Format

Send to:

Choose Destination

APOA4 apolipoprotein A4 [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

Gene ID: 337, updated on 12-May-2019

Summary

Official Symbol
APOA4provided by HGNC
Official Full Name
apolipoprotein A4provided by HGNC
Primary source
HGNC:HGNC:602
See related
Ensembl:ENSG00000110244 MIM:107690
Gene type
protein coding
RefSeq status
REVIEWED
Organism
Homo sapiens
Lineage
Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
Summary
Apoliprotein (apo) A-IV gene contains 3 exons separated by two introns. A sequence polymorphism has been identified in the 3'UTR of the third exon. The primary translation product is a 396-residue preprotein which after proteolytic processing is secreted its primary site of synthesis, the intestine, in association with chylomicron particles. Although its precise function is not known, apo A-IV is a potent activator of lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase in vitro. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Expression
Restricted expression toward small intestine (RPKM 1486.2) See more
Orthologs

Genomic context

See APOA4 in Genome Data Viewer
Location:
11q23.3
Exon count:
3
Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
109 current GRCh38.p12 (GCF_000001405.38) 11 NC_000011.10 (116820702..116823295, complement)
105 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 11 NC_000011.9 (116691418..116694011, complement)

Chromosome 11 - NC_000011.10Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene ZPR1 zinc finger Neighboring gene enhancer-blocking element 11-1-2 overlapping APOA5 Neighboring gene apolipoprotein A5 Neighboring gene skeletal muscle cis-regulatory module in APOA4 and APOC3 intergenic region Neighboring gene apolipoprotein C3

Genomic regions, transcripts, and products

Expression

  • Project title: HPA RNA-seq normal tissues
  • Description: RNA-seq was performed of tissue samples from 95 human individuals representing 27 different tissues in order to determine tissue-specificity of all protein-coding genes
  • BioProject: PRJEB4337
  • Publication: PMID 24309898
  • Analysis date: Wed Apr 4 07:08:55 2018

Bibliography

GeneRIFs: Gene References Into FunctionsWhat's a GeneRIF?

Phenotypes

NHGRI GWAS Catalog

Description
A genome wide association study identifies common variants associated with lipid levels in the Chinese population.
NHGRI GWA Catalog
A null mutation in human APOC3 confers a favorable plasma lipid profile and apparent cardioprotection.
NHGRI GWA Catalog
Biological, clinical and population relevance of 95 loci for blood lipids.
NHGRI GWA Catalog
Common variants at 30 loci contribute to polygenic dyslipidemia.
NHGRI GWA Catalog
Genetic variants influencing circulating lipid levels and risk of coronary artery disease.
NHGRI GWA Catalog
Genome-wide association study identifies multiple loci influencing human serum metabolite levels.
NHGRI GWA Catalog
Genome-wide association study of hematological and biochemical traits in a Japanese population.
NHGRI GWA Catalog
Genomic study in Mexicans identifies a new locus for triglycerides and refines European lipid loci.
NHGRI GWA Catalog
Large-scale association analysis identifies 13 new susceptibility loci for coronary artery disease.
NHGRI GWA Catalog
Large-scale genome-wide association studies in East Asians identify new genetic loci influencing metabolic traits.
NHGRI GWA Catalog
Loci influencing lipid levels and coronary heart disease risk in 16 European population cohorts.
NHGRI GWA Catalog
Newly identified loci that influence lipid concentrations and risk of coronary artery disease.
NHGRI GWA Catalog
Novel Loci for metabolic networks and multi-tissue expression studies reveal genes for atherosclerosis.
NHGRI GWA Catalog
Six new loci associated with blood low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol or triglycerides in humans.
NHGRI GWA Catalog

