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MX2 MX dynamin like GTPase 2 [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

Gene ID: 4600, updated on 5-Jan-2020

Summary

Official Symbol
MX2provided by HGNC
Official Full Name
MX dynamin like GTPase 2provided by HGNC
Primary source
HGNC:HGNC:7533
See related
Ensembl:ENSG00000183486 MIM:147890
Gene type
protein coding
RefSeq status
REVIEWED
Organism
Homo sapiens
Lineage
Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
Also known as
MXB
Summary
The protein encoded by this gene has a nuclear and a cytoplasmic form and is a member of both the dynamin family and the family of large GTPases. The nuclear form is localized in a granular pattern in the heterochromatin region beneath the nuclear envelope. A nuclear localization signal (NLS) is present at the amino terminal end of the nuclear form but is lacking in the cytoplasmic form due to use of an alternate translation start codon. This protein is upregulated by interferon-alpha but does not contain the antiviral activity of a similar myxovirus resistance protein 1. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Expression
Broad expression in spleen (RPKM 16.5), appendix (RPKM 13.6) and 23 other tissues See more
Orthologs

Genomic context

See MX2 in Genome Data Viewer
Location:
21q22.3
Exon count:
18
Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
109.20191205 current GRCh38.p13 (GCF_000001405.39) 21 NC_000021.9 (41361944..41409393)
105 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 21 NC_000021.8 (42733918..42780870)

Chromosome 21 - NC_000021.9Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene beta-secretase 2 Neighboring gene placenta enriched 4 Neighboring gene FAM3 metabolism regulating signaling molecule B Neighboring gene MX dynamin like GTPase 1 Neighboring gene transmembrane protease serine 2 breakpoint cluster recombination region Neighboring gene transmembrane serine protease 2

Genomic regions, transcripts, and products

Expression

  • Project title: HPA RNA-seq normal tissues
  • Description: RNA-seq was performed of tissue samples from 95 human individuals representing 27 different tissues in order to determine tissue-specificity of all protein-coding genes
  • BioProject: PRJEB4337
  • Publication: PMID 24309898
  • Analysis date: Wed Apr 4 07:08:55 2018

Bibliography

GeneRIFs: Gene References Into Functions

What's a GeneRIF?

HIV-1 interactions

Replication interactions

Interaction Pubs
HIV-1 replication is restricted by functional MX2 (MxB) which is dependent upon amino acid G208 in CA in Cf2Th and THP-1 cells PubMed
HIV-1 replication is inhibited by wild type MX2 (MxB) but not when mutations in the stalk oligomerization interfaces, hinge region, or L4 loop are made PubMed
HIV-1 replication is restricted by wild type MX2 (MxB); restriction is dependent on amino acids M574, Y651, and F647 in MX2 as assayed in U87-MG CD4+ CXCR4+ cells PubMed
HIV-1 replication is NOT restricted by MX2 (MxB) mutants M574D, Y651D and M567D/L570D (mutations affect MX2 dimerization); this observation indicates that MX2 (MxB) dimerization is important for anti-HIV-1 activity in this context PubMed
HIV-1 replication is restricted by MX2 mutants I423D, K663D, M666D, and the I423/K663D double mutant (all interface 1 MX2 (MxB) mutants); indicates that MX2 oligomerization through interface 1 is not critical for MX2-mediated HIV-1 restriction PubMed
HIV-1 replication is restricted by MX2 (MxB) mutants E681A and R689A (in HOS cells), indicating anti-HIV-1 activity of MX2 (MxB) is not dependent on transfer of information from the GTPase domain to the stalk domain PubMed
HIV-1 infection is restricted by wild type MX2 (MxB) and the YRGK487-490AAAA mutant MX2 (MxB) PubMed
VSVG-pseudotyped recombinant HIV-1 is restricted by MX2 (MxB) with mutations in interface 1 (E424R, K663D, L669D) just as strongly as wild-type MX2 (MxB) PubMed
Knockdown of MX2 by shRNA enhances HIV-1 replication in an IFN-alpha-dependent manner in HIV-1-infected cells PubMed

