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GRN granulin precursor [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

Gene ID: 2896, updated on 21-Jan-2020

Summary

Official Symbol
GRNprovided by HGNC
Official Full Name
granulin precursorprovided by HGNC
Primary source
HGNC:HGNC:4601
See related
Ensembl:ENSG00000030582 MIM:138945
Gene type
protein coding
RefSeq status
REVIEWED
Organism
Homo sapiens
Lineage
Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
Also known as
GEP; GP88; PEPI; PGRN; CLN11; PCDGF
Summary
Granulins are a family of secreted, glycosylated peptides that are cleaved from a single precursor protein with 7.5 repeats of a highly conserved 12-cysteine granulin/epithelin motif. The 88 kDa precursor protein, progranulin, is also called proepithelin and PC cell-derived growth factor. Cleavage of the signal peptide produces mature granulin which can be further cleaved into a variety of active, 6 kDa peptides. These smaller cleavage products are named granulin A, granulin B, granulin C, etc. Epithelins 1 and 2 are synonymous with granulins A and B, respectively. Both the peptides and intact granulin protein regulate cell growth. However, different members of the granulin protein family may act as inhibitors, stimulators, or have dual actions on cell growth. Granulin family members are important in normal development, wound healing, and tumorigenesis. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Expression
Ubiquitous expression in bone marrow (RPKM 141.7), lung (RPKM 139.8) and 25 other tissues See more
Orthologs

Genomic context

See GRN in Genome Data Viewer
Location:
17q21.31
Exon count:
14
Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
109.20191205 current GRCh38.p13 (GCF_000001405.39) 17 NC_000017.11 (44345086..44353106)
105 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 17 NC_000017.10 (42422491..42430474)

Chromosome 17 - NC_000017.11Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene solute carrier family 25 member 39 Neighboring gene CRISPRi-validated cis-regulatory element chr17.2878 Neighboring gene family with sequence similarity 171 member A2 Neighboring gene ribosomal protein L7 like 1 pseudogene 5

Genomic regions, transcripts, and products

Expression

  • Project title: HPA RNA-seq normal tissues
  • Description: RNA-seq was performed of tissue samples from 95 human individuals representing 27 different tissues in order to determine tissue-specificity of all protein-coding genes
  • BioProject: PRJEB4337
  • Publication: PMID 24309898
  • Analysis date: Wed Apr 4 07:08:55 2018

Bibliography

GeneRIFs: Gene References Into Functions

What's a GeneRIF?

HIV-1 interactions

Protein interactions

Protein Gene Interaction Pubs
Tat tat Granulin forms stable complexes with cyclin T1 and HIV-1 Tat and inhibits Tat transactivation of the viral LTR promoter PubMed
tat The cysteine rich region of HIV-1 Tat (amino acids 21-37) mediates the binding of Tat to granulin amino acids 206-337 (granulin regions B+A) suggesting a role for granulin growth factors as biologically important extracellular Tat co-factors PubMed

Go to the HIV-1, Human Interaction Database

Interactions

Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

General gene information

Markers

Homology

Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

Function Evidence Code Pubs
RNA binding HDA PubMed 
chaperone binding IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
cytokine activity IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
growth factor activity TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
protein binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
Process Evidence Code Pubs
astrocyte activation involved in immune response ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
lysosomal lumen acidification IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
lysosomal transport IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
lysosomal transport ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
lysosome organization ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
microglial cell activation involved in immune response ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
negative regulation of microglial cell activation ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
negative regulation of neuron apoptotic process IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of neutrophil activation IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of respiratory burst involved in inflammatory response IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
neutrophil degranulation TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
positive regulation of angiogenesis ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
positive regulation of aspartic-type peptidase activity IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of aspartic-type peptidase activity ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
positive regulation of axon regeneration ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
positive regulation of cell migration IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of defense response to bacterium ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
positive regulation of endothelial cell migration ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
positive regulation of epithelial cell proliferation IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of inflammatory response to wounding ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
positive regulation of lysosome organization IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of neuron apoptotic process ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
positive regulation of protein folding ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
protein stabilization IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
signal transduction NAS
Non-traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
Component Evidence Code Pubs
Golgi apparatus IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
azurophil granule lumen TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
cell IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
endoplasmic reticulum IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
endosome IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
 
extracellular exosome HDA PubMed 
extracellular region IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
extracellular region TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
extracellular space IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
late endosome IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
lysosomal membrane IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
lysosome IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
membrane IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
plasma membrane IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
trans-Golgi network ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 

General protein information

Preferred Names
progranulin
Names
PC cell-derived growth factor
acrogranin
epithelin
glycoprotein 88
glycoprotein of 88 Kda
granulin-epithelin
granulins
proepithelin

NCBI Reference Sequences (RefSeq)

RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

Genomic

  1. NG_007886.1 RefSeqGene

    Range
    4964..12984
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics), LRG_661

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. NM_002087.3NP_002078.1  progranulin precursor

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_002078.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Source sequence(s)
    AY124489, BC010577, DC336362
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS11483.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P28799
    Related
    ENSP00000053867.2, ENST00000053867.8
    Conserved Domains (2) summary
    smart00277
    Location:285335
    GRAN; Granulin
    pfam00396
    Location:377416
    Granulin; Granulin

RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: Homo sapiens Updated Annotation Release 109.20191205

The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

Reference GRCh38.p13 Primary Assembly

Genomic

  1. NC_000017.11 Reference GRCh38.p13 Primary Assembly

    Range
    44345086..44353106
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. XM_005257253.1XP_005257310.1  progranulin isoform X1

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for XP_005257310.1

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P28799
    Conserved Domains (2) summary
    smart00277
    Location:285335
    GRAN; Granulin
    pfam00396
    Location:377416
    Granulin; Granulin
  2. XM_024450730.1XP_024306498.1  progranulin isoform X1

    Conserved Domains (2) summary
    smart00277
    Location:285335
    GRAN; Granulin
    pfam00396
    Location:377416
    Granulin; Granulin

Suppressed Reference Sequence(s)

The following Reference Sequences have been suppressed. Explain

  1. NM_001012479.1: Suppressed sequence

    Description
    NM_001012479.1: This RefSeq was permanently suppressed because there is insufficient support for the transcript and the protein.
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