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GRM4 glutamate metabotropic receptor 4 [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

Gene ID: 2914, updated on 7-Oct-2018

Summary

Official Symbol
GRM4provided by HGNC
Official Full Name
glutamate metabotropic receptor 4provided by HGNC
Primary source
HGNC:HGNC:4596
See related
Ensembl:ENSG00000124493 MIM:604100; Vega:OTTHUMG00000014538
Gene type
protein coding
RefSeq status
REVIEWED
Organism
Homo sapiens
Lineage
Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
Also known as
mGlu4; GPRC1D; MGLUR4
Summary
L-glutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system and activates both ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptors. Glutamatergic neurotransmission is involved in most aspects of normal brain function and can be perturbed in many neuropathologic conditions. The metabotropic glutamate receptors are a family of G protein-coupled receptors, that have been divided into 3 groups on the basis of sequence homology, putative signal transduction mechanisms, and pharmacologic properties. Group I includes GRM1 and GRM5 and these receptors have been shown to activate phospholipase C. Group II includes GRM2 and GRM3 while Group III includes GRM4, GRM6, GRM7 and GRM8. Group II and III receptors are linked to the inhibition of the cyclic AMP cascade but differ in their agonist selectivities. Several transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2012]
Expression
Low expression observed in reference dataset See more
Orthologs

Genomic context

See GRM4 in Genome Data Viewer
Location:
6p21.31
Exon count:
19
Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
109 current GRCh38.p12 (GCF_000001405.38) 6 NC_000006.12 (34018643..34155622, complement)
105 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 6 NC_000006.11 (33989623..34123399, complement)

Chromosome 6 - NC_000006.12Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene uncharacterized LOC105375026 Neighboring gene uncharacterized LOC107986590 Neighboring gene microRNA 1275 Neighboring gene keratin 18 pseudogene 9 Neighboring gene cytochrome c, somatic pseudogene 55

Genomic regions, transcripts, and products

Expression

  • Project title: HPA RNA-seq normal tissues
  • Description: RNA-seq was performed of tissue samples from 95 human individuals representing 27 different tissues in order to determine tissue-specificity of all protein-coding genes
  • BioProject: PRJEB4337
  • Publication: PMID 24309898
  • Analysis date: Wed Jun 15 11:32:44 2016

Bibliography

GeneRIFs: Gene References Into FunctionsWhat's a GeneRIF?

HIV-1 interactions

Protein interactions

Protein Gene Interaction Pubs
Tat tat The gene expression of GRM4 is significantly upregulated in both clade B and clade C Tat treated SK-N-MC neuroblastoma cells PubMed

Go to the HIV-1, Human Interaction Database

Pathways from BioSystems

  • Class C/3 (Metabotropic glutamate/pheromone receptors), organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Class C/3 (Metabotropic glutamate/pheromone receptors), organism-specific biosystemThe class C G-protein-coupled receptors are a class of G-protein coupled receptors that include the metabotropic glutamate receptors and several additional receptors (Brauner-Osborne H et al, 2007). ...
  • G alpha (i) signalling events, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    G alpha (i) signalling events, organism-specific biosystemThe classical signalling mechanism for G alpha (i) is inhibition of the cAMP dependent pathway through inhibition of adenylate cyclase. Decreased production of cAMP from ATP results in decreased act...
  • GPCR downstream signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    GPCR downstream signaling, organism-specific biosystemG protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are classically defined as the receptor, G-protein and downstream effectors, the alpha subunit of the G-protein being the primary signaling molecule. However, it h...
  • GPCR ligand binding, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    GPCR ligand binding, organism-specific biosystemThere are more than 800 G-protein coupled receptor (GPCRs) in the human genome, making it the largest receptor superfamily. GPCRs are also the largest class of drug targets, involved in virtually all...
  • GPCRs, Class C Metabotropic glutamate, pheromone, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    GPCRs, Class C Metabotropic glutamate, pheromone, organism-specific biosystemThis pathway was created using the GPCRDB (Horn et al., 1998), http://www.gpcr.org/7tm/ (originally at http://www.cmbi.kun.nl/7tm/). The groupings are based on the GPCR phylogenetic tree available fr...
  • Glutamatergic synapse, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Glutamatergic synapse, organism-specific biosystemGlutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system(CNS). Glutamate is packaged into synaptic vesicles in the presynaptic terminal. Once released into the synap...
  • Glutamatergic synapse, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Glutamatergic synapse, conserved biosystemGlutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system(CNS). Glutamate is packaged into synaptic vesicles in the presynaptic terminal. Once released into the synap...
  • Neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction, organism-specific biosystem
    Neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction
  • Neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction, conserved biosystem
    Neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction
  • Phospholipase D signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Phospholipase D signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemPhospholipase D (PLD) is an essential enzyme responsible for the production of the lipid second messenger phosphatidic acid (PA), which is involved in fundamental cellular processes, including membra...
  • Phospholipase D signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Phospholipase D signaling pathway, conserved biosystemPhospholipase D (PLD) is an essential enzyme responsible for the production of the lipid second messenger phosphatidic acid (PA), which is involved in fundamental cellular processes, including membra...
  • Signal Transduction, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signal Transduction, organism-specific biosystemSignal transduction is a process in which extracellular signals elicit changes in cell state and activity. Transmembrane receptors sense changes in the cellular environment by binding ligands, such a...
  • Signaling by GPCR, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signaling by GPCR, organism-specific biosystemG protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs; 7TM receptors; seven transmembrane domain receptors; heptahelical receptors; G protein-linked receptors [GPLR]) are the largest family of transmembrane receptors i...
  • Taste transduction, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Taste transduction, organism-specific biosystemFive basic tastes are recognized by humans and most other animals - bitter, sweet, sour, salty and umami. In vertebrates, taste stimuli are detected by taste receptor cells (TRCs). At least three dis...
  • Taste transduction, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Taste transduction, conserved biosystemFive basic tastes are recognized by humans and most other animals - bitter, sweet, sour, salty and umami. In vertebrates, taste stimuli are detected by taste receptor cells (TRCs). At least three dis...

