Format

Send to:

Choose Destination

LGALS3 galectin 3 [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

Gene ID: 3958, updated on 6-Jan-2019

Summary

Official Symbol
LGALS3provided by HGNC
Official Full Name
galectin 3provided by HGNC
Primary source
HGNC:HGNC:6563
See related
Ensembl:ENSG00000131981 MIM:153619
Gene type
protein coding
RefSeq status
REVIEWED
Organism
Homo sapiens
Lineage
Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
Also known as
L31; GAL3; MAC2; CBP35; GALBP; GALIG; LGALS2
Summary
This gene encodes a member of the galectin family of carbohydrate binding proteins. Members of this protein family have an affinity for beta-galactosides. The encoded protein is characterized by an N-terminal proline-rich tandem repeat domain and a single C-terminal carbohydrate recognition domain. This protein can self-associate through the N-terminal domain allowing it to bind to multivalent saccharide ligands. This protein localizes to the extracellular matrix, the cytoplasm and the nucleus. This protein plays a role in numerous cellular functions including apoptosis, innate immunity, cell adhesion and T-cell regulation. The protein exhibits antimicrobial activity against bacteria and fungi. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants.[provided by RefSeq, Oct 2014]
Annotation information
Note: GeneID 3958 had the official symbol LGALS2 and was identified as the human homolog of mouse Mac-2 (macrophage galactose-specific lectin) in M35368.1 and PMID: 2402511. The official symbol for this gene is now LGALS3. [30 Mar 2010]
Expression
Broad expression in colon (RPKM 302.9), small intestine (RPKM 190.7) and 21 other tissues See more
Orthologs

Genomic context

See LGALS3 in Genome Data Viewer
Location:
14q22.3
Exon count:
7
Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
109 current GRCh38.p12 (GCF_000001405.38) 14 NC_000014.9 (55129217..55145430)
105 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 14 NC_000014.8 (55595935..55612148)

Chromosome 14 - NC_000014.9Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene suppressor of cytokine signaling 4 Neighboring gene mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 interacting protein 1 like Neighboring gene DLG associated protein 5 Neighboring gene uncharacterized LOC105370508

Genomic regions, transcripts, and products

Expression

  • Project title: HPA RNA-seq normal tissues
  • Description: RNA-seq was performed of tissue samples from 95 human individuals representing 27 different tissues in order to determine tissue-specificity of all protein-coding genes
  • BioProject: PRJEB4337
  • Publication: PMID 24309898
  • Analysis date: Wed Apr 4 07:08:55 2018

Bibliography

GeneRIFs: Gene References Into FunctionsWhat's a GeneRIF?

HIV-1 interactions

Replication interactions

Interaction Pubs
Knockdown of galectin-3 by shRNA inhibits HIV-1 production in HuT 78 cells and infectivity in primary CD4+ T cells PubMed

Protein interactions

Protein Gene Interaction Pubs
Pr55(Gag) gag Galectin-3 is incorporated into virus particles in the presence of virion-associated Gag PubMed
gag Galectin-3 co-localizes with HIV-1 Gag and Alix, and facilitates the association of Gag with Alix in cells PubMed
Rev rev CBP35 was identified as part of a complex of ribonucleoproteins that bind to RRE RNA, an interaction that is abolished by Rev PubMed
Tat tat HIV-1 Tat upregulates galectin-3 (carbohydrate-binding protein 35; CBP35) expression in an Sp-1 dependent manner PubMed
Vpr vpr HIV-1 Vpr upregulates the gene expression of LGALS3 in human monocyte-derived dendritic cells PubMed
capsid gag Overexpression of galectin-3 enhances HIV-1 production from HIV-1-infected Jurkat cells by measurement of virion-associated CA PubMed
p6 gag Knockdown of Alix by shRNA reduces the association of HIV-1 p6 with galectin-3 in cells PubMed

Go to the HIV-1, Human Interaction Database

Pathways from BioSystems

  • AGE/RAGE pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    AGE/RAGE pathway, organism-specific biosystemAdvanced glycation end products (AGEs) are heterogeneous group of non-enzymatic malliard reaction products of aldose sugar with proteins and lipids. Formation of AGEs is an indicator of one of the ma...
  • Advanced glycosylation endproduct receptor signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Advanced glycosylation endproduct receptor signaling, organism-specific biosystemAdvanced Glycosylation End- product-specific Receptor (AGER) also known as Receptor for Advanced Glycation End-products (RAGE) is a multi-ligand membrane receptor belonging to the immunoglobulin supe...
  • Hedgehog signaling events mediated by Gli proteins, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    Hedgehog signaling events mediated by Gli proteins, organism-specific biosystem
    Hedgehog signaling events mediated by Gli proteins
  • Immune System, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Immune System, organism-specific biosystemHumans are exposed to millions of potential pathogens daily, through contact, ingestion, and inhalation. Our ability to avoid infection depends on the adaptive immune system and during the first crit...
  • Innate Immune System, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Innate Immune System, organism-specific biosystemInnate immunity encompases the nonspecific part of immunity tha are part of an individual's natural biologic makeup
  • Neutrophil degranulation, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Neutrophil degranulation, organism-specific biosystemNeutrophils are the most abundant leukocytes (white blood cells), indispensable in defending the body against invading microorganisms. In response to infection, neutrophils leave the circulation and ...
  • Spinal Cord Injury, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Spinal Cord Injury, organism-specific biosystemThis pathway provides an overview of cell types, therapeutic targets, drugs, new proposed targets and pathways implicated in spinal cord injury. Spinal cord injury is a complex multistep process that...

