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PDYN prodynorphin [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

Gene ID: 5173, updated on 12-Aug-2018

Summary

Official Symbol
PDYNprovided by HGNC
Official Full Name
prodynorphinprovided by HGNC
Primary source
HGNC:HGNC:8820
See related
Ensembl:ENSG00000101327 MIM:131340; Vega:OTTHUMG00000031683
Gene type
protein coding
RefSeq status
REVIEWED
Organism
Homo sapiens
Lineage
Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
Also known as
ADCA; PENKB; SCA23
Summary
The protein encoded by this gene is a preproprotein that is proteolytically processed to form the secreted opioid peptides beta-neoendorphin, dynorphin, leu-enkephalin, rimorphin, and leumorphin. These peptides are ligands for the kappa-type of opioid receptor. Dynorphin is involved in modulating responses to several psychoactive substances, including cocaine. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding the same protein have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2010]
Expression
Restricted expression toward brain (RPKM 14.6) See more
Orthologs

Genomic context

See PDYN in Genome Data Viewer
Location:
20p13
Exon count:
10
Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
109 current GRCh38.p12 (GCF_000001405.38) 20 NC_000020.11 (1978756..1994285, complement)
105 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 20 NC_000020.10 (1959402..1974931, complement)

Chromosome 20 - NC_000020.11Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene uncharacterized LOC107984088 Neighboring gene uncharacterized LOC102724545 Neighboring gene signal regulatory protein alpha Neighboring gene PDYN antisense RNA 1 Neighboring gene ribosomal protein L7 pseudogene 2 Neighboring gene serine/threonine kinase 35

Genomic regions, transcripts, and products

Expression

  • Project title: HPA RNA-seq normal tissues
  • Description: RNA-seq was performed of tissue samples from 95 human individuals representing 27 different tissues in order to determine tissue-specificity of all protein-coding genes
  • BioProject: PRJEB4337
  • Publication: PMID 24309898
  • Analysis date: Wed Jun 15 11:32:44 2016

Bibliography

GeneRIFs: Gene References Into FunctionsWhat's a GeneRIF?

Phenotypes

Associated conditions

Description Tests
Spinocerebellar ataxia 23
MedGen: C1853250 OMIM: 610245 GeneReviews: Hereditary Ataxia Overview
Compare labs

NHGRI GWAS Catalog

Description
Genome-wide association study of antibody response to smallpox vaccine.
NHGRI GWA Catalog
Genome-wide joint SNP and CNV analysis of aortic root diameter in African Americans: the HyperGEN study.
NHGRI GWA Catalog
Genome-wide SNP associations with rubella-specific cytokine responses in measles-mumps-rubella vaccine recipients.
NHGRI GWA Catalog