Pathways from BioSystems

  • Amyloid fiber formation, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Amyloid fiber formation, organism-specific biosystemAmyloid is a term used to describe deposits of fibrillar proteins, typically extracellular. The abnormal accumulation of amyloid, amyloidosis, is a term associated with tissue damage caused by amyloi...
  • Chylomicron-mediated lipid transport, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Chylomicron-mediated lipid transport, organism-specific biosystemChylomicrons transport triacylglycerol, phospholipid, and cholesterol derived from dietary lipid from the small intestine to other tissues of the body. Each chylomicron assembles around a single mole...
  • Fat digestion and absorption, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Fat digestion and absorption, organism-specific biosystemFat is an important energy source from food. More than 95% of dietary fat is long-chain triacylglycerols (TAG), the remaining being phospholipids (4.5%) and sterols. In the small intestine lumen, die...
  • Fat digestion and absorption, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Fat digestion and absorption, conserved biosystemFat is an important energy source from food. More than 95% of dietary fat is long-chain triacylglycerols (TAG), the remaining being phospholipids (4.5%) and sterols. In the small intestine lumen, die...
  • Lipid digestion, mobilization, and transport, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Lipid digestion, mobilization, and transport, organism-specific biosystemProcesses annotated here include the digestion of dietary lipids, sterol uptake, the formation and turnover of lipoproteins (chylomicrons, VLDL, LDL, and HDL), and the mobilization of fatty acids thr...
  • Lipoprotein metabolism, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Lipoprotein metabolism, organism-specific biosystemBecause of their hydrophobicity, lipids are found in the extracellular spaces of the human body primarily in the form of lipoprotein complexes. Chylomicrons form in the small intestine and transport ...
  • Metabolism, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Metabolism, organism-specific biosystemMetabolic processes in human cells generate energy through the oxidation of molecules consumed in the diet and mediate the synthesis of diverse essential molecules not taken in the diet as well as th...
  • Metabolism of fat-soluble vitamins, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Metabolism of fat-soluble vitamins, organism-specific biosystemVitamins A, D, E, and K are classified as fat-soluble. Metabolic pathways by which dietary precursors of vitamins A (Harrison 2005) and K(Shearer et al. 2012) are converted to active forms, and by wh...
  • Metabolism of lipids and lipoproteins, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Metabolism of lipids and lipoproteins, organism-specific biosystemLipids are hydrophobic but otherwise chemically diverse molecules that play a wide variety of roles in human biology. They include ketone bodies, fatty acids, triacylglycerols, phospholipids and sphi...
  • Metabolism of proteins, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Metabolism of proteins, organism-specific biosystemProtein metabolism comprises the pathways of translation, post-translational modification and protein folding.
  • Metabolism of vitamins and cofactors, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Metabolism of vitamins and cofactors, organism-specific biosystemVitamins are a diverse group of organic compounds, classified according to their solubility, either fat-soluble or water-soluble, that are either not synthesized or synthesized only in limited amount...
  • Retinoid metabolism and transport, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Retinoid metabolism and transport, organism-specific biosystemVitamin A (all-trans-retinol) must be taken up, either as carotenes from plants, or as retinyl esters from animal food. The most prominent carotenes are alpha-carotene, lycopene, lutein, beta-cryptox...
  • Signal Transduction, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signal Transduction, organism-specific biosystemSignal transduction is a process in which extracellular signals elicit changes in cell state and activity. Transmembrane receptors sense changes in the cellular environment by binding ligands, such a...
  • Statin Pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Statin Pathway, organism-specific biosystemStatins inhibit endogenous cholesterol production by competitive inhibition of HMG-CoA reductase (HMGCR), the enzyme that catalyzes conversion of HMG-CoA to mevalonate, an early rate-limiting step in...
  • Visual phototransduction, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Visual phototransduction, organism-specific biosystemVisual phototransduction is the process by which photon absorption by visual pigment molecules in photoreceptor cells is converted to an electrical cellular response. The events in this process are p...
  • Vitamin digestion and absorption, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Vitamin digestion and absorption, organism-specific biosystemVitamins are a diverse and chemically unrelated group of organic substances that share a common feature of being essential for normal health and well-being. They catalyze numerous biochemical reactio...
  • Vitamin digestion and absorption, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Vitamin digestion and absorption, conserved biosystemVitamins are a diverse and chemically unrelated group of organic substances that share a common feature of being essential for normal health and well-being. They catalyze numerous biochemical reactio...