Interactions

Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

General gene information

Markers

Homology

Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

Function Evidence Code Pubs
IgE binding IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
RNA binding HDA PubMed 
carbohydrate binding IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
chemoattractant activity IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
laminin binding IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
protein binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
protein phosphatase binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
protein phosphatase inhibitor activity IC
Inferred by Curator
more info
PubMed 
Process Evidence Code Pubs
RNA splicing IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
eosinophil chemotaxis IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
epithelial cell differentiation IEP
Inferred from Expression Pattern
more info
PubMed 
innate immune response IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
mRNA processing IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
macrophage chemotaxis IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
monocyte chemotaxis IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
mononuclear cell migration IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of T cell activation via T cell receptor contact with antigen bound to MHC molecule on antigen presenting cell ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of T cell receptor signaling pathway ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of endocytosis IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of extrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of immunological synapse formation ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of protein tyrosine phosphatase activity IC
Inferred by Curator
more info
PubMed 
neutrophil chemotaxis IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
neutrophil degranulation TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
positive chemotaxis IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of calcium ion import IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
NOT positive regulation of dendritic cell differentiation IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of mononuclear cell migration IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of protein homodimerization activity IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of protein localization to plasma membrane IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
regulation of T cell apoptotic process IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
regulation of T cell proliferation IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
regulation of extrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway via death domain receptors IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
regulation of myeloid cell differentiation TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 

General protein information

Preferred Names
galectin-3
Names
35 kDa lectin
IgE-binding protein
MAC-2 antigen
advanced glycation end-product receptor 3
carbohydrate-binding protein 35
epididymis secretory sperm binding protein
galactose-specific lectin 3
laminin-binding protein
lectin L-29
lectin, galactoside-binding, soluble, 3

NCBI Reference Sequences (RefSeq)

RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

Genomic

  1. NG_017089.1 RefSeqGene

    Range
    5001..21214
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. NM_001357678.1NP_001344607.1  galectin-3 isoform 3

    Status: REVIEWED

    Source sequence(s)
    AB006780, AL139316, BU681070, CD518618
    Conserved Domains (2) summary
    cd00070
    Location:131258
    GLECT; Galectin/galactose-binding lectin. This domain exclusively binds beta-galactosides, such as lactose, and does not require metal ions for activity. GLECT domains occur as homodimers or tandemly repeated domains. They are developmentally regulated and may ...
    cl26386
    Location:23127
    DNA_pol3_gamma3; DNA polymerase III subunits gamma and tau domain III
  2. NM_002306.4NP_002297.2  galectin-3 isoform 1

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_002297.2

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (1) encodes isoform 1.
    Source sequence(s)
    AB006780, BU681070
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS41956.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P17931
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    A0A024R693
    Related
    ENSP00000254301.9, ENST00000254301.13
    Conserved Domains (2) summary
    cd00070
    Location:117244
    GLECT; Galectin/galactose-binding lectin. This domain exclusively binds beta-galactosides, such as lactose, and does not require metal ions for activity. GLECT domains occur as homodimers or tandemly repeated domains. They are developmentally regulated and may ...
    cl26386
    Location:9113
    DNA_pol3_gamma3; DNA polymerase III subunits gamma and tau domain III

RNA

  1. NR_003225.2 RNA Sequence

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (2) has an alternate 5' exon, compared to variant 1. This variant is represented as non-coding because the use of the 5'-most supported translational start codon, as used in variant 1, renders the transcript a candidate for nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD).
    Source sequence(s)
    AL139316, BU681070, BX641090
    Related
    ENST00000556438.6

RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: Homo sapiens Annotation Release 109

The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

Reference GRCh38.p12 Primary Assembly

Genomic

  1. NC_000014.9 Reference GRCh38.p12 Primary Assembly

    Range
    55129217..55145430
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

Suppressed Reference Sequence(s)

The following Reference Sequences have been suppressed. Explain

  1. NM_001177388.1: Suppressed sequence

    Description
    NM_001177388.1: This RefSeq was removed because currently there is insufficient support for the transcript and the protein.
Support Center