cell cancer (RCC) accounts for ~3% of human malignancies and its incidence appears to be rising. Although most cases of RCC seem to occur sporadically, an inherited predisposition to renal canc...
  • Role of LAT2/NTAL/LAB on calcium mobilization, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Role of LAT2/NTAL/LAB on calcium mobilization, organism-specific biosystemThe lipid raft resident adaptor molecules LAT1 and Non-T cell activation linker (NTAL), also known as linker for activation of B cells (LAB)/LAT2 are known participants in the regulation of mast cell...
  • Role of phospholipids in phagocytosis, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Role of phospholipids in phagocytosis, organism-specific biosystemPhospholipases play an integral role in phagocytosis by generating essential second messengers. An early step in phagocytic signaling is the association of PIP2 and IP3 with the phagocytic cup. These...
  • Signal Transduction, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signal Transduction, organism-specific biosystemSignal transduction is a process in which extracellular signals elicit changes in cell state and activity. Transmembrane receptors sense changes in the cellular environment by binding ligands, such a...
  • Signaling Pathways in Glioblastoma, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Signaling Pathways in Glioblastoma, organism-specific biosystemThe most frequently altered genes in glioblastoma. This pathway originally accompanied the 2008 Nature publication on the comprehensive genomic characterization of human glioblastoma genes and core p...
  • Signaling by EGFR, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signaling by EGFR, organism-specific biosystemThe epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is one member of the ERBB family of transmembrane glycoprotein tyrosine receptor kinases (RTK). Binding of EGFR to its ligands induces conformational chang...
  • Signaling by EGFR in Cancer, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signaling by EGFR in Cancer, organism-specific biosystemThe pathway "Signaling by EGFR in Cancer" shows signaling by constitutively active EGFR cancer variants in the context of "Signaling by EGFR", allowing users to compare cancer events with the wild-ty...
  • Signaling by EGFRvIII in Cancer, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signaling by EGFRvIII in Cancer, organism-specific biosystemEGFRvIII (EGFR V30_R297delinsG) is the most prevalent EGFR variant in glioblastoma, but it is also found in other cancer types. In-frame deletion of the ligand binding domain in EGFRvIII is frequentl...
  • Signaling by ERBB2, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signaling by ERBB2, organism-specific biosystemERBB2, also known as HER2 or NEU, is a receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) belonging to the EGFR family. ERBB2 possesses an extracellular domain that does not bind any known ligand, contrary to other EGFR...
  • Signaling by ERBB4, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signaling by ERBB4, organism-specific biosystemERBB4, also known as HER4, belongs to the ERBB family of receptors, which also includes ERBB1 (EGFR i.e. HER1), ERBB2 (HER2 i.e. NEU) and ERBB3 (HER3). Similar to EGFR, ERBB4 has an extracellular lig...
  • Signaling by FGFR, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signaling by FGFR, organism-specific biosystemThe 22 members of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family of growth factors mediate their cellular responses by binding to and activating the different isoforms encoded by the four receptor tyrosin...
  • Signaling by FGFR in disease, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signaling by FGFR in disease, organism-specific biosystemA number of skeletal and developmental diseases have been shown to arise as a result of mutations in the FGFR1, 2 and 3 genes. These include dwarfism syndromes (achondroplasia, hypochondroplasia and...
  • Signaling by FGFR1, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signaling by FGFR1, organism-specific biosystemThe 22 members of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family of growth factors mediate their cellular responses by binding to and activating the different isoforms encoded by the four receptor tyrosin...
  • Signaling by FGFR1 in disease, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signaling by FGFR1 in disease, organism-specific biosystemThe FGFR1 gene has been shown to be subject to activating mutations, chromosomal rearrangements and gene amplification leading to a variety of proliferative and developmental disorders depending on w...
  • Signaling by FGFR2, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signaling by FGFR2, organism-specific biosystemThe 22 members of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family of growth factors mediate their cellular responses by binding to and activating the different isoforms encoded by the four receptor tyrosin...
  • Signaling by FGFR2 in disease, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signaling by FGFR2 in disease, organism-specific biosystemThe FGFR2 gene has been shown to be subject to activating mutations and gene amplification leading to a variety of proliferative and developmental disorders depending on whether these events occur in...
  • Signaling by FGFR3, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signaling by FGFR3, organism-specific biosystemThe 22 members of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family of growth factors mediate their cellular responses by binding to and activating the different isoforms encoded by the four receptor tyrosin...
  • Signaling by FGFR3 fusions in cancer, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signaling by FGFR3 fusions in cancer, organism-specific biosystemIn recent years, recurrent fusions of FGFR3 have been identified in a number of cancers, including glioblastoma and cancers of the lung and bladder, among others (Singh et al, 2012; Parker et al, 201...
  • Signaling by FGFR3 in disease, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signaling by FGFR3 in disease, organism-specific biosystemThe FGFR3 gene has been shown to be subject to activating mutations and gene amplification leading to a variety of proliferative and developmental disorders depending on whether these events occur in...
  • Signaling by FGFR3 point mutants in cancer, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signaling by FGFR3 point mutants in cancer, organism-specific biosystemThe FGFR3 gene has been shown to be subject to activating mutations and gene amplification leading to a variety of proliferative and developmental disorders depending on whether these events occur in...