Protein interactions

Protein Gene Interaction Pubs
Envelope surface glycoprotein gp120 env HIV-1 gp120-treated vaginal epithelial cells show upregulation of myxovirus resistance 2 (MX2, MXB) expression as compared to untreated control PubMed
Tat tat HIV-1 and the viral protein Tat modulate the expression of MX dynamin-like GTPase 2 (MX2; MxB) in immature dendritic cells and monocyte-derived macrophages PubMed
Vpr vpr HIV-1 Vpr upregulates the gene expression of MX2 in human monocyte-derived macrophages PubMed
vpr HIV-1 Vpr upregulates the gene expression of MX2 in human monocyte-derived dendritic cells PubMed
capsid gag HIV-1 CA binds MX2 (MxB) dependent upon G208 in CA, which is not related to IFN-alpha restriction in THP-1, HT-1080, and U87 MG cell lines PubMed
gag HIV-1 CA H87P, G116A, and P207A mutants are resistant to inhibition by MX2 (MxB), but still interact with MX2 (MxB) PubMed
gag CA-NC complex/core (in vitro-assembled from HIV-1 NL4-3 Gag amino acids 133-433; fusion protein) DOES NOT bind to MX2 (MxB) with mutations in interface 2 (Q644D, M574D, Y651D and M574D/Y651D, each preventing MX2 oligomerization) PubMed
gag CA binding to MX2 (MxB) involves the N-terminal 25 amino acids of MX2 (MxB) PubMed
gag Anti-HIV-1 activity of MX2 is greatly enhanced when MX2 is directly targeted to HIV-1 CA by fusion with PPIA (CypA) PubMed
gag CA-NC complex/core (in vitro-assembled from HIV-1 NL4-3 Gag amino acids 133-433; fusion protein) binds to MX2 (MxB) with mutations in interface 1 (E424R, K663D, L669D) as strongly as wild-type MX2 (MxB) PubMed
gag Disruption of the leucine zipper by a single point mutation L661K abolishes the ability of MX2 to oligomerize, leading to neither binding to in vitro assembled HIV-1 CA-NC complexes nor restrict HIV-1 infection PubMed
gag MX2 binds to in vitro assembled HIV-2 and SIVmac CA-NC complexes PubMed
gag HIV-1 CA tubes bind MX2 (MxB) directly in vitro, indicating that cellular cofactors are not required for the direct interaction of these two proteins PubMed
gag WT CA binds MX2 (MX2-HA) efficiently as well as interface 1 mutants K663D, I423D/K663D, and M666D; hinge 1 mutant E681A and interface 2 mutants M574D and Y651D do not bind CA efficiently PubMed
gag HIV-1 CA in assembled lattices bind MX2, but not single CA hexamers (pentamers or monomers) PubMed
gag HIV-1 CA binds MBP-MX2-YRGK/IKM directly, indicating that cellular cofactors are not required for the binding between CA and MX2 PubMed
gag HIV-1 CA-MX2 interaction plays a role in in restriction of HIV-1 replication (negative correlation of CA-MX2 binding scatterplot analysis yields a Spearman rank correlation coefficient p value of 0.028) PubMed
gag Efficient HIV-1 CA binding to MX2 requires the first 84 amino acids of MX2 (N-terminus) PubMed
gag CA/MX2 (MxB) binding requires an intact 'RRR' motif located at amino acids 11-13 in the N-terminal of MX2 (MxB) PubMed
gag MX2 binds to the HIV-1 core and inhibits the uncoating process of HIV-1 during infection, which is prevented by a benzimidazole-based inhibitor that binds to a specific pocket in the HIV-1 capsid PubMed
gag HIV-1 CA N57S, K70R, N74D, A88T, G89V, P90A, and T107N mutants are resistant to inhibition by MX2, suggesting that CA is a specific target of MX2 PubMed
gag HIV-1 CA mutants V86A, V86Q, H87P, H87Q, A88V, and A92P in the cyclophilin A-binding loop of CA are resistant to MxB restriction PubMed
gag HIV-1 CA mutants E45A, N57A, N57S, K70R, G89V, and T107N are significantly less sensitive than the wild-type to MxB restriction PubMed
gag MX2 binds to in vitro assembled HIV-1 CA-NC complexes, whereas MX1 is not able to interact with in vitro assembled HIV-1 CA-NC complexes PubMed
gag MX2 co-localizes with HIV-1 CA, suggesting that MX2 directly associates with HIV-1 cores in living cells PubMed
gag A protein chimera MX2(1-90)-MX1(43-662) has the ability to bind in vitro assembled HIV-1 CA-NC complexes, suggesting that the N-terminal region (residues 1-90) of MX2 is involved in its ability to bind capsid PubMed
gag The cryo-EM images show distinct protein densities decorating the HIV-1 CA tubes in the presence of MX2 compared to MX2(84-715) mutant, confirming both direct protein binding and the importance of the MX2 N terminus in this interaction PubMed
gag HIV-1 CA mutants M10I, N57S, H87R, P90T, Q95L, M185I, P207S, G208R, and T210K are entirely or partially resistant to human MX2 PubMed
integrase gag-pol HIV-1 IN mutant D64N/D116N is significantly more resistant than the wild-type and D167K IN mutant to MxB restriction PubMed
nucleocapsid gag CA-NC complex/core (in vitro-assembled from HIV-1 NL4-3 Gag amino acids 133-433; fusion protein) DOES NOT bind to MX2 (MxB) with the L661K mutation (prevents oligomerization) in the putative leucine zipper region PubMed
gag CA-NC complex/core (in vitro-assembled from HIV-1 NL4-3 Gag amino acids 133-433; fusion protein) DOES NOT bind to MX2 (MxB) with mutations in interface 2 (Q644D, M574D, Y651D and M574D/Y651D, each preventing MX2 oligomerization) PubMed
gag CA-NC complexes (in vitro-assembled from HIV-1 NL4-3 Gag amino acids 133-433; fusion protein) bind to MX2 (MxB) with mutations in interface 1 (E424R, K663D, L669D) as strongly as wild-type MX2 (MxB) PubMed

