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APOA2 apolipoprotein A2 [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

Gene ID: 336, updated on 13-Feb-2019

Summary

Official Symbol
APOA2provided by HGNC
Official Full Name
apolipoprotein A2provided by HGNC
Primary source
HGNC:HGNC:601
See related
Ensembl:ENSG00000158874 MIM:107670
Gene type
protein coding
RefSeq status
REVIEWED
Organism
Homo sapiens
Lineage
Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
Also known as
apoAII; Apo-AII; ApoA-II
Summary
This gene encodes apolipoprotein (apo-) A-II, which is the second most abundant protein of the high density lipoprotein particles. The protein is found in plasma as a monomer, homodimer, or heterodimer with apolipoprotein D. Defects in this gene may result in apolipoprotein A-II deficiency or hypercholesterolemia. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Expression
Restricted expression toward liver (RPKM 5129.5) See more
Orthologs

Genomic context

See APOA2 in Genome Data Viewer
Location:
1q23.3
Exon count:
4
Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
109 current GRCh38.p12 (GCF_000001405.38) 1 NC_000001.11 (161222293..161223628, complement)
105 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 1 NC_000001.10 (161192083..161193418, complement)

Chromosome 1 - NC_000001.11Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene ADAM metallopeptidase with thrombospondin type 1 motif 4 Neighboring gene NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase core subunit S2 Neighboring gene Fc fragment of IgE receptor Ig Neighboring gene translocase of outer mitochondrial membrane 40 like Neighboring gene microRNA 5187 Neighboring gene nuclear receptor subfamily 1 group I member 3

Genomic regions, transcripts, and products

Expression

  • Project title: HPA RNA-seq normal tissues
  • Description: RNA-seq was performed of tissue samples from 95 human individuals representing 27 different tissues in order to determine tissue-specificity of all protein-coding genes
  • BioProject: PRJEB4337
  • Publication: PMID 24309898
  • Analysis date: Wed Apr 4 07:08:55 2018

Bibliography

GeneRIFs: Gene References Into FunctionsWhat's a GeneRIF?

Pathways from BioSystems

  • Chylomicron-mediated lipid transport, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Chylomicron-mediated lipid transport, organism-specific biosystemChylomicrons transport triacylglycerol, phospholipid, and cholesterol derived from dietary lipid from the small intestine to other tissues of the body. Each chylomicron assembles around a single mole...
  • Composition of Lipid Particles, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Composition of Lipid Particles, organism-specific biosystemThis particle describes the chemical composition of various lipid particles. See also WP430 and other pathways. Additional sources - A. Goldberg, Overview of Lipid Metabolism, 2015. http://www.msdma...
  • Fatty acid, triacylglycerol, and ketone body metabolism, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Fatty acid, triacylglycerol, and ketone body metabolism, organism-specific biosystemThe reactions involved in the metabolism of fatty acids and of the triacylglycerols and ketone bodies derived from them form a closely interrelated, coordinately regulated module that plays a central...
  • Lipid digestion, mobilization, and transport, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Lipid digestion, mobilization, and transport, organism-specific biosystemProcesses annotated here include the digestion of dietary lipids, sterol uptake, the formation and turnover of lipoproteins (chylomicrons, VLDL, LDL, and HDL), and the mobilization of fatty acids thr...
  • Lipoprotein metabolism, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Lipoprotein metabolism, organism-specific biosystemBecause of their hydrophobicity, lipids are found in the extracellular spaces of the human body primarily in the form of lipoprotein complexes. Chylomicrons form in the small intestine and transport ...
  • Metabolism, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Metabolism, organism-specific biosystemMetabolic processes in human cells generate energy through the oxidation of molecules consumed in the diet and mediate the synthesis of diverse essential molecules not taken in the diet as well as th...
  • Metabolism of fat-soluble vitamins, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Metabolism of fat-soluble vitamins, organism-specific biosystemVitamins A, D, E, and K are classified as fat-soluble. Metabolic pathways by which dietary precursors of vitamins A (Harrison 2005) and K(Shearer et al. 2012) are converted to active forms, and by wh...
  • Metabolism of lipids and lipoproteins, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Metabolism of lipids and lipoproteins, organism-specific biosystemLipids are hydrophobic but otherwise chemically diverse molecules that play a wide variety of roles in human biology. They include ketone bodies, fatty acids, triacylglycerols, phospholipids and sphi...
  • Metabolism of vitamins and cofactors, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Metabolism of vitamins and cofactors, organism-specific biosystemVitamins are a diverse group of organic compounds, classified according to their solubility, either fat-soluble or water-soluble, that are either not synthesized or synthesized only in limited amount...
  • PPAR Alpha Pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    PPAR Alpha Pathway, organism-specific biosystemPPAR alpha (also known as NR1C1) is a nuclear receptor that is involved with transcriptional regulation of genes involved in beta-oxidation, metabolism, fatty acid transport, etc.
  • PPAR signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    PPAR signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemPeroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are nuclear hormone receptors that are activated by fatty acids and their derivatives. PPAR has three subtypes (PPARalpha, beta/delta, and gamma) s...
  • PPAR signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    PPAR signaling pathway, conserved biosystemPeroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are nuclear hormone receptors that are activated by fatty acids and their derivatives. PPAR has three subtypes (PPARalpha, beta/delta, and gamma) s...
  • PPARA activates gene expression, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    PPARA activates gene expression, organism-specific biosystemThe set of genes regulated by PPAR-alpha is not fully known in humans, however many examples have been found in mice. Genes directly activated by PPAR-alpha contain peroxisome proliferator receptor e...
  • Regulation of lipid metabolism by Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha), organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Regulation of lipid metabolism by Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha), organism-specific biosystemPeroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR-alpha) is the major regulator of fatty acid oxidation in the liver. PPARalpha is also the target of fibrate drugs used to treat abnormal plasma ...
  • Retinoid metabolism and transport, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Retinoid metabolism and transport, organism-specific biosystemVitamin A (all-trans-retinol) must be taken up, either as carotenes from plants, or as retinyl esters from animal food. The most prominent carotenes are alpha-carotene, lycopene, lutein, beta-cryptox...
  • Signal Transduction, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signal Transduction, organism-specific biosystemSignal transduction is a process in which extracellular signals elicit changes in cell state and activity. Transmembrane receptors sense changes in the cellular environment by binding ligands, such a...
  • Statin Pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Statin Pathway, organism-specific biosystemStatins inhibit endogenous cholesterol production by competitive inhibition of HMG-CoA reductase (HMGCR), the enzyme that catalyzes conversion of HMG-CoA to mevalonate, an early rate-limiting step in...
  • Visual phototransduction, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Visual phototransduction, organism-specific biosystemVisual phototransduction is the process by which photon absorption by visual pigment molecules in photoreceptor cells is converted to an electrical cellular response. The events in this process are p...