  • Signaling by FGFR4, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signaling by FGFR4, organism-specific biosystemThe 22 members of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family of growth factors mediate their cellular responses by binding to and activating the different isoforms encoded by the four receptor tyrosin...
  • Signaling by FGFR4 in disease, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signaling by FGFR4 in disease, organism-specific biosystemFGFR4 is perhaps the least well studied of the FGF receptors, and unlike the case for the other FGFR genes, mutations in FGFR4 are not known to be associated with any developmental disorders. Recent...
  • Signaling by GPCR, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signaling by GPCR, organism-specific biosystemG protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs; 7TM receptors; seven transmembrane domain receptors; heptahelical receptors; G protein-linked receptors [GPLR]) are the largest family of transmembrane receptors i...
  • Signaling by Insulin receptor, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signaling by Insulin receptor, organism-specific biosystemInsulin binding to its receptor results in receptor autophosphorylation on tyrosine residues and the tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrates (e.g. IRS and Shc) by the insulin receptor...
  • Signaling by Interleukins, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signaling by Interleukins, organism-specific biosystemInterleukins are low molecular weight proteins that bind to cell surface receptors and act in an autocrine and/or paracrine fashion. They were first identified as factors produced by leukocytes but a...
  • Signaling by Ligand-Responsive EGFR Variants in Cancer, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signaling by Ligand-Responsive EGFR Variants in Cancer, organism-specific biosystemLigand-responsive EGFR cancer variants harbor mutations in the kinase domain or point mutations in the extracellular domain. These altered EGFR proteins are able to signal in the absence of ligands, ...
  • Signaling by MET, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signaling by MET, organism-specific biosystemMET is a receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) (Cooper et al. 1984, Park et al. 1984) activated by binding to its ligand, Hepatocyte growth factor/Scatter factor (HGF/SF) (Bottaro et al. 1991, Naldini et al...
  • Signaling by PDGF, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signaling by PDGF, organism-specific biosystemPlatelet-derived Growth Factor (PDGF) is a potent stimulator of growth and motility of connective tissue cells such as fibroblasts and smooth muscle cells as well as other cells such as capillary end...
  • Signaling by SCF-KIT, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signaling by SCF-KIT, organism-specific biosystemStem cell factor (SCF) is a growth factor with membrane bound and soluble forms. It is expressed by fibroblasts and endothelial cells throughout the body, promoting proliferation, migration, survival...
  • Signaling by Type 1 Insulin-like Growth Factor 1 Receptor (IGF1R), organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signaling by Type 1 Insulin-like Growth Factor 1 Receptor (IGF1R), organism-specific biosystemBinding of IGF1 (IGF-I) or IGF2 (IGF-II) to the extracellular alpha peptides of the type 1 insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF1R) triggers the activation of two major signaling pathways: the SOS...
  • Signaling by VEGF, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signaling by VEGF, organism-specific biosystemIn normal development vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGFs) are crucial regulators of vascular development during embryogenesis (vasculogenesis) and blood-vessel formation in the adult (angioge...
  • Signaling by cytosolic FGFR1 fusion mutants, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signaling by cytosolic FGFR1 fusion mutants, organism-specific biosystem8p11 myeloproliferative syndrome (EMS) is an aggressive disorder that is associated with a translocation event at the FGFR1 gene on chromosome 8p11. Typical symptoms upon diagnosis include eosinophi...
  • Signaling by the B Cell Receptor (BCR), organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signaling by the B Cell Receptor (BCR), organism-specific biosystemMature B cells express IgM and IgD immunoglobulins which are complexed at the plasma membrane with Ig-alpha (CD79A, MB-1) and Ig-beta (CD79B, B29) to form the B cell receptor (BCR) (Fu et al. 1974, F...
  • Signaling events mediated by Hepatocyte Growth Factor Receptor (c-Met), organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    Signaling events mediated by Hepatocyte Growth Factor Receptor (c-Met), organism-specific biosystem
    Signaling events mediated by Hepatocyte Growth Factor Receptor (c-Met)
  • Signaling events mediated by PTP1B, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    Signaling events mediated by PTP1B, organism-specific biosystem
    Signaling events mediated by PTP1B
  • Signaling events mediated by Stem cell factor receptor (c-Kit), organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    Signaling events mediated by Stem cell factor receptor (c-Kit), organism-specific biosystem
    Signaling events mediated by Stem cell factor receptor (c-Kit)
  • Signaling events mediated by TCPTP, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    Signaling events mediated by TCPTP, organism-specific biosystem
    Signaling events mediated by TCPTP
  • Signaling events mediated by VEGFR1 and VEGFR2, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    Signaling events mediated by VEGFR1 and VEGFR2, organism-specific biosystem
    Signaling events mediated by VEGFR1 and VEGFR2
  • Signaling events mediated by focal adhesion kinase, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    Signaling events mediated by focal adhesion kinase, organism-specific biosystem
    Signaling events mediated by focal adhesion kinase
  • Signaling events mediated by the Hedgehog family, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    Signaling events mediated by the Hedgehog family, organism-specific biosystem
    Signaling events mediated by the Hedgehog family
  • Signaling events regulated by Ret tyrosine kinase, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    Signaling events regulated by Ret tyrosine kinase, organism-specific biosystem
