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IL1A interleukin 1 alpha [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

Gene ID: 3552, updated on 17-Jan-2022

Summary

Official Symbol
IL1Aprovided by HGNC
Official Full Name
interleukin 1 alphaprovided by HGNC
Primary source
HGNC:HGNC:5991
See related
Ensembl:ENSG00000115008 MIM:147760
Gene type
protein coding
RefSeq status
REVIEWED
Organism
Homo sapiens
Lineage
Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
Also known as
IL1; IL-1A; IL1F1; IL1-ALPHA; IL-1 alpha
Summary
The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the interleukin 1 cytokine family. This cytokine is a pleiotropic cytokine involved in various immune responses, inflammatory processes, and hematopoiesis. This cytokine is produced by monocytes and macrophages as a proprotein, which is proteolytically processed and released in response to cell injury, and thus induces apoptosis. This gene and eight other interleukin 1 family genes form a cytokine gene cluster on chromosome 2. It has been suggested that the polymorphism of these genes is associated with rheumatoid arthritis and Alzheimer's disease. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Annotation information
Note: This gene has been reviewed for its involvement in coronavirus biology, and is involved in cytokine storm inflammatory response.
Expression
Biased expression in testis (RPKM 5.2), esophagus (RPKM 4.6) and 7 other tissues See more
Orthologs
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Genomic context

See IL1A in Genome Data Viewer
Location:
2q14.1
Exon count:
8
Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
109.20211119 current GRCh38.p13 (GCF_000001405.39) 2 NC_000002.12 (112773925..112784493, complement)
105.20201022 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 2 NC_000002.11 (113531502..113542070, complement)

Chromosome 2 - NC_000002.12Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene uncharacterized LOC102724955 Neighboring gene 5'-nucleotidase domain containing 4 Neighboring gene cytoskeleton associated protein 2 like Neighboring gene Sharpr-MPRA regulatory region 10892 Neighboring gene Sharpr-MPRA regulatory region 10273

Genomic regions, transcripts, and products

Expression

  • Project title: HPA RNA-seq normal tissues
  • Description: RNA-seq was performed of tissue samples from 95 human individuals representing 27 different tissues in order to determine tissue-specificity of all protein-coding genes
  • BioProject: PRJEB4337
  • Publication: PMID 24309898
  • Analysis date: Wed Apr 4 07:08:55 2018

Bibliography

GeneRIFs: Gene References Into Functions

What's a GeneRIF?

Phenotypes

EBI GWAS Catalog

Description
Genome-wide pharmacogenomic study of neurocognition as an indicator of antipsychotic treatment response in schizophrenia.
EBI GWAS Catalog
Meta-analysis of genome-wide association scans for genetic susceptibility to endometriosis in Japanese population.
EBI GWAS Catalog

HIV-1 interactions

Replication interactions

Interaction Pubs
Infectious wild type HIV-1 production is enhanced by 293T cells over-expressing IL1A PubMed
Knockdown of interleukin 1, alpha (IL1A) by siRNA inhibits HIV-1 replication in HeLa P4/R5 cells PubMed

Protein interactions

Protein Gene Interaction Pubs
Envelope surface glycoprotein gp120 env Cytokines induced in vitro by HIV-1 gp120 in normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) include interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) and IFN-gamma, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), IL-6, IL-10, IL-1 alpha and IL-1 beta PubMed
env HIV-1 gp120 increases the levels of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and IL-1 in human cells PubMed
env Addition of HIV-1 gp120 to IL-1 treated human granulocytes or monocytes results in a slower movement that is chemokinetic (loss of directionality or random) in nature PubMed
Envelope surface glycoprotein gp160, precursor env IL-1 and TNF-alpha production are induced by the treatment of cells with HIV-1 gp160 PubMed
Envelope transmembrane glycoprotein gp41 env HIV-1 gp41 or gp120 synthetic peptides induce the production of interleukin (IL)-1 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF); in contrast, gp41 or gp120 synthetic peptides are able to depress the production of interferon (IFN)-alpha, IFN-gamma, and IL-2 PubMed
Tat tat IL1A is upregulated in HIV-1 Tat and NC cotransfection of HEK 293T cells PubMed
tat IL-1 stimulated NO production and iNOS mRNA expression are down-regulated by pretreatment with HIV-1 Tat-SOD fusion proteins in cultured chondrocytes PubMed
tat HIV-1 Tat upregulates IL-1beta expression in a variety of cell types, including primary blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), Jurkat and microglia PubMed
tat HIV-1 Tat downregulates IL-1alpha expression in Raji cells PubMed
Vpr vpr HIV-1 Vpr upregulates the gene expression of IL1A in human monocyte-derived dendritic cells PubMed
nucleocapsid gag IL1A is upregulated in HIV-1 Tat and NC cotransfection of HEK 293T cells PubMed

