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HK2 hexokinase 2 [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

Gene ID: 3099, updated on 17-Oct-2021

Summary

Official Symbol
HK2provided by HGNC
Official Full Name
hexokinase 2provided by HGNC
Primary source
HGNC:HGNC:4923
See related
Ensembl:ENSG00000159399 MIM:601125
Gene type
protein coding
RefSeq status
REVIEWED
Organism
Homo sapiens
Lineage
Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
Also known as
HKII; HXK2
Summary
Hexokinases phosphorylate glucose to produce glucose-6-phosphate, the first step in most glucose metabolism pathways. This gene encodes hexokinase 2, the predominant form found in skeletal muscle. It localizes to the outer membrane of mitochondria. Expression of this gene is insulin-responsive, and studies in rat suggest that it is involved in the increased rate of glycolysis seen in rapidly growing cancer cells. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2009]
Expression
Broad expression in fat (RPKM 34.4), colon (RPKM 24.2) and 19 other tissues See more
Orthologs
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Genomic context

See HK2 in Genome Data Viewer
Location:
2p12
Exon count:
19
Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
109.20210514 current GRCh38.p13 (GCF_000001405.39) 2 NC_000002.12 (74834126..74893359)
105.20201022 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 2 NC_000002.11 (75061254..75120486)

Chromosome 2 - NC_000002.12Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene uncharacterized LOC105374808 Neighboring gene uncharacterized LOC102724497 Neighboring gene uncharacterized LOC102724482 Neighboring gene ribosomal protein S28 pseudogene 5 Neighboring gene long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 1291 Neighboring gene uncharacterized LOC105374809 Neighboring gene long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 1293

Genomic regions, transcripts, and products

Expression

  • Project title: HPA RNA-seq normal tissues
  • Description: RNA-seq was performed of tissue samples from 95 human individuals representing 27 different tissues in order to determine tissue-specificity of all protein-coding genes
  • BioProject: PRJEB4337
  • Publication: PMID 24309898
  • Analysis date: Wed Apr 4 07:08:55 2018

Bibliography

GeneRIFs: Gene References Into Functions

What's a GeneRIF?

Phenotypes

Associated conditions

Description Tests
Bivariate genome-wide association analyses of femoral neck bone geometry and appendicular lean mass.
GeneReviews: Not available

HIV-1 interactions

Protein interactions

Protein Gene Interaction Pubs
Rev rev HIV-1 Rev interacting protein, hexokinase 2 (HK2), is identified by the in-vitro binding experiments involving cytosolic or nuclear extracts from HeLa cells PubMed
Vpr vpr A stable-isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture coupled with mass spectrometry-based proteomics identifies upregulation of hexokinase 2 (HK2) expression by HIV-1 Vpr in Vpr transduced macrophages PubMed

Go to the HIV-1, Human Interaction Database

Pathways from PubChem

Interactions

Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

General gene information

Markers

Homology

Clone Names

  • DKFZp686M1669

Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

Function Evidence Code Pubs
enables ATP binding IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
enables fructokinase activity IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
enables fructokinase activity ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
enables glucokinase activity IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
enables glucokinase activity IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
enables glucokinase activity TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
enables glucose binding IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
enables hexokinase activity IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
enables mannokinase activity IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
enables protein binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
Process Evidence Code Pubs
acts_upstream_of_or_within apoptotic mitochondrial changes IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
involved_in canonical glycolysis TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
involved_in carbohydrate phosphorylation IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
involved_in cellular glucose homeostasis IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
involved_in cellular response to leukemia inhibitory factor IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
involved_in establishment of protein localization to mitochondrion IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
involved_in fructose 6-phosphate metabolic process ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
involved_in glucose 6-phosphate metabolic process IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
involved_in glucose 6-phosphate metabolic process IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
involved_in glycolytic process IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
involved_in glycolytic process TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
involved_in lactation IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
involved_in maintenance of protein location in mitochondrion IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
involved_in negative regulation of mitochondrial membrane permeability IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
involved_in negative regulation of reactive oxygen species metabolic process IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
involved_in positive regulation of angiogenesis IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
involved_in positive regulation of autophagy of mitochondrion in response to mitochondrial depolarization IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
involved_in regulation of glucose import IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
involved_in response to hypoxia IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
involved_in response to ischemia IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
Component Evidence Code Pubs
located_in centrosome IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
 
is_active_in cytosol IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
located_in cytosol IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
 
located_in cytosol TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
located_in intracellular membrane-bounded organelle IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
 
located_in membrane HDA PubMed 
located_in mitochondrial outer membrane IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
is_active_in mitochondrion IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
located_in mitochondrion IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
 
located_in plasma membrane IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
located_in sarcoplasmic reticulum IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 

General protein information

Preferred Names
hexokinase-2
Names
hexokinase type II
hexokinase-2, muscle
hexokinase-B
muscle form hexokinase
NP_000180.2
NP_001358454.1
XP_005264337.1
XP_011531109.1
XP_016859434.1

NCBI Reference Sequences (RefSeq)

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RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. NM_000189.5NP_000180.2  hexokinase-2 isoform 1

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_000180.2

    Status: REVIEWED

    Source sequence(s)
    AC019069, AC104135
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS1956.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P52789
    Related
    ENSP00000290573.2, ENST00000290573.7
    Conserved Domains (3) summary
    PTZ00107
    Location:12460
    PTZ00107; hexokinase; Provisional
    pfam00349
    Location:471667
    Hexokinase_1
    pfam03727
    Location:673907
    Hexokinase_2
  2. NM_001371525.1NP_001358454.1  hexokinase-2 isoform 2

    Status: REVIEWED

    Source sequence(s)
    AC019069, AC104135
    Related
    ENSP00000387140.1, ENST00000409174.1
    Conserved Domains (3) summary
    PTZ00107
    Location:1432
    PTZ00107; hexokinase; Provisional
    pfam00349
    Location:443639
    Hexokinase_1
    pfam03727
    Location:645879
    Hexokinase_2

RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: Homo sapiens Updated Annotation Release 109.20210514

The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

Reference GRCh38.p13 Primary Assembly

Genomic

  1. NC_000002.12 Reference GRCh38.p13 Primary Assembly

    Range
    74834126..74893359
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. XM_005264280.2XP_005264337.1  hexokinase-2 isoform X1

    Conserved Domains (3) summary
    PTZ00107
    Location:12460
    PTZ00107; hexokinase; Provisional
    pfam00349
    Location:21219
    Hexokinase_1; Hexokinase
    pfam03727
    Location:694928
    Hexokinase_2; Hexokinase
  2. XM_011532807.2XP_011531109.1  hexokinase-2 isoform X2

    Conserved Domains (3) summary
    PTZ00107
    Location:430897
    PTZ00107; hexokinase; Provisional
    pfam00349
    Location:439656
    Hexokinase_1; Hexokinase
    pfam03727
    Location:662896
    Hexokinase_2; Hexokinase
  3. XM_017003945.2XP_016859434.1  hexokinase-2 isoform X3

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