    Signaling events regulated by Ret tyrosine kinase
  • Signaling of Hepatocyte Growth Factor Receptor, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Signaling of Hepatocyte Growth Factor Receptor, organism-specific biosystem
    Signaling of Hepatocyte Growth Factor Receptor
  • Signaling pathways regulating pluripotency of stem cells, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Signaling pathways regulating pluripotency of stem cells, organism-specific biosystemPluripotent stem cells (PSCs) are basic cells with an indefinite self-renewal capacity and the potential to generate all the cell types of the three germinal layers. The types of PSCs known to date i...
  • Signaling pathways regulating pluripotency of stem cells, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Signaling pathways regulating pluripotency of stem cells, conserved biosystemPluripotent stem cells (PSCs) are basic cells with an indefinite self-renewal capacity and the potential to generate all the cell types of the three germinal layers. The types of PSCs known to date i...
  • Signalling by NGF, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signalling by NGF, organism-specific biosystemNeurotrophins (NGF, BDNF, NT-3, NT-4/5) play pivotal roles in survival, differentiation, and plasticity of neurons in the peripheral and central nervous system. They are produced, and secreted in mi...
  • Small cell lung cancer, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Small cell lung cancer, organism-specific biosystemLung cancer is a leading cause of cancer death among men and women in industrialized countries. Small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) is a highly aggressive neoplasm, which accounts for approximately 25% ...
  • Small cell lung cancer, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Small cell lung cancer, conserved biosystemLung cancer is a leading cause of cancer death among men and women in industrialized countries. Small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) is a highly aggressive neoplasm, which accounts for approximately 25% ...
  • Sphingolipid signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Sphingolipid signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemSphingomyelin (SM) and its metabolic products are now known to have second messenger functions in a variety of cellular signaling pathways. Particularly, the sphingolipid metabolites, ceramide (Cer) ...
  • Sphingolipid signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Sphingolipid signaling pathway, conserved biosystemSphingomyelin (SM) and its metabolic products are now known to have second messenger functions in a variety of cellular signaling pathways. Particularly, the sphingolipid metabolites, ceramide (Cer) ...
  • Sterol Regulatory Element-Binding Proteins (SREBP) signalling, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Sterol Regulatory Element-Binding Proteins (SREBP) signalling, organism-specific biosystemSterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBPs) are membrane-bound proteins that act as transcription factors. They regulate lipid, especially cholesterol, biosynthesis and uptake at a transcript...
  • Synthesis of PIPs at the plasma membrane, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Synthesis of PIPs at the plasma membrane, organism-specific biosystemAt the plasma membrane, subsequent phosphorylation of phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PI4P) produces phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P2) and phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate (...
  • T cell receptor signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    T cell receptor signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemActivation of T lymphocytes is a key event for an efficient response of the immune system. It requires the involvement of the T-cell receptor (TCR) as well as costimulatory molecules such as CD28. En...
  • T cell receptor signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    T cell receptor signaling pathway, conserved biosystemActivation of T lymphocytes is a key event for an efficient response of the immune system. It requires the involvement of the T-cell receptor (TCR) as well as costimulatory molecules such as CD28. En...
  • T-Cell antigen Receptor (TCR) pathway during Staphylococcus aureus infection, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    T-Cell antigen Receptor (TCR) pathway during Staphylococcus aureus infection, organism-specific biosystemThis pathway is based on Figure 4 of "A Model of an Integrated Immune System Pathway in Homo sapiens and Its Interaction with Superantigen Producing Expression Regulatory Pathway in Staphylococcus au...
  • TCR signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    TCR signaling, organism-specific biosystemThe TCR is a multisubunit complex that consists of clonotypic alpha/beta chains noncovalently associated with the invariant CD3 delta/epsilon/gamma and TCR zeta chains. T cell activation by antigen p...
  • TNF signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    TNF signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemTumor necrosis factor (TNF), as a critical cytokine, can induce a wide range of intracellular signal pathways including apoptosis and cell survival as well as inflammation and immunity. Activated TNF...
  • TNF signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    TNF signaling pathway, conserved biosystemTumor necrosis factor (TNF), as a critical cytokine, can induce a wide range of intracellular signal pathways including apoptosis and cell survival as well as inflammation and immunity. Activated TNF...
  • TRAIL signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    TRAIL signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem
    TRAIL signaling pathway
  • Thymic Stromal LymphoPoietin (TSLP) Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Thymic Stromal LymphoPoietin (TSLP) Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystem
    Thymic Stromal LymphoPoietin (TSLP) Signaling Pathway
  • Thyroid hormone signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Thyroid hormone signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemThe thyroid hormones (THs) are important regulators of growth, development and metabolism. The action of TH is mainly mediated by T3 (3,5,3'-triiodo-L-thyronine). Thyroid hormones, L-thyroxine (T4) a...
