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MT3 metallothionein 3 [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

Gene ID: 4504, updated on 3-Jan-2019

Summary

Official Symbol
MT3provided by HGNC
Official Full Name
metallothionein 3provided by HGNC
Primary source
HGNC:HGNC:7408
See related
Ensembl:ENSG00000087250 MIM:139255
Gene type
protein coding
RefSeq status
REVIEWED
Organism
Homo sapiens
Lineage
Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
Also known as
GIF; GIFB; GRIF; ZnMT3
Summary
This gene is a member of the metallothionein family of genes. Proteins encoded by this gene family are low in molecular weight, are cysteine-rich, lack aromatic residues, and bind divalent heavy metal ions. This gene family member displays tissue-specific expression, and contains a threonine insert near its N-terminus and a glutamate-rich hexapeptide insert near its C-terminus relative to the proteins encoded by other gene family members. It plays an important role in zinc and copper homeostasis, and is induced under hypoxic conditions. The encoded protein is a growth inhibitory factor, and reduced levels of the protein are observed in the brains of individuals with some metal-linked neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2017]
Annotation information
Note: GIF (Gene ID: 2694) and MT3 (Gene ID: 4504) share the GIF symbol/alias in common. GIF is a widely used alternative name for metallothionein 3 (MT3), which can be confused with the official symbol for GIF (gastric intrinsic factor, GeneID 2694). [01 Jun 2018]
Expression
Biased expression in brain (RPKM 149.3) and adrenal (RPKM 10.1) See more
Orthologs

Genomic context

See MT3 in Genome Data Viewer
Location:
16q13
Exon count:
3
Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
109 current GRCh38.p12 (GCF_000001405.38) 16 NC_000016.10 (56589337..56591088)
105 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 16 NC_000016.9 (56623267..56625000)

Chromosome 16 - NC_000016.10Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene uncharacterized LOC105371283 Neighboring gene metallothionein 4 Neighboring gene metallothionein 2A Neighboring gene metallothionein 1L, pseudogene

Genomic regions, transcripts, and products

Expression

  • Project title: HPA RNA-seq normal tissues
  • Description: RNA-seq was performed of tissue samples from 95 human individuals representing 27 different tissues in order to determine tissue-specificity of all protein-coding genes
  • BioProject: PRJEB4337
  • Publication: PMID 24309898
  • Analysis date: Wed Apr 4 07:08:55 2018

Bibliography

GeneRIFs: Gene References Into FunctionsWhat's a GeneRIF?

HIV-1 interactions

Protein interactions

Protein Gene Interaction Pubs
Tat tat Microarray analysis indicates HIV-1 Tat upregulates the interferon-responsive gene expression of many proteins, including Metallothionein, in immature dendritic cells, an effect that likely facilitates the expansion of HIV-1 infection PubMed
Vpr vpr Treatment of human primary astrocytes with HIV-1 Vpr downregulates expression of eleven genes, BNIP3, CYGB, DUOX2, DUSP1, FOXM1, GAPDH, HPRT1, MT3, MTL5, PTGS2, and SCARA3 PubMed

Go to the HIV-1, Human Interaction Database

Pathways from BioSystems

  • Copper homeostasis, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Copper homeostasis, organism-specific biosystemCopper is a redox-active transition metal and an essential trace element for life. It is a catalytic cofactor for numerous enzymes involved in critical biological processes (eg. detoxyfication by oxy...
  • Metabolism, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Metabolism, organism-specific biosystemMetabolic processes in human cells generate energy through the oxidation of molecules consumed in the diet and mediate the synthesis of diverse essential molecules not taken in the diet as well as th...
  • Metallothioneins bind metals, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Metallothioneins bind metals, organism-specific biosystemMetallothioneins are highly conserved, cysteine-rich proteins that bind metals via thiolate bonds (recent general reviews in Capdevila et al. 2012, Blindauer et al. 2014, reviews of mammalian metallo...
  • Response to metal ions, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Response to metal ions, organism-specific biosystemThough metals such as zinc, copper, and iron are required as cofactors for cellular enzymes they can also catalyze damaging metal substitution or unspecific redox reactions if they are not sequestere...
  • Zinc homeostasis, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Zinc homeostasis, organism-specific biosystemZinc is a transition metal and catalytic cofactor involved in many biological processes such as proliferation, development and differentiation, regulation of DNA synthesis, genomic stability, cell ac...