Go to the HIV-1, Human Interaction Database

Pathways from PubChem

Interactions

Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

General gene information

Markers

Homology

Clone Names

  • FLJ44119

Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

Function Evidence Code Pubs
GTP binding IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
GTPase activity IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
microtubule binding IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
protein binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
Process Evidence Code Pubs
defense response TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
defense response to virus IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
defense response to virus IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
innate immune response IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
mRNA transport IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
mitochondrial fission IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
postsynaptic neurotransmitter receptor internalization IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
receptor internalization IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
regulation of cell cycle IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
regulation of nucleocytoplasmic transport IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
regulation of synapse structure or activity IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
response to interferon-alpha IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
response to virus IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
synaptic vesicle budding from presynaptic endocytic zone membrane IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
type I interferon signaling pathway TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
Component Evidence Code Pubs
axon IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
cytoplasm IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
cytoplasmic vesicle IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
cytosol TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
dendritic spine IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
dendritic spine head IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
membrane IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
nuclear pore IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
nucleus IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
plasma membrane IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
postsynaptic density IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
postsynaptic endocytic zone membrane IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
postsynaptic membrane IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
presynapse IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
synapse IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 

General protein information

Preferred Names
interferon-induced GTP-binding protein Mx2
Names
interferon-regulated resistance GTP-binding protein MXB
myxovirus (influenza virus) resistance 2
myxovirus resistance protein 2
p78-related protein
second interferon-induced protein p78

NCBI Reference Sequences (RefSeq)

RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. NM_002463.2NP_002454.1  interferon-induced GTP-binding protein Mx2

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_002454.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Source sequence(s)
    AL773578, M30818
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS13672.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P20592
    Related
    ENSP00000333657.3, ENST00000330714.8
    Conserved Domains (3) summary
    smart00302
    Location:621709
    GED; Dynamin GTPase effector domain
    cd08771
    Location:116387
    DLP_1; Dynamin_like protein family includes dynamins and Mx proteins
    pfam01031
    Location:307593
    Dynamin_M; Dynamin central region

RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: Homo sapiens Updated Annotation Release 109.20191205

The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

Reference GRCh38.p13 Primary Assembly

Genomic

  1. NC_000021.9 Reference GRCh38.p13 Primary Assembly

    Range
    41361944..41409393
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. XM_011529573.2XP_011527875.1  interferon-induced GTP-binding protein Mx2 isoform X2

    Conserved Domains (3) summary
    smart00302
    Location:576664
    GED; Dynamin GTPase effector domain
    cd08771
    Location:116342
    DLP_1; Dynamin_like protein family includes dynamins and Mx proteins
    pfam01031
    Location:263549
    Dynamin_M; Dynamin central region
  2. XM_024452080.1XP_024307848.1  interferon-induced GTP-binding protein Mx2 isoform X1

    Conserved Domains (3) summary
    smart00302
    Location:621709
    GED; Dynamin GTPase effector domain
    cd08771
    Location:116387
    DLP_1; Dynamin_like protein family includes dynamins and Mx proteins
    pfam01031
    Location:307593
    Dynamin_M; Dynamin central region
  3. XM_005260983.5XP_005261040.1  interferon-induced GTP-binding protein Mx2 isoform X1

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for XP_005261040.1

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P20592
    Conserved Domains (3) summary
    smart00302
    Location:621709
    GED; Dynamin GTPase effector domain
    cd08771
    Location:116387
    DLP_1; Dynamin_like protein family includes dynamins and Mx proteins
    pfam01031
    Location:307593
    Dynamin_M; Dynamin central region
  4. XM_005260984.1XP_005261041.1  interferon-induced GTP-binding protein Mx2 isoform X1

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for XP_005261041.1

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P20592
    Conserved Domains (3) summary
    smart00302
    Location:621709
    GED; Dynamin GTPase effector domain
    cd08771
    Location:116387
    DLP_1; Dynamin_like protein family includes dynamins and Mx proteins
    pfam01031
    Location:307593
    Dynamin_M; Dynamin central region
  5. XM_011529571.1XP_011527873.1  interferon-induced GTP-binding protein Mx2 isoform X1

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for XP_011527873.1

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P20592
    Conserved Domains (3) summary
    smart00302
    Location:621709
    GED; Dynamin GTPase effector domain
    cd08771
    Location:116387
    DLP_1; Dynamin_like protein family includes dynamins and Mx proteins
    pfam01031
    Location:307593
    Dynamin_M; Dynamin central region
  6. XM_011529572.2XP_011527874.1  interferon-induced GTP-binding protein Mx2 isoform X1

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for XP_011527874.1

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P20592
    Conserved Domains (3) summary
    smart00302
    Location:621709
    GED; Dynamin GTPase effector domain
    cd08771
    Location:116387
    DLP_1; Dynamin_like protein family includes dynamins and Mx proteins
    pfam01031
    Location:307593
    Dynamin_M; Dynamin central region
  7. XM_011529574.2XP_011527876.1  interferon-induced GTP-binding protein Mx2 isoform X3

    Conserved Domains (2) summary
    smart00302
    Location:323411
    GED; Dynamin GTPase effector domain
    pfam01031
    Location:10296
    Dynamin_M; Dynamin central region
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