  • Tie2 Signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Tie2 Signaling, organism-specific biosystemThe Tie2/Tek receptor tyrosine kinase plays a pivotal role in vascular and hematopoietic development and is expressed exclusively on endothelial lineage. Tie2 interacts with a group of ligands belong...
  • Toll-like Receptor Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Toll-like Receptor Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystemSpecific families of pattern recognition receptors are responsible for detecting microbial pathogens and generating innate immune responses. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are membrane-bound receptors id...
  • Toll-like receptor signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Toll-like receptor signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemSpecific families of pattern recognition receptors are responsible for detecting microbial pathogens and generating innate immune responses. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are membrane-bound receptors id...
  • Toll-like receptor signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Toll-like receptor signaling pathway, conserved biosystemSpecific families of pattern recognition receptors are responsible for detecting microbial pathogens and generating innate immune responses. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are membrane-bound receptors id...
  • Transcriptional activation by NRF2, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Transcriptional activation by NRF2, organism-specific biosystemBased on [http://www.nature.com/nrc/journal/v3/n10/fig_tab/nrc1189_F4.html Surh, 2003, figure 4]. Nrf2 induces the expression of many antioxidant enzymes. It is therefore thought to be involved in ox...
  • Trk receptor signaling mediated by PI3K and PLC-gamma, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    Trk receptor signaling mediated by PI3K and PLC-gamma, organism-specific biosystem
    Trk receptor signaling mediated by PI3K and PLC-gamma
  • Type II diabetes mellitus, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Type II diabetes mellitus, organism-specific biosystemInsulin resistance is strongly associated with type II diabetes. "Diabetogenic" factors including FFA, TNFalpha and cellular stress induce insulin resistance through inhibition of IRS1 functions. Ser...
  • Type II diabetes mellitus, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Type II diabetes mellitus, conserved biosystemInsulin resistance is strongly associated with type II diabetes. "Diabetogenic" factors including FFA, TNFalpha and cellular stress induce insulin resistance through inhibition of IRS1 functions. Ser...
  • VEGF signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    VEGF signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemThere is now much evidence that VEGFR-2 is the major mediator of VEGF-driven responses in endothelial cells and it is considered to be a crucial signal transducer in both physiologic and pathologic a...
  • VEGF signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    VEGF signaling pathway, conserved biosystemThere is now much evidence that VEGFR-2 is the major mediator of VEGF-driven responses in endothelial cells and it is considered to be a crucial signal transducer in both physiologic and pathologic a...
  • VEGFA-VEGFR2 Pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    VEGFA-VEGFR2 Pathway, organism-specific biosystemAngiogenesis is the formation of new blood vessels from preexisting vasculature. One of the most important proangiogenic factors is vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). VEGF exerts its biologic...
  • VEGFR1 specific signals, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    VEGFR1 specific signals, organism-specific biosystem
    VEGFR1 specific signals
  • VEGFR3 signaling in lymphatic endothelium, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    VEGFR3 signaling in lymphatic endothelium, organism-specific biosystem
    VEGFR3 signaling in lymphatic endothelium
  • Viral carcinogenesis, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Viral carcinogenesis, organism-specific biosystemThere is a strong association between viruses and the development of human malignancies. We now know that at least six human viruses, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C vi...
  • Viral carcinogenesis, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Viral carcinogenesis, conserved biosystemThere is a strong association between viruses and the development of human malignancies. We now know that at least six human viruses, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C vi...
  • a6b1 and a6b4 Integrin signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    a6b1 and a6b4 Integrin signaling, organism-specific biosystem
    a6b1 and a6b4 Integrin signaling
  • cAMP signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    cAMP signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemcAMP is one of the most common and universal second messengers, and its formation is promoted by adenylyl cyclase (AC) activation after ligation of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) by ligands incl...
  • cAMP signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    cAMP signaling pathway, conserved biosystemcAMP is one of the most common and universal second messengers, and its formation is promoted by adenylyl cyclase (AC) activation after ligation of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) by ligands incl...
  • mTOR signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    mTOR signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemThe mammalian (mechanistic) target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a highly conserved serine/threonine protein kinase, which exists in two complexes termed mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) and 2 (mTORC2). mTORC1 conta...
  • mTOR signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    mTOR signaling pathway, conserved biosystemThe mammalian (mechanistic) target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a highly conserved serine/threonine protein kinase, which exists in two complexes termed mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) and 2 (mTORC2). mTORC1 conta...
  • p75(NTR)-mediated signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    p75(NTR)-mediated signaling, organism-specific biosystem
    p75(NTR)-mediated signaling
  • superpathway of inositol phosphate compounds, organism-specific biosystem (from BIOCYC)
    superpathway of inositol phosphate compounds, organism-specific biosystem
    superpathway of inositol phosphate compounds
Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