Interactions

Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

General gene information

Markers

Homology

Clone Names

  • MGC142154, MGC142156

Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

Function Evidence Code Pubs
antioxidant activity IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
cholesterol binding IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
cholesterol transporter activity IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
cholesterol transporter activity IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
copper ion binding IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
identical protein binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
lipid binding IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
lipid transporter activity TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
phosphatidylcholine binding IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
phosphatidylcholine binding IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
phosphatidylcholine-sterol O-acyltransferase activator activity IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
phosphatidylcholine-sterol O-acyltransferase activator activity IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
phospholipid binding IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
protein binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
protein homodimerization activity IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
Process Evidence Code Pubs
cellular protein metabolic process TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
cholesterol biosynthetic process IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
cholesterol efflux IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
cholesterol efflux IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
cholesterol homeostasis IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
cholesterol homeostasis IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
cholesterol metabolic process IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
chylomicron assembly TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
chylomicron remodeling IC
Inferred by Curator
more info
PubMed 
chylomicron remodeling TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
high-density lipoprotein particle assembly IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
high-density lipoprotein particle remodeling IC
Inferred by Curator
more info
PubMed 
hydrogen peroxide catabolic process IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
innate immune response in mucosa IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
leukocyte cell-cell adhesion IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
lipid catabolic process IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
lipid homeostasis IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
lipid transport IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
lipoprotein metabolic process IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of plasma lipoprotein oxidation IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
phosphatidylcholine metabolic process IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
phosphatidylcholine metabolic process IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
phospholipid efflux IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
phospholipid efflux IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of cholesterol esterification IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of cholesterol esterification IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of fatty acid biosynthetic process IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of fatty acid biosynthetic process IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of lipid biosynthetic process IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of lipoprotein lipase activity IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of lipoprotein lipase activity IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of triglyceride catabolic process IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of triglyceride catabolic process IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
protein-lipid complex assembly IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
regulation of cholesterol transport IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
regulation of cholesterol transport IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
regulation of intestinal cholesterol absorption IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
removal of superoxide radicals IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
response to lipid hydroperoxide IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
response to stilbenoid IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
retinoid metabolic process TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
reverse cholesterol transport IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
reverse cholesterol transport IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
triglyceride catabolic process IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
triglyceride homeostasis IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
very-low-density lipoprotein particle remodeling IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
very-low-density lipoprotein particle remodeling IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
Component Evidence Code Pubs
blood microparticle HDA PubMed 
colocalizes_with cell surface IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
chylomicron IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
chylomicron IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
collagen-containing extracellular matrix HDA PubMed 
cytosol TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
early endosome TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
endoplasmic reticulum lumen TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
extracellular exosome HDA PubMed 
extracellular region HDA PubMed 
extracellular region NAS
Non-traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
extracellular region TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
extracellular space HDA PubMed 
extracellular space IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
high-density lipoprotein particle IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
high-density lipoprotein particle IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
very-low-density lipoprotein particle IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 

General protein information

Preferred Names
apolipoprotein A-IV
Names
apo-AIV
apoA-IV

NCBI Reference Sequences (RefSeq)

RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

Genomic

  1. NG_012044.1 RefSeqGene

    Range
    5001..7594
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. NM_000482.4NP_000473.2  apolipoprotein A-IV precursor

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_000473.2

    Status: REVIEWED

    Source sequence(s)
    AL531739, AP006216
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS31681.1
    Related
    ENSP00000350425.3, ENST00000357780.5
    Conserved Domains (3) summary
    pfam01442
    Location:66235
    Apolipoprotein; Apolipoprotein A1/A4/E domain
    pfam06386
    Location:170275
    GvpL_GvpF; Gas vesicle synthesis protein GvpL/GvpF
    cl02073
    Location:76219
    DUF3422; Protein of unknown function (DUF3422)

RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: Homo sapiens Annotation Release 109

The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

Reference GRCh38.p12 Primary Assembly

Genomic

  1. NC_000011.10 Reference GRCh38.p12 Primary Assembly

    Range
    116820702..116823295 complement
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)
Support Center