Pathways from BioSystems

  • Alcoholism, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Alcoholism, organism-specific biosystemAlcoholism, also called dependence on alcohol (ethanol), is a chronic relapsing disorder that is progressive and has serious detrimental health outcomes. As one of the primary mediators of the reward...
  • Alcoholism, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Alcoholism, conserved biosystemAlcoholism, also called dependence on alcohol (ethanol), is a chronic relapsing disorder that is progressive and has serious detrimental health outcomes. As one of the primary mediators of the reward...
  • Amphetamine addiction, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Amphetamine addiction, organism-specific biosystemAmphetamine is a psychostimulant drug that exerts persistent addictive effects. Most addictive drugs increase extracellular concentrations of dopamine (DA) in nucleus accumbens (NAc) and medial prefr...
  • Amphetamine addiction, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Amphetamine addiction, conserved biosystemAmphetamine is a psychostimulant drug that exerts persistent addictive effects. Most addictive drugs increase extracellular concentrations of dopamine (DA) in nucleus accumbens (NAc) and medial prefr...
  • Class A/1 (Rhodopsin-like receptors), organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Class A/1 (Rhodopsin-like receptors), organism-specific biosystemRhodopsin-like receptors (class A/1) are the largest group of GPCRs and are the best studied group from a functional and structural point of view. They show great diversity at the sequence level and ...
  • Cocaine addiction, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Cocaine addiction, organism-specific biosystemDrug addiction is a chronic, relapsing disorder in which compulsive drug-seeking and drug-taking behavior persists despite serious negative consequences.There is strong evidence that the dopaminergic...
  • Cocaine addiction, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Cocaine addiction, conserved biosystemDrug addiction is a chronic, relapsing disorder in which compulsive drug-seeking and drug-taking behavior persists despite serious negative consequences.There is strong evidence that the dopaminergic...
  • G alpha (i) signalling events, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    G alpha (i) signalling events, organism-specific biosystemThe classical signalling mechanism for G alpha (i) is inhibition of the cAMP dependent pathway through inhibition of adenylate cyclase. Decreased production of cAMP from ATP results in decreased act...
  • G-protein activation, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    G-protein activation, organism-specific biosystemReceptor activated heterotrimeric G proteins consist of the Galpha and the tightly associated Gbeta-gamma subunits. When a ligand binds to a G protein-coupled receptor, it stabilises a conformation ...
  • GPCR downstream signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    GPCR downstream signaling, organism-specific biosystemG protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are classically defined as the receptor, G-protein and downstream effectors, the alpha subunit of the G-protein being the primary signaling molecule. However, it h...
  • GPCR ligand binding, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    GPCR ligand binding, organism-specific biosystemThere are more than 800 G-protein coupled receptor (GPCRs) in the human genome, making it the largest receptor superfamily. GPCRs are also the largest class of drug targets, involved in virtually all...
  • Opioid Signalling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Opioid Signalling, organism-specific biosystemOpioids are chemical substances similar to opiates, the active substances found in opium (morphine, codeine etc.). Opioid action is mediated by the receptors for endogenous opioids; peptides such as...
  • Peptide ligand-binding receptors, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Peptide ligand-binding receptors, organism-specific biosystemThese receptors, a subset of the Class A/1 (Rhodopsin-like) family, all bind peptide ligands which include the chemokines, opioids and somatostatins.
  • Signal Transduction, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signal Transduction, organism-specific biosystemSignal transduction is a process in which extracellular signals elicit changes in cell state and activity. Transmembrane receptors sense changes in the cellular environment by binding ligands, such a...
  • Signaling by GPCR, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signaling by GPCR, organism-specific biosystemG protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs; 7TM receptors; seven transmembrane domain receptors; heptahelical receptors; G protein-linked receptors [GPLR]) are the largest family of transmembrane receptors i...
  • Spinal Cord Injury, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Spinal Cord Injury, organism-specific biosystemThis pathway provides an overview of cell types, therapeutic targets, drugs, new proposed targets and pathways implicated in spinal cord injury. Spinal cord injury is a complex multistep process that...

Interactions

Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

General gene information

Markers

Homology

Clone Names

  • MGC26418

Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

Function Evidence Code Pubs
opioid peptide activity IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
Process Evidence Code Pubs
G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
chemical synaptic transmission IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
neuropeptide signaling pathway IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
regulation of signaling receptor activity IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
Component Evidence Code Pubs
axon terminus IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
dendrite IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
extracellular region TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
neuronal cell body IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
plasma membrane IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
plasma membrane IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 

General protein information

Preferred Names
proenkephalin-B
Names
beta-neoendorphin-dynorphin
leu-enkephalin
leumorphin
neoendorphin-dynorphin-enkephalin prepropeptide
preprodynorphin
preproenkephalin B
rimorphin

NCBI Reference Sequences (RefSeq)

RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

Genomic

  1. NG_028027.1 RefSeqGene

    Range
    4961..20490
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. NM_001190892.1NP_001177821.1  proenkephalin-B preproprotein

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001177821.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (3) has an alternate 5' UTR sequence and encodes the same protein, as compared to variant 1.
    Source sequence(s)
    AK289618, AL034562, BC026334
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS13023.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P01213
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    pfam01160
    Location:2167
    Opiods_neuropep; Vertebrate endogenous opioids neuropeptide
  2. NM_001190898.2NP_001177827.1  proenkephalin-B preproprotein

