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RHOD ras homolog family member D [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

Gene ID: 29984, updated on 17-Jun-2024

Summary

Official Symbol
RHODprovided by HGNC
Official Full Name
ras homolog family member Dprovided by HGNC
Primary source
HGNC:HGNC:670
See related
Ensembl:ENSG00000173156 MIM:605781; AllianceGenome:HGNC:670
Gene type
protein coding
RefSeq status
REVIEWED
Organism
Homo sapiens
Lineage
Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
Also known as
Rho; ARHD; RHOM; RHOHP1
Summary
Ras homolog, or Rho, proteins interact with protein kinases and may serve as targets for activated GTPase. They play a critical role in muscle differentiation. The protein encoded by this gene binds GTP and is a member of the small GTPase superfamily. It is involved in endosome dynamics and reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton, and it may coordinate membrane transport with the function of the cytoskeleton. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2014]
Expression
Ubiquitous expression in esophagus (RPKM 14.1), skin (RPKM 7.1) and 20 other tissues See more
Orthologs
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Genomic context

See RHOD in Genome Data Viewer
Location:
11q13.2
Exon count:
5
Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
RS_2023_10 current GRCh38.p14 (GCF_000001405.40) 11 NC_000011.10 (67056847..67072017)
RS_2023_10 current T2T-CHM13v2.0 (GCF_009914755.1) 11 NC_060935.1 (67051322..67066491)
105.20220307 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 11 NC_000011.9 (66824318..66839488)

Chromosome 11 - NC_000011.10Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene uncharacterized LOC124902849 Neighboring gene OCT4-NANOG-H3K27ac-H3K4me1 hESC enhancer GRCh37_chr11:66769673-66770332 Neighboring gene P300/CBP strongly-dependent group 1 enhancer GRCh37_chr11:66788895-66790094 Neighboring gene H3K4me1 hESC enhancer GRCh37_chr11:66791036-66791536 Neighboring gene H3K4me1 hESC enhancer GRCh37_chr11:66791537-66792037 Neighboring gene ATAC-STARR-seq lymphoblastoid active region 5064 Neighboring gene synaptotagmin 12 Neighboring gene H3K4me1 hESC enhancer GRCh37_chr11:66799719-66800558 Neighboring gene ATAC-STARR-seq lymphoblastoid active region 5065 Neighboring gene ATAC-STARR-seq lymphoblastoid active region 5066 Neighboring gene H3K4me1 hESC enhancer GRCh37_chr11:66816246-66816774 Neighboring gene ATAC-STARR-seq lymphoblastoid active region 5067 Neighboring gene ATAC-STARR-seq lymphoblastoid silent region 3610 Neighboring gene ATAC-STARR-seq lymphoblastoid silent region 3609 Neighboring gene microRNA 6860 Neighboring gene H3K27ac hESC enhancer GRCh37_chr11:66841392-66841892 Neighboring gene MPRA-validated peak1310 silencer Neighboring gene H3K27ac-H3K4me1 hESC enhancer GRCh37_chr11:66845407-66846302 Neighboring gene ATAC-STARR-seq lymphoblastoid active region 5068 Neighboring gene ATAC-STARR-seq lymphoblastoid silent region 3611 Neighboring gene ATAC-STARR-seq lymphoblastoid active region 5069 Neighboring gene ATAC-STARR-seq lymphoblastoid active region 5070 Neighboring gene H3K27ac hESC enhancer GRCh37_chr11:66867665-66868165 Neighboring gene uncharacterized LOC107984341 Neighboring gene ATAC-STARR-seq lymphoblastoid silent region 3612 Neighboring gene ATAC-STARR-seq lymphoblastoid silent region 3613 Neighboring gene ATAC-STARR-seq lymphoblastoid active region 5072 Neighboring gene ATAC-STARR-seq lymphoblastoid silent region 3614 Neighboring gene ATAC-STARR-seq lymphoblastoid silent region 3615 Neighboring gene ATAC-STARR-seq lymphoblastoid silent region 3616 Neighboring gene ATAC-STARR-seq lymphoblastoid silent region 3617 Neighboring gene ATAC-STARR-seq lymphoblastoid silent region 3618 Neighboring gene uncharacterized LOC124902695 Neighboring gene lysine demethylase 2A

Genomic regions, transcripts, and products

Expression

  • Project title: HPA RNA-seq normal tissues
  • Description: RNA-seq was performed of tissue samples from 95 human individuals representing 27 different tissues in order to determine tissue-specificity of all protein-coding genes
  • BioProject: PRJEB4337
  • Publication: PMID 24309898
  • Analysis date: Wed Apr 4 07:08:55 2018

Bibliography

GeneRIFs: Gene References Into Functions

What's a GeneRIF?