Markers

Homology

Clone Names

  • MGC142161, MGC142163

Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

Function Evidence Code Pubs
1-phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase activity IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
1-phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase activity TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
1-phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 3-kinase activity IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
 
ATP binding IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
insulin receptor substrate binding IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
kinase activity IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
kinase activity TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activity ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activity TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase activity IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
 
phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase activity TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
protein binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
protein kinase activator activity IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
protein serine/threonine kinase activity IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
Process Evidence Code Pubs
ERBB2 signaling pathway TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
Fc-epsilon receptor signaling pathway TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
Fc-gamma receptor signaling pathway involved in phagocytosis TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
T cell costimulation TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
T cell receptor signaling pathway TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
activation of protein kinase activity IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
adaptive immune response IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
 
adipose tissue development IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
angiogenesis IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
anoikis NAS
Non-traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
axon guidance TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
cardiac muscle contraction TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
cell chemotaxis IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
 
cellular response to glucose stimulus IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
endothelial cell migration TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
energy homeostasis IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
epidermal growth factor receptor signaling pathway TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
glucose metabolic process IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
hypomethylation of CpG island IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
inflammatory response IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
 
innate immune response IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
 
insulin receptor signaling pathway via phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
interleukin-7-mediated signaling pathway TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
leukocyte migration TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
liver development IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
negative regulation of anoikis IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of fibroblast apoptotic process IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
negative regulation of macroautophagy NAS
Non-traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of neuron apoptotic process IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
 
phosphatidylinositol biosynthetic process TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
phosphatidylinositol phosphorylation ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate biosynthetic process IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
phosphatidylinositol-mediated signaling TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
phosphorylation IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
platelet activation TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of TOR signaling NAS
Non-traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of peptidyl-serine phosphorylation IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
protein kinase B signaling IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
protein phosphorylation IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
 
regulation of cellular respiration IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
regulation of gene expression IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
regulation of genetic imprinting IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
regulation of multicellular organism growth IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
regulation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
vascular endothelial growth factor receptor signaling pathway TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
vasculature development TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
Component Evidence Code Pubs
cytoplasm IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
 
cytosol TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
lamellipodium IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase complex ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase complex, class IA IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
plasma membrane IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
 