Interactions

Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

General gene information

Markers

Homology

Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

Function Evidence Code Pubs
antioxidant activity NAS
Non-traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
cadmium ion binding IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
copper ion binding IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
copper ion binding TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
cysteine-type endopeptidase inhibitor activity involved in apoptotic process IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
drug binding IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
metal ion binding IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
protein binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
protein kinase activator activity IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
zinc ion binding IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
Process Evidence Code Pubs
ERK1 and ERK2 cascade IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
activation of protein kinase B activity IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
apoptotic process IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
astrocyte development ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
brain development IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
cadmium ion homeostasis IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
cell proliferation TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
cellular lipid catabolic process ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
cellular metal ion homeostasis NAS
Non-traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
cellular metal ion homeostasis TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
cellular response to cadmium ion IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
cellular response to cadmium ion IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
cellular response to copper ion IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
cellular response to drug IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
cellular response to hypoxia IEP
Inferred from Expression Pattern
more info
PubMed 
cellular response to nitric oxide IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
cellular response to oxidative stress IEP
Inferred from Expression Pattern
more info
PubMed 
cellular response to zinc ion IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
cellular zinc ion homeostasis IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
cellular zinc ion homeostasis ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
cholesterol catabolic process ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
detoxification of copper ion IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
energy reserve metabolic process ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
histone modification IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
leptin-mediated signaling pathway ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
negative regulation of apoptotic process IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of autophagy ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
negative regulation of axon extension IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of cell growth IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of cell growth IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of cell growth TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of cysteine-type endopeptidase activity IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of cysteine-type endopeptidase activity involved in apoptotic process IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of hydrogen peroxide catabolic process IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
negative regulation of necrotic cell death IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of necrotic cell death ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
negative regulation of neuron apoptotic process ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
negative regulation of oxidoreductase activity IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of reactive oxygen species metabolic process IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of transcription, DNA-templated ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
positive regulation of ERK1 and ERK2 cascade IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of ERK1 and ERK2 cascade IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of ERK1 and ERK2 cascade ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
positive regulation of catalytic activity ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
positive regulation of cell death IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of cell death ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
positive regulation of gene expression IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of gene expression ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
positive regulation of lysosomal membrane permeability ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
positive regulation of necrotic cell death IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of oxygen metabolic process ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
positive regulation of protein phosphorylation IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter in response to oxidative stress IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of transcription, DNA-templated IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of transcription, DNA-templated ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
positive regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor signaling pathway IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
protein kinase B signaling IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
protein stabilization IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
regulation of protein glycosylation ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
regulation of response to food ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
removal of superoxide radicals IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
response to hypoxia IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
response to metal ion TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
zinc ion homeostasis IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
zinc ion transport ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
Component Evidence Code Pubs
astrocyte end-foot IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
axon IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
cytoplasm IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
cytoplasm IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
cytosol TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
dendritic spine IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
extracellular space IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
inclusion body IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
microtubule IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
mitochondrial outer membrane IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
nucleus IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
perinuclear region of cytoplasm IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
plasma membrane IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
postsynaptic density IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
ribosome IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
rough endoplasmic reticulum IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
synaptic vesicle ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 

General protein information

Preferred Names
metallothionein-3
Names
growth inhibitory factor
metallothionein 3 (growth inhibitory factor (neurotrophic))
metallothionein-III

NCBI Reference Sequences (RefSeq)

RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. NM_005954.3NP_005945.1  metallothionein-3

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_005945.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Source sequence(s)
    BP210917, CB155600, DB470290
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS10762.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P25713
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    A0A024R6R7
    Related
    ENSP00000200691.4, ENST00000200691.4
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    pfam00131
    Location:168
    Metallothio; Metallothionein

RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: Homo sapiens Annotation Release 109

The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

Reference GRCh38.p12 Primary Assembly

Genomic

  1. NC_000016.10 Reference GRCh38.p12 Primary Assembly

    Range
    56589337..56591088
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)
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