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IL16 interleukin 16 [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

Gene ID: 3603, updated on 8-Dec-2018

Summary

Official Symbol
IL16provided by HGNC
Official Full Name
interleukin 16provided by HGNC
Primary source
HGNC:HGNC:5980
See related
Ensembl:ENSG00000172349 MIM:603035
Gene type
protein coding
RefSeq status
REVIEWED
Organism
Homo sapiens
Lineage
Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
Also known as
LCF; NIL16; PRIL16; prIL-16
Summary
The protein encoded by this gene is a pleiotropic cytokine that functions as a chemoattractant, a modulator of T cell activation, and an inhibitor of HIV replication. The signaling process of this cytokine is mediated by CD4. The product of this gene undergoes proteolytic processing, which is found to yield two functional proteins. The cytokine function is exclusively attributed to the secreted C-terminal peptide, while the N-terminal product may play a role in cell cycle control. Caspase 3 is reported to be involved in the proteolytic processing of this protein. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2010]
Expression
Broad expression in lymph node (RPKM 15.8), spleen (RPKM 12.1) and 20 other tissues See more
Orthologs

Genomic context

See IL16 in Genome Data Viewer
Location:
15q25.1
Exon count:
22
Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
109 current GRCh38.p12 (GCF_000001405.38) 15 NC_000015.10 (81196878..81312763)
105 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 15 NC_000015.9 (81474941..81605104)

Chromosome 15 - NC_000015.10Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene talin rod domain containing 1 Neighboring gene cilia and flagella associated protein 161 Neighboring gene acidic nuclear phosphoprotein 32 family member B pseudogene 3 Neighboring gene TMC3 antisense RNA 1 Neighboring gene StAR related lipid transfer domain containing 5 Neighboring gene transmembrane channel like 3 Neighboring gene uncharacterized LOC102723985

Genomic regions, transcripts, and products

Expression

  • Project title: HPA RNA-seq normal tissues
  • Description: RNA-seq was performed of tissue samples from 95 human individuals representing 27 different tissues in order to determine tissue-specificity of all protein-coding genes
  • BioProject: PRJEB4337
  • Publication: PMID 24309898
  • Analysis date: Wed Apr 4 07:08:55 2018

Bibliography

GeneRIFs: Gene References Into FunctionsWhat's a GeneRIF?

Phenotypes

NHGRI GWAS Catalog

Description
Genome-wide association scan of quantitative traits for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder identifies novel associations and confirms candidate gene associations.
NHGRI GWA Catalog

HIV-1 interactions

Replication interactions

Interaction Pubs
Knockdown of interleukin 16 (IL16) by shRNA library screening inhibits HIV-1 replication in cultured Jurkat T-cells PubMed

Protein interactions

Protein Gene Interaction Pubs
Envelope surface glycoprotein gp120 env IL-16 induces rapid translocation of PKC from the cytosol to the membrane in CD4+ cells; PKC inhibitors completely block IL-16-induced lymphocyte migration as well as the motile response induced by HIV-1 gp120 and anti-CD4 antibody binding to CD4 PubMed
Tat tat Recombinant IL-16 inhibits HIV-1 Tat activation of the HIV-1 LTR promoter PubMed

Go to the HIV-1, Human Interaction Database

Pathways from BioSystems

  • Cytokine Signaling in Immune system, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Cytokine Signaling in Immune system, organism-specific biosystemCytokines are small proteins that regulate and mediate immunity, inflammation, and hematopoiesis. They are secreted in response to immune stimuli, and usually act briefly, locally, at very low concen...
  • Immune System, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Immune System, organism-specific biosystemHumans are exposed to millions of potential pathogens daily, through contact, ingestion, and inhalation. Our ability to avoid infection depends on the adaptive immune system and during the first crit...
  • Signaling by Interleukins, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signaling by Interleukins, organism-specific biosystemInterleukins are low molecular weight proteins that bind to cell surface receptors and act in an autocrine and/or paracrine fashion. They were first identified as factors produced by leukocytes but a...

Interactions

Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

General gene information

Markers

Homology

Clone Names

  • FLJ16806, FLJ42735, FLJ44234

Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

Function Evidence Code Pubs
CD4 receptor binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
cytokine activity IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
Process Evidence Code Pubs
cytokine-mediated signaling pathway TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
immune response TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
induction of positive chemotaxis IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
leukocyte chemotaxis IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
regulation of calcium ion transport IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
regulation of signaling receptor activity IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
viral process IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
Component Evidence Code Pubs
cytosol IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
 
cytosol TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
extracellular region TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
extracellular space IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
nuclear speck IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
 
plasma membrane IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
 

General protein information

Preferred Names
pro-interleukin-16
Names
lymphocyte chemoattractant factor
neuronal interleukin 16
prointerleukin 16

NCBI Reference Sequences (RefSeq)

RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

Genomic

  1. NG_029933.1 RefSeqGene

    Range
    5001..120886
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. NM_001172128.1NP_001165599.1  pro-interleukin-16 isoform 3