Interactions

Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

General gene information

Markers

Homology

Clone Names

  • FLJ98710, MGC177594

Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

Function Evidence Code Pubs
G protein-coupled receptor activity IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
glutamate receptor activity IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
glutamate receptor activity IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
Component Evidence Code Pubs
cytoplasmic vesicle IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
integral component of plasma membrane IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
integral component of plasma membrane IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
intracellular IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
plasma membrane TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
presynaptic membrane IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 

General protein information

Preferred Names
metabotropic glutamate receptor 4
Names
glutamate receptor, metabotropic 4

NCBI Reference Sequences (RefSeq)

RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

Genomic

  1. NG_029677.3 RefSeqGene

    Range
    14486..141980
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. NM_000841.3NP_000832.1  metabotropic glutamate receptor 4 isoform 1 precursor

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_000832.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (1) represents the longest transcript and encodes the longest isoform (1).
    Source sequence(s)
    AL590403, BM683737, DA094245, X80818
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS4787.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    Q14833
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    A1L4F9
    Related
    ENSP00000440556.1, OTTHUMP00000016221, ENST00000538487.6, OTTHUMT00000040213
    Conserved Domains (3) summary
    pfam07562
    Location:517566
    NCD3G; Nine Cysteines Domain of family 3 GPCR
    cd15452
    Location:586912
    7tmC_mGluR4; metabotropic glutamate receptor 4 in group 3, member of the class C family of seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptors
    cl10011
    Location:47508
    Periplasmic_Binding_Protein_Type_1; Type 1 periplasmic binding fold superfamily
  2. NM_001256809.2NP_001243738.1  metabotropic glutamate receptor 4 isoform 2

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001243738.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (2) differs in the 5' UTR and coding sequence, and lacks an alternate in-frame exon compared to variant 1. The resulting isoform (2) has a shorter and distinct N-terminus and lacks an alternate internal segment compared to isoform 1.
    Source sequence(s)
    AK131536, AL590403, BM683737
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS59012.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    Q14833
    Related
    ENSP00000363292.3, OTTHUMP00000273986, ENST00000374177.7, OTTHUMT00000471761
    Conserved Domains (4) summary
    pfam00003
    Location:483728
    7tm_3; 7 transmembrane sweet-taste receptor of 3 GCPR
    pfam01094
    Location:103361
    ANF_receptor; Receptor family ligand binding region
    pfam07562
    Location:401448
    NCD3G; Nine Cysteines Domain of family 3 GPCR
    cl10011
    Location:104392
    Periplasmic_Binding_Protein_Type_1; Type 1 periplasmic binding fold superfamily
  3. NM_001256811.2NP_001243740.1  metabotropic glutamate receptor 4 isoform 4 precursor

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001243740.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (4) lacks an alternate in-frame exon compared to variant 1. The resulting isoform (4) has the same N- and C-termini but is shorter compared to isoform 1.
    Source sequence(s)
    AK131536, AK312300, AL590403, BC144057, BM683737, DA094245
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS75432.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    Q14833
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    B7ZLU9
    Related
    ENSP00000363296.4, ENST00000374181.8
    Conserved Domains (4) summary
    pfam00003
    Location:552797
    7tm_3; 7 transmembrane sweet-taste receptor of 3 GCPR
    pfam01094
    Location:77430
    ANF_receptor; Receptor family ligand binding region
    pfam07562
    Location:470517
    NCD3G; Nine Cysteines Domain of family 3 GPCR
    cl10011
    Location:47461
    Periplasmic_Binding_Protein_Type_1; Type 1 periplasmic binding fold superfamily
  4. NM_001256812.2NP_001243741.1  metabotropic glutamate receptor 4 isoform 5