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001177827.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (2) has an alternate splice site in the 5' UTR, which results in three nt less than variant 1. Variants 1-5 encode the same protein.
    Source sequence(s)
    AL034562, BC026334, DA157767, DA178888, DA297229
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS13023.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P01213
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    pfam01160
    Location:2167
    Opiods_neuropep; Vertebrate endogenous opioids neuropeptide
  3. NM_001190899.2NP_001177828.1  proenkephalin-B preproprotein

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001177828.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (4) lacks an exon in the 5' UTR and encodes the same protein, as compared to variant 1.
    Source sequence(s)
    AL034562, BC026334, DA157767, DA178888, DA302375
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS13023.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P01213
    Related
    ENSP00000440185.1, ENST00000539905.5
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    pfam01160
    Location:2167
    Opiods_neuropep; Vertebrate endogenous opioids neuropeptide
  4. NM_001190900.1NP_001177829.1  proenkephalin-B preproprotein

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001177829.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (5) has an alternate 5' UTR exon, as compared to variant 1. Variants 1-5 encode the same protein.
    Source sequence(s)
    AL034562, BC026334, DA305883
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS13023.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P01213
    Related
    ENSP00000442259.1, ENST00000540134.5
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    pfam01160
    Location:2167
    Opiods_neuropep; Vertebrate endogenous opioids neuropeptide
  5. NM_024411.4NP_077722.1  proenkephalin-B preproprotein

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_077722.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (1) and variants 2-5 encode the same protein.
    Source sequence(s)
    AL034562, BC026334, DA157767, DA178888
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS13023.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P01213
    Related
    ENSP00000217305.2, OTTHUMP00000030002, ENST00000217305.2, OTTHUMT00000077569
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    pfam01160
    Location:2167
    Opiods_neuropep; Vertebrate endogenous opioids neuropeptide

RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: Homo sapiens Annotation Release 109 details...Open this link in a new tab

The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

Reference GRCh38.p12 Primary Assembly

Genomic

  1. NC_000020.11 Reference GRCh38.p12 Primary Assembly

    Range
    1978756..1994285 complement
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. XM_011529249.2XP_011527551.1  proenkephalin-B isoform X1

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for XP_011527551.1

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P01213
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    pfam01160
    Location:2167
    Opiods_neuropep; Vertebrate endogenous opioids neuropeptide
  2. XM_011529247.1XP_011527549.1  proenkephalin-B isoform X1

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for XP_011527549.1

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P01213
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    pfam01160
    Location:2167
    Opiods_neuropep; Vertebrate endogenous opioids neuropeptide
  3. XM_017027878.1XP_016883367.1  proenkephalin-B isoform X1

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P01213
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    pfam01160
    Location:2167
    Opiods_neuropep; Vertebrate endogenous opioids neuropeptide
  4. XM_011529246.2XP_011527548.1  proenkephalin-B isoform X1

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for XP_011527548.1

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P01213
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    pfam01160
    Location:2167
    Opiods_neuropep; Vertebrate endogenous opioids neuropeptide
  5. XM_011529244.1XP_011527546.1  proenkephalin-B isoform X1

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for XP_011527546.1

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P01213
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    pfam01160
    Location:2167
    Opiods_neuropep; Vertebrate endogenous opioids neuropeptide
  6. XM_011529245.1XP_011527547.1  proenkephalin-B isoform X1

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for XP_011527547.1

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P01213
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    pfam01160
    Location:2167
    Opiods_neuropep; Vertebrate endogenous opioids neuropeptide
  7. XM_011529248.1XP_011527550.1  proenkephalin-B isoform X1

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for XP_011527550.1

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P01213
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    pfam01160
    Location:2167
    Opiods_neuropep; Vertebrate endogenous opioids neuropeptide
  8. XM_011529250.2XP_011527552.1  proenkephalin-B isoform X1

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for XP_011527552.1

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P01213
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    pfam01160
    Location:2167
    Opiods_neuropep; Vertebrate endogenous opioids neuropeptide
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