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001165599.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (3) has multiple differences and initiates translation at an alternate start codon, compared to variant 1. The encoded isoform (3) is longer, compared to isoform 1.
    Source sequence(s)
    AC103858, AK124725, AK131530
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS53966.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    Q14005
    Related
    ENSP00000378155.2, ENST00000394660.6
    Conserved Domains (2) summary
    smart00228
    Location:12331319
    PDZ; Domain present in PSD-95, Dlg, and ZO-1/2
    cd00992
    Location:217300
    PDZ_signaling; PDZ domain found in a variety of Eumetazoan signaling molecules, often in tandem arrangements. May be responsible for specific protein-protein interactions, as most PDZ domains bind C-terminal polypeptides, and binding to internal (non-C-terminal) ...
  2. NM_001352684.1NP_001339613.1  pro-interleukin-16 isoform 4

    Status: REVIEWED

    Source sequence(s)
    AC036196, AC103858, AY324389
    Conserved Domains (3) summary
    smart00228
    Location:624710
    PDZ; Domain present in PSD-95, Dlg, and ZO-1/2
    cd00992
    Location:501578
    PDZ_signaling; PDZ domain found in a variety of Eumetazoan signaling molecules, often in tandem arrangements. May be responsible for specific protein-protein interactions, as most PDZ domains bind C-terminal polypeptides, and binding to internal (non-C-terminal) ...
    cl27818
    Location:250345
    COG1615; Uncharacterized membrane protein, UPF0182 family [Function unknown]
  3. NM_001352685.1NP_001339614.1  pro-interleukin-16 isoform 5

    Status: REVIEWED

    Source sequence(s)
    AC036196, AC103858, AY324389
    Conserved Domains (3) summary
    smart00228
    Location:10631149
    PDZ; Domain present in PSD-95, Dlg, and ZO-1/2
    cd00992
    Location:47130
    PDZ_signaling; PDZ domain found in a variety of Eumetazoan signaling molecules, often in tandem arrangements. May be responsible for specific protein-protein interactions, as most PDZ domains bind C-terminal polypeptides, and binding to internal (non-C-terminal) ...
    cl27818
    Location:690785
    COG1615; Uncharacterized membrane protein, UPF0182 family [Function unknown]
  4. NM_001352686.1NP_001339615.1  pro-interleukin-16 isoform 6

    Status: REVIEWED

    Source sequence(s)
    AC036196, AC103858, AY324389
    Conserved Domains (3) summary
    smart00228
    Location:12841370
    PDZ; Domain present in PSD-95, Dlg, and ZO-1/2
    cd00992
    Location:268351
    PDZ_signaling; PDZ domain found in a variety of Eumetazoan signaling molecules, often in tandem arrangements. May be responsible for specific protein-protein interactions, as most PDZ domains bind C-terminal polypeptides, and binding to internal (non-C-terminal) ...
    cl27818
    Location:9111006
    COG1615; Uncharacterized membrane protein, UPF0182 family [Function unknown]
  5. NM_004513.5NP_004504.3  pro-interleukin-16 isoform 1

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_004504.3

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (1) encodes isoform (1).
    Source sequence(s)
    AC103858, DB141707, U82972
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS10317.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    Q14005
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    Q9UME6
    Related
    ENSP00000378147.2, ENST00000394652.6
    Conserved Domains (3) summary
    smart00228
    Location:533619
    PDZ; Domain present in PSD-95, Dlg, and ZO-1/2
    cd00992
    Location:410487
    PDZ_signaling; PDZ domain found in a variety of Eumetazoan signaling molecules, often in tandem arrangements. May be responsible for specific protein-protein interactions, as most PDZ domains bind C-terminal polypeptides, and binding to internal (non-C-terminal) ...
    cl23717
    Location:347432
    crotonase-like; Crotonase/Enoyl-Coenzyme A (CoA) hydratase superfamily. This superfamily contains a diverse set of enzymes including enoyl-CoA hydratase, napthoate synthase, methylmalonyl-CoA decarboxylase, 3-hydoxybutyryl-CoA dehydratase, and dienoyl-CoA isomerase. ...
  6. NM_172217.4NP_757366.2  pro-interleukin-16 isoform 2

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_757366.2

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (2) differs in the 5' UTR and and 5' coding region and initiates translation at an alternate start codon, compared to variant 1. The encoded isoform (2) is longer at the N-terminus compared to isoform 1.
    Source sequence(s)
    AC036196, AC103858, AY324389
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS42069.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    Q14005
    Related
    ENSP00000302935.4, ENST00000302987.8
    Conserved Domains (2) summary
    smart00228
    Location:12341320
    PDZ; Domain present in PSD-95, Dlg, and ZO-1/2
    cd00992
    Location:217300
    PDZ_signaling; PDZ domain found in a variety of Eumetazoan signaling molecules, often in tandem arrangements. May be responsible for specific protein-protein interactions, as most PDZ domains bind C-terminal polypeptides, and binding to internal (non-C-terminal) ...

RNA

  1. NR_148035.1 RNA Sequence

    Status: REVIEWED

    Source sequence(s)
    AC036196, AC103858, AY324389

RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: Homo sapiens Annotation Release 109

The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

Reference GRCh38.p12 Primary Assembly

Genomic

  1. NC_000015.10 Reference GRCh38.p12 Primary Assembly

    Range
    81196878..81312763
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)
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