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GRN granulin precursor [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

Gene ID: 2896, updated on 8-Oct-2017
Official Symbol
GRNprovided by HGNC
Official Full Name
granulin precursorprovided by HGNC
Primary source
HGNC:HGNC:4601
See related
Ensembl:ENSG00000030582 MIM:138945; Vega:OTTHUMG00000181816
Gene type
protein coding
RefSeq status
REVIEWED
Organism
Homo sapiens
Lineage
Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
Also known as
GEP; GP88; PEPI; PGRN; CLN11; PCDGF
Summary
Granulins are a family of secreted, glycosylated peptides that are cleaved from a single precursor protein with 7.5 repeats of a highly conserved 12-cysteine granulin/epithelin motif. The 88 kDa precursor protein, progranulin, is also called proepithelin and PC cell-derived growth factor. Cleavage of the signal peptide produces mature granulin which can be further cleaved into a variety of active, 6 kDa peptides. These smaller cleavage products are named granulin A, granulin B, granulin C, etc. Epithelins 1 and 2 are synonymous with granulins A and B, respectively. Both the peptides and intact granulin protein regulate cell growth. However, different members of the granulin protein family may act as inhibitors, stimulators, or have dual actions on cell growth. Granulin family members are important in normal development, wound healing, and tumorigenesis. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Orthologs
Location:
17q21.31
Exon count:
13
Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
108 current GRCh38.p7 (GCF_000001405.33) 17 NC_000017.11 (44345086..44353106)
105 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 17 NC_000017.10 (42422491..42430474)

Chromosome 17 - NC_000017.11Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene solute carrier family 25 member 39 Neighboring gene uncharacterized LOC107985066 Neighboring gene family with sequence similarity 171 member A2 Neighboring gene ribosomal protein L7 like 1 pseudogene 5

  • Project title: HPA RNA-seq normal tissues
  • Description: RNA-seq was performed of tissue samples from 95 human individuals representing 27 different tissues in order to determine tissue-specificity of all protein-coding genes
  • BioProject: PRJEB4337
  • Publication: PMID 24309898
  • Analysis date: Wed Jun 15 11:32:44 2016

GeneRIFs: Gene References Into FunctionsWhat's a GeneRIF?

Protein interactions

Protein Gene Interaction Pubs
Tat tat Granulin forms stable complexes with cyclin T1 and HIV-1 Tat and inhibits Tat transactivation of the viral LTR promoter PubMed
tat The cysteine rich region of HIV-1 Tat (amino acids 21-37) mediates the binding of Tat to granulin amino acids 206-337 (granulin regions B+A) suggesting a role for granulin growth factors as biologically important extracellular Tat co-factors PubMed

Go to the HIV-1, Human Interaction Database

  • Immune System, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Immune System, organism-specific biosystemHumans are exposed to millions of potential pathogens daily, through contact, ingestion, and inhalation. Our ability to avoid infection depends on the adaptive immune system and during the first crit...
  • Innate Immune System, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Innate Immune System, organism-specific biosystemInnate immunity encompases the nonspecific part of immunity tha are part of an individual's natural biologic makeup
  • Integrated Breast Cancer Pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Integrated Breast Cancer Pathway, organism-specific biosystemThis pathway incorporates the most important proteins for Breast Cancer. The Rp score from the Connectivity-Maps (C-Maps) webserver was used to determine the rank of the most important proteins in Br...
  • Neutrophil degranulation, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Neutrophil degranulation, organism-specific biosystemNeutrophils are the most abundant leukocytes (white blood cells), indispensable in defending the body against invading microorganisms. In response to infection, neutrophils leave the circulation and ...
Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

Markers

Homology

Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

Function Evidence Code Pubs
RNA binding IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
cytokine activity IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
growth factor activity TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
protein binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
Process Evidence Code Pubs
neutrophil degranulation TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
regulation of receptor activity IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
signal transduction NAS
Non-traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
Component Evidence Code Pubs
azurophil granule lumen TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
endoplasmic reticulum IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
 
endosome IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
 
extracellular exosome IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
extracellular region TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
lysosome IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
 
Preferred Names
granulins
Names
PC cell-derived growth factor
acrogranin
granulin-epithelin
proepithelin
progranulin

RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

Genomic

  1. NG_007886.1 RefSeqGene

    Range
    4964..12984
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics), LRG_661

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. NM_002087.3NP_002078.1  granulins precursor

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_002078.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Source sequence(s)
    AY124489, BC010577, DC336362
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS11483.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P28799
    Related
    ENSP00000053867.2, OTTHUMP00000267554, ENST00000053867.7, OTTHUMT00000457766
    Conserved Domains (2) summary
    smart00277
    Location:285335
    GRAN; Granulin
    pfam00396
    Location:377416
    Granulin; Granulin

RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: Homo sapiens Annotation Release 108 details...Open this link in a new tab

The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

Reference GRCh38.p7 Primary Assembly

Genomic

  1. NC_000017.11 Reference GRCh38.p7 Primary Assembly

    Range
    44345086..44353106
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. XM_005257253.1XP_005257310.1  granulins isoform X1

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for XP_005257310.1

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P28799
    Conserved Domains (2) summary
    smart00277
    Location:285335
    GRAN; Granulin
    pfam00396
    Location:377416
    Granulin; Granulin

Alternate CHM1_1.1

Genomic

  1. NC_018928.2 Alternate CHM1_1.1

    Range
    42658129..42666150
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

Suppressed Reference Sequence(s)

The following Reference Sequences have been suppressed. Explain

  1. NM_001012479.1: Suppressed sequence

    Description
    NM_001012479.1: This RefSeq was permanently suppressed because there is insufficient support for the transcript and the protein.
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