Go to the HIV-1, Human Interaction Database

Pathways from PubChem

Interactions

Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

General gene information

Markers

Homology

Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

Function Evidence Code Pubs
enables copper ion binding IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
enables cytokine activity IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
enables cytokine activity IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
enables interleukin-1 receptor binding IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
enables protein binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
Process Evidence Code Pubs
involved_in apoptotic process TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
involved_in cellular response to heat IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
involved_in cellular response to lipopolysaccharide IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
involved_in cellular sodium ion homeostasis IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
involved_in connective tissue replacement involved in inflammatory response wound healing IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
involved_in cytokine-mediated signaling pathway IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
involved_in cytokine-mediated signaling pathway IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
involved_in ectopic germ cell programmed cell death IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
involved_in extrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway in absence of ligand IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
involved_in fever generation IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
involved_in heart development IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
involved_in immune response IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
involved_in inflammatory response IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
involved_in keratinization IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
involved_in negative regulation of cell population proliferation IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
involved_in negative regulation of establishment of Sertoli cell barrier IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
involved_in negative regulation of extrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway in absence of ligand TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
involved_in positive regulation of ERK1 and ERK2 cascade IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
involved_in positive regulation of I-kappaB kinase/NF-kappaB signaling IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
involved_in positive regulation of JNK cascade IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
involved_in positive regulation of angiogenesis ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
involved_in positive regulation of cell division IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
involved_in positive regulation of cytokine production IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
involved_in positive regulation of gene expression IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
involved_in positive regulation of gene expression IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
involved_in positive regulation of immature T cell proliferation in thymus IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
involved_in positive regulation of interleukin-2 production IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
acts_upstream_of positive regulation of interleukin-2 production ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
PubMed 
acts_upstream_of positive regulation of interleukin-6 production ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
PubMed 
involved_in positive regulation of mitotic nuclear division IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
involved_in positive regulation of neutrophil migration IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
involved_in positive regulation of prostaglandin secretion IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
involved_in positive regulation of protein secretion IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
involved_in positive regulation of steroid biosynthetic process IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
involved_in positive regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
acts_upstream_of positive regulation of tumor necrosis factor production ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
PubMed 
involved_in positive regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor production ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
involved_in regulation of actin cytoskeleton organization IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
involved_in regulation of nitric-oxide synthase activity IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
involved_in regulation of sensory perception of pain IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
involved_in response to L-ascorbic acid IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
involved_in response to copper ion IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
involved_in response to gamma radiation IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
involved_in response to hypoxia IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
involved_in response to organonitrogen compound IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
involved_in response to ozone IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
involved_in spermatogenesis IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
Component Evidence Code Pubs
located_in cell surface IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
located_in cytosol IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
located_in extracellular region TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
is_active_in extracellular space IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
located_in extracellular space IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
located_in extracellular space IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
located_in plasma membrane IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 

General protein information

Preferred Names
interleukin-1 alpha
Names
hematopoietin-1
preinterleukin 1 alpha
pro-interleukin-1-alpha

NCBI Reference Sequences (RefSeq)

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RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

Genomic

  1. NG_008850.1 RefSeqGene

    Range
    5902..16470
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. NM_000575.5NP_000566.3  interleukin-1 alpha precursor

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_000566.3

    Status: REVIEWED

    Source sequence(s)
    AC112235
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS2101.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P01583
    Related
    ENSP00000263339.3, ENST00000263339.4
    Conserved Domains (2) summary
    smart00125
    Location:129267
    IL1; Interleukin-1 homologues
    pfam02394
    Location:1108
    IL1_propep; Interleukin-1 propeptide
  2. NM_001371554.1NP_001358483.1  interleukin-1 alpha precursor

    Status: REVIEWED

    Source sequence(s)
    AC112235
    Conserved Domains (2) summary
    smart00125
    Location:129267
    IL1; Interleukin-1 homologues
    pfam02394
    Location:1108
    IL1_propep; Interleukin-1 propeptide

RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: Homo sapiens Updated Annotation Release 109.20211119

The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

Reference GRCh38.p13 Primary Assembly

Genomic

  1. NC_000002.12 Reference GRCh38.p13 Primary Assembly

    Range
    112773925..112784493 complement
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)
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