Interactions

Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

General gene information

Markers

Homology

Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

Function Evidence Code Pubs
apolipoprotein receptor binding IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
apolipoprotein receptor binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
cholesterol binding IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
cholesterol binding IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
contributes_to cholesterol transporter activity IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
contributes_to cholesterol transporter activity IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
heat shock protein binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
high-density lipoprotein particle binding IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
high-density lipoprotein particle receptor binding IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
high-density lipoprotein particle receptor binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
lipase inhibitor activity IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
lipase inhibitor activity IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
lipid binding IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
lipid transporter activity IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
phosphatidylcholine binding IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
phosphatidylcholine binding IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
phosphatidylcholine-sterol O-acyltransferase activator activity IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
phospholipid binding IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
protein binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
protein heterodimerization activity IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
protein homodimerization activity IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
signaling receptor binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
Process Evidence Code Pubs
acute inflammatory response IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
animal organ regeneration IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
cellular protein metabolic process TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
cholesterol efflux IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
cholesterol homeostasis IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
cholesterol homeostasis IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
cholesterol metabolic process IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
cholesterol transport IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
chylomicron assembly TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
chylomicron remodeling TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
diacylglycerol catabolic process IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
high-density lipoprotein particle assembly IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
high-density lipoprotein particle assembly IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
high-density lipoprotein particle clearance IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
high-density lipoprotein particle remodeling IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
high-density lipoprotein particle remodeling IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
lipoprotein metabolic process IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
low-density lipoprotein particle remodeling IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
low-density lipoprotein particle remodeling IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of cholesterol import IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of cholesterol transport IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of cholesterol transporter activity IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of cytokine secretion involved in immune response IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of lipase activity IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of lipase activity IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of lipid catabolic process IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of very-low-density lipoprotein particle remodeling IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
peptidyl-methionine modification IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
phosphatidylcholine biosynthetic process IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
phospholipid catabolic process IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
phospholipid efflux IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of catalytic activity IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
positive regulation of cholesterol esterification IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of interleukin-8 biosynthetic process IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of lipid catabolic process IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of phagocytosis IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
post-translational protein modification TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
protein oxidation IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
protein stabilization IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
regulation of intestinal cholesterol absorption IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
regulation of lipid metabolic process TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
regulation of protein stability IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
response to drug IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
response to estrogen IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
response to glucocorticoid IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
response to glucose IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
retinoid metabolic process TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
reverse cholesterol transport IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
triglyceride metabolic process TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
triglyceride-rich lipoprotein particle remodeling IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
triglyceride-rich lipoprotein particle remodeling IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
viral process IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
Component Evidence Code Pubs
blood microparticle HDA PubMed 
chylomicron IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
chylomicron IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
cytosol TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
early endosome TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
endoplasmic reticulum lumen TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
extracellular exosome HDA PubMed 
extracellular region NAS
Non-traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
extracellular region TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
high-density lipoprotein particle IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
high-density lipoprotein particle TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
spherical high-density lipoprotein particle IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
spherical high-density lipoprotein particle IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
very-low-density lipoprotein particle IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
very-low-density lipoprotein particle IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 

NCBI Reference Sequences (RefSeq)

RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

Genomic

  1. NG_012043.1 RefSeqGene

    Range
    5001..6336
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. NM_001643.2NP_001634.1  apolipoprotein A-II preproprotein

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001634.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Source sequence(s)
    AL590714
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS1226.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P02652
    Related
    ENSP00000356969.3, ENST00000367990.7
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    pfam04711
    Location:2498
    ApoA-II; Apolipoprotein A-II (ApoA-II)

RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: Homo sapiens Annotation Release 109

The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

Reference GRCh38.p12 Primary Assembly

Genomic

  1. NC_000001.11 Reference GRCh38.p12 Primary Assembly

    Range
    161222293..161223628 complement
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)
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