Phenotypes

EBI GWAS Catalog

Description
Hundreds of variants clustered in genomic loci and biological pathways affect human height.
EBI GWAS Catalog

HIV-1 interactions

Replication interactions

Interaction Pubs
Knockdown of ras homolog family member D (RHOD) by siRNA inhibits HIV-1 replication in HeLa P4/R5 cells PubMed

Protein interactions

Protein Gene Interaction Pubs
Tat tat The function and activity of CREB is required for both Tat-induced Rho signaling and nuclear targeting of ZO-1 PubMed
matrix gag HIV-1 MA-induced upregulation of collagen-I and alpha-SMA expression is dependent on CXCR2 via the Rho/ROCK-1 pathway PubMed
gag HIV-1 p17-mediated activation of the Rho/ROCK-signaling pathway is required for p17-mediated monocyte adhesion and migration PubMed

Go to the HIV-1, Human Interaction Database

Pathways from PubChem

Interactions

Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

General gene information

Markers

Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

Function Evidence Code Pubs
enables GTP binding IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
 
enables GTPase activity IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
 
enables guanyl-nucleotide exchange factor activity TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
enables protein kinase binding IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
 
Process Evidence Code Pubs
involved_in Rho protein signal transduction TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
involved_in actin filament bundle assembly IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
involved_in actin filament organization IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
 
involved_in cell migration IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
 
involved_in focal adhesion assembly IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
involved_in lamellipodium assembly IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
involved_in positive regulation of cell adhesion IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
involved_in positive regulation of cell migration IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
involved_in regulation of actin cytoskeleton organization IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
 
involved_in regulation of small GTPase mediated signal transduction TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
involved_in signal transduction IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
 
Component Evidence Code Pubs
located_in Golgi membrane TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
is_active_in cytosol IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
 
located_in cytosol TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
located_in early endosome IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
located_in endosome membrane TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
located_in mitochondrial outer membrane TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
is_active_in plasma membrane IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
 
located_in plasma membrane TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 

General protein information

Preferred Names
rho-related GTP-binding protein RhoD
Names
Rho-related protein HP1
ras homolog D
ras homolog gene family, member A
ras homolog gene family, member D

NCBI Reference Sequences (RefSeq)

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RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. NM_001300886.2NP_001287815.1  rho-related GTP-binding protein RhoD isoform 2

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001287815.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (2) lacks an alternate in-frame segment compared to variant 1. The resulting isoform (2) has the same N- and C-termini but is shorter compared to isoform 1.
    Source sequence(s)
    BM761353, CB853597, CN305061
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS73330.1
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    E9PIG5
    Related
    ENSP00000432003.1, ENST00000532559.1
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    cl38936
    Location:16144
    P-loop_NTPase; P-loop containing Nucleoside Triphosphate Hydrolases
  2. NM_014578.4NP_055393.1  rho-related GTP-binding protein RhoD isoform 1

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_055393.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (1) represents the longer transcript and encodes the longer isoform (1).
    Source sequence(s)
    BC001338, BM761362, CA433897
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS8155.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    O00212
    Related
    ENSP00000308576.2, ENST00000308831.7
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    cd04132
    Location:16210
    Rho4_like; Ras homology family 4 (Rho4) of small guanosine triphosphatases (GTPases)-like

RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: GCF_000001405.40-RS_2023_10

The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

Reference GRCh38.p14 Primary Assembly

Genomic

  1. NC_000011.10 Reference GRCh38.p14 Primary Assembly

    Range
    67056847..67072017
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

Alternate T2T-CHM13v2.0

Genomic

  1. NC_060935.1 Alternate T2T-CHM13v2.0

    Range
    67051322..67066491
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)