Preferred Names
phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit alpha isoform
Names
PI3-kinase p110 subunit alpha
phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, catalytic, 110-KD, alpha
phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, catalytic, alpha polypeptide
phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase 110 kDa catalytic subunit alpha
phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit, alpha isoform
phosphoinositide-3-kinase, catalytic, alpha polypeptide
ptdIns-3-kinase subunit p110-alpha
serine/threonine protein kinase PIK3CA
NP_006209.2
XP_006713721.1
XP_011511196.1

RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

Genomic

  1. NG_012113.2 RefSeqGene

    Range
    5001..91190
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics), LRG_310

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. NM_006218.3NP_006209.2  phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit alpha isoform

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_006209.2

    Status: REVIEWED

    Source sequence(s)
    AC076966, AI379480, AU129890, AW445128, BQ228953, BX437219, BX473473, BX484734, U79143
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS43171.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P42336
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    Q4LE51
    Related
    ENSP00000263967.3, OTTHUMP00000211945, ENST00000263967.3, OTTHUMT00000348409
    Conserved Domains (5) summary
    cd08398
    Location:325484
    C2_PI3K_class_I_alpha; C2 domain present in class I alpha phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases (PI3Ks)
    smart00143
    Location:31108
    PI3K_p85B; PI3-kinase family, p85-binding domain
    cd00872
    Location:525696
    PI3Ka_I; Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) class I, accessory domain ; PIK domain is conserved in all PI3 and PI4-kinases. Its role is unclear but it has been suggested to be involved in substrate presentation. In general, PI3K class I prefer phosphoinositol (4,5) ...
    cd05175
    Location:6951064
    PI3Kc_IA_alpha; Catalytic domain of Class IA Phosphoinositide 3-kinase alpha
    pfam00794
    Location:173292
    PI3K_rbd; PI3-kinase family, ras-binding domain

RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: Homo sapiens Annotation Release 108 details...Open this link in a new tab

The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

Reference GRCh38.p7 Primary Assembly

Genomic

  1. NC_000003.12 Reference GRCh38.p7 Primary Assembly

    Range
    179148114..179240093
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. XM_006713658.3XP_006713721.1  phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit alpha isoform isoform X1

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for XP_006713721.1

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P42336
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    Q4LE51
    Conserved Domains (5) summary
    cd08398
    Location:325484
    C2_PI3K_class_I_alpha; C2 domain present in class I alpha phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases (PI3Ks)
    smart00143
    Location:31108
    PI3K_p85B; PI3-kinase family, p85-binding domain
    cd00872
    Location:525696
    PI3Ka_I; Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) class I, accessory domain ; PIK domain is conserved in all PI3 and PI4-kinases. Its role is unclear but it has been suggested to be involved in substrate presentation. In general, PI3K class I prefer phosphoinositol (4,5) ...
    cd05175
    Location:6951064
    PI3Kc_IA_alpha; Catalytic domain of Class IA Phosphoinositide 3-kinase alpha
    pfam00794
    Location:173292
    PI3K_rbd; PI3-kinase family, ras-binding domain
  2. XM_011512894.2XP_011511196.1  phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit alpha isoform isoform X1

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for XP_011511196.1

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P42336
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    Q4LE51
    Conserved Domains (5) summary
    cd08398
    Location:325484
    C2_PI3K_class_I_alpha; C2 domain present in class I alpha phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases (PI3Ks)
    smart00143
    Location:31108
    PI3K_p85B; PI3-kinase family, p85-binding domain
    cd00872
    Location:525696
    PI3Ka_I; Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) class I, accessory domain ; PIK domain is conserved in all PI3 and PI4-kinases. Its role is unclear but it has been suggested to be involved in substrate presentation. In general, PI3K class I prefer phosphoinositol (4,5) ...
    cd05175
    Location:6951064
    PI3Kc_IA_alpha; Catalytic domain of Class IA Phosphoinositide 3-kinase alpha
    pfam00794
    Location:173292
    PI3K_rbd; PI3-kinase family, ras-binding domain

Alternate CHM1_1.1

Genomic

  1. NC_018914.2 Alternate CHM1_1.1

    Range
    178829221..178920795
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)
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