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001243741.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (5) differs in the 5' UTR and coding sequence compared to variant 1. The resulting isoform (5) has a shorter and distinct N-terminus compared to isoform 1.
    Source sequence(s)
    AK131536, AK293913, AL590403, BM683737
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS59011.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    Q14833
    Related
    ENSP00000437730.1, OTTHUMP00000273988, ENST00000544773.6, OTTHUMT00000471765
    Conserved Domains (3) summary
    pfam07562
    Location:348397
    NCD3G; Nine Cysteines Domain of family 3 GPCR
    cd15452
    Location:417743
    7tmC_mGluR4; metabotropic glutamate receptor 4 in group 3, member of the class C family of seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptors
    cl10011
    Location:4339
    Periplasmic_Binding_Protein_Type_1; Type 1 periplasmic binding fold superfamily
  5. NM_001256813.2NP_001243742.1  metabotropic glutamate receptor 4 isoform 6

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001243742.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (6) differs in the 5' UTR and coding sequence compared to variant 1. The resulting isoform (6) has a shorter and distinct N-terminus compared to isoform 1.
    Source sequence(s)
    AK122982, AK131536, AL590403, BM683737, DA116042
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS59010.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    Q14833
    Related
    ENSP00000477466.1, OTTHUMP00000273987, ENST00000609222.5, OTTHUMT00000471763
    Conserved Domains (4) summary
    pfam00003
    Location:466711
    7tm_3; 7 transmembrane sweet-taste receptor of 3 GCPR
    pfam01094
    Location:39344
    ANF_receptor; Receptor family ligand binding region
    pfam07562
    Location:384431
    NCD3G; Nine Cysteines Domain of family 3 GPCR
    cl10011
    Location:40375
    Periplasmic_Binding_Protein_Type_1; Type 1 periplasmic binding fold superfamily
  6. NM_001282847.1NP_001269776.1  metabotropic glutamate receptor 4 isoform 8

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001269776.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (8) uses an alternate 5' structure and thus differs in the 5' UTR and 5' coding region compared to variant 1. These differences cause translation initiation at a downstream AUG and result in an isoform (8) with a shorter N-terminus, compared to isoform 1.
    Source sequence(s)
    AK131536, AK312300, AL590403, BM683737, DA094245
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    Q14833
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    A8K0J8
    Conserved Domains (3) summary
    pfam07562
    Location:209258
    NCD3G; Nine Cysteines Domain of family 3 GPCR
    cd15452
    Location:278604
    7tmC_mGluR4; metabotropic glutamate receptor 4 in group 3, member of the class C family of seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptors
    cl10011
    Location:1200
    Periplasmic_Binding_Protein_Type_1; Type 1 periplasmic binding fold superfamily

RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: Homo sapiens Annotation Release 109 details...Open this link in a new tab

The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

Reference GRCh38.p12 Primary Assembly

Genomic

  1. NC_000006.12 Reference GRCh38.p12 Primary Assembly

    Range
    34018643..34155622 complement
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. XM_017010791.2XP_016866280.1  metabotropic glutamate receptor 4 isoform X1

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    Q14833
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    A1L4F9
    Conserved Domains (3) summary
    pfam07562
    Location:517566
    NCD3G; Nine Cysteines Domain of family 3 GPCR
    cd15452
    Location:586912
    7tmC_mGluR4; metabotropic glutamate receptor 4 in group 3, member of the class C family of seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptors
    cl10011
    Location:47508
    Periplasmic_Binding_Protein_Type_1; Type 1 periplasmic binding fold superfamily
  2. XM_017010790.2XP_016866279.1  metabotropic glutamate receptor 4 isoform X1

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    Q14833
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    A1L4F9
    Conserved Domains (3) summary
    pfam07562
    Location:517566
    NCD3G; Nine Cysteines Domain of family 3 GPCR
    cd15452
    Location:586912
    7tmC_mGluR4; metabotropic glutamate receptor 4 in group 3, member of the class C family of seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptors
    cl10011
    Location:47508
    Periplasmic_Binding_Protein_Type_1; Type 1 periplasmic binding fold superfamily
  3. XM_017010793.2XP_016866282.1  metabotropic glutamate receptor 4 isoform X3

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    Q14833
    Related
    ENSP00000437925.1, ENST00000535756.5
    Conserved Domains (4) summary
    pfam00003
    Location:466711
    7tm_3; 7 transmembrane sweet-taste receptor of 3 GCPR
    pfam01094
    Location:39344
    ANF_receptor; Receptor family ligand binding region
    pfam07562
    Location:384431
    NCD3G; Nine Cysteines Domain of family 3 GPCR
    cl10011
    Location:40375
    Periplasmic_Binding_Protein_Type_1; Type 1 periplasmic binding fold superfamily
  4. XM_017010792.1XP_016866281.1  metabotropic glutamate receptor 4 isoform X2

    Related
    ENSP00000398456.2, OTTHUMP00000273989, ENST00000455714.6, OTTHUMT00000471766

RNA

  1. XR_001743363.1 RNA Sequence

  2. XR_001743364.2 RNA Sequence

Suppressed Reference Sequence(s)

The following Reference Sequences have been suppressed. Explain

  1. NM_001256810.1: Suppressed sequence

    Description
    NM_001256810.1: This RefSeq was permanently suppressed because currently there is insufficient support for the transcript and the protein.
  2. NM_001256814.1: Suppressed sequence

    Description
    NM_001256814.1: This RefSeq was permanently suppressed because currently there is insufficient support for the transcript and the protein.
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