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RHOD ras homolog family member D [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

Gene ID: 29984, updated on 12-Jan-2019

Summary

Official Symbol
RHODprovided by HGNC
Official Full Name
ras homolog family member Dprovided by HGNC
Primary source
HGNC:HGNC:670
See related
Ensembl:ENSG00000173156 MIM:605781
Gene type
protein coding
RefSeq status
REVIEWED
Organism
Homo sapiens
Lineage
Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
Also known as
Rho; ARHD; RHOM; RHOHP1
Summary
Ras homolog, or Rho, proteins interact with protein kinases and may serve as targets for activated GTPase. They play a critical role in muscle differentiation. The protein encoded by this gene binds GTP and is a member of the small GTPase superfamily. It is involved in endosome dynamics and reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton, and it may coordinate membrane transport with the function of the cytoskeleton. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2014]
Expression
Ubiquitous expression in esophagus (RPKM 14.1), skin (RPKM 7.1) and 20 other tissues See more
Orthologs

Genomic context

See RHOD in Genome Data Viewer
Location:
11q13.2
Exon count:
5
Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
109 current GRCh38.p12 (GCF_000001405.38) 11 NC_000011.10 (67056818..67072017)
105 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 11 NC_000011.9 (66824289..66839488)

Chromosome 11 - NC_000011.10Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene chromosome 11 open reading frame 86 Neighboring gene synaptotagmin 12 Neighboring gene microRNA 6860 Neighboring gene translation initiation factor IF-2-like Neighboring gene lysine demethylase 2A

Genomic regions, transcripts, and products

Expression

  • Project title: HPA RNA-seq normal tissues
  • Description: RNA-seq was performed of tissue samples from 95 human individuals representing 27 different tissues in order to determine tissue-specificity of all protein-coding genes
  • BioProject: PRJEB4337
  • Publication: PMID 24309898
  • Analysis date: Wed Apr 4 07:08:55 2018

Bibliography

GeneRIFs: Gene References Into FunctionsWhat's a GeneRIF?

Phenotypes

NHGRI GWAS Catalog

Description
Hundreds of variants clustered in genomic loci and biological pathways affect human height.
NHGRI GWA Catalog

HIV-1 interactions

Replication interactions

Interaction Pubs
Knockdown of ras homolog family member D (RHOD) by siRNA inhibits HIV-1 replication in HeLa P4/R5 cells PubMed

Protein interactions

Protein Gene Interaction Pubs
Tat tat The function and activity of CREB is required for both Tat-induced Rho signaling and nuclear targeting of ZO-1 PubMed
matrix gag HIV-1 MA-induced upregulation of collagen-I and alpha-SMA expression is dependent on CXCR2 via the Rho/ROCK-1 pathway PubMed
gag HIV-1 p17-mediated activation of the Rho/ROCK-signaling pathway is required for p17-mediated monocyte adhesion and migration PubMed

Go to the HIV-1, Human Interaction Database

Pathways from BioSystems

  • Axon guidance, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Axon guidance, organism-specific biosystemAxon guidance represents a key stage in the formation of neuronal network. Axons are guided by a variety of guidance factors, such as netrins, ephrins, Slits, and semaphorins. These guidance cues are...
  • Axon guidance, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Axon guidance, conserved biosystemAxon guidance represents a key stage in the formation of neuronal network. Axons are guided by a variety of guidance factors, such as netrins, ephrins, Slits, and semaphorins. These guidance cues are...
  • RHO GTPase Effectors, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    RHO GTPase Effectors, organism-specific biosystemRHO GTPases regulate cell behaviour by activating a number of downstream effectors that regulate cytoskeletal organization, intracellular trafficking and transcription (reviewed by Sahai and Marshall...
  • RHO GTPases Activate Formins, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    RHO GTPases Activate Formins, organism-specific biosystemFormins are a family of proteins with 15 members in mammals, organized into 8 subfamilies. Formins are involved in the regulation of actin cytoskeleton. Many but not all formin family members are act...
  • Rho GTPase cycle, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Rho GTPase cycle, organism-specific biosystemThe cycling of Rho GTPases is tightly controlled by three classes of protein. These are (1) guanine nucleotide dissociation inhibitors or GDIs, which maintain Rho proteins in an inactive state in the...
  • Signal Transduction, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signal Transduction, organism-specific biosystemSignal transduction is a process in which extracellular signals elicit changes in cell state and activity. Transmembrane receptors sense changes in the cellular environment by binding ligands, such a...
  • Signaling by Rho GTPases, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signaling by Rho GTPases, organism-specific biosystemThe Rho family of small guanine nucleotide binding proteins is one of five generally recognized branches of the Ras superfamily. Like most Ras superfamily members, typical Rho proteins function as bi...

Interactions

Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

General gene information

Markers

Homology

Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

Function Evidence Code Pubs
GTP binding IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
GTPase activity IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
protein kinase binding IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
Process Evidence Code Pubs
Rho protein signal transduction IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
actin filament bundle assembly IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
actin filament bundle assembly IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
actin filament organization IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
cell migration IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
establishment or maintenance of actin cytoskeleton polarity IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
focal adhesion assembly IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
lamellipodium assembly IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of cell adhesion IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of cell migration IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
protein targeting IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
regulation of actin cytoskeleton organization IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
regulation of actin cytoskeleton reorganization IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
regulation of cell migration IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
regulation of cell shape IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
regulation of focal adhesion assembly IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
regulation of small GTPase mediated signal transduction TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
Component Evidence Code Pubs
cell cortex IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
cell division site IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
cytoplasm IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
cytosol TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
early endosome IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
endosome membrane TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
intracellular membrane-bounded organelle IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
colocalizes_with plasma membrane IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
plasma membrane TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 

General protein information

Preferred Names
rho-related GTP-binding protein RhoD
Names
Rho-related protein HP1
ras homolog D
ras homolog gene family, member A
ras homolog gene family, member D

NCBI Reference Sequences (RefSeq)

RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. NM_001300886.1NP_001287815.1  rho-related GTP-binding protein RhoD isoform 2

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001287815.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (2) lacks an alternate in-frame segment compared to variant 1. The resulting isoform (2) has the same N- and C-termini but is shorter compared to isoform 1.
    Source sequence(s)
    BM761353, CB853597, CN305061
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS73330.1
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    E9PIG5
    Related
    ENSP00000432003.1, ENST00000532559.1
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    cl21455
    Location:16144
    P-loop_NTPase; P-loop containing Nucleoside Triphosphate Hydrolases
  2. NM_014578.4NP_055393.1  rho-related GTP-binding protein RhoD isoform 1

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_055393.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (1) represents the longer transcript and encodes the longer isoform (1).
    Source sequence(s)
    BC001338, BM761362, CA433897
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS8155.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    O00212
    Related
    ENSP00000308576.2, ENST00000308831.6
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    cd04132
    Location:16210
    Rho4_like; Ras homology family 4 (Rho4) of small guanosine triphosphatases (GTPases)-like

RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: Homo sapiens Annotation Release 109

The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

Reference GRCh38.p12 Primary Assembly

Genomic

  1. NC_000011.10 Reference GRCh38.p12 Primary Assembly

    Range
    67056818..67072017
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)
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