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GPI glucose-6-phosphate isomerase [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

Gene ID: 2821, updated on 11-Jun-2021

Summary

Official Symbol
GPIprovided by HGNC
Official Full Name
glucose-6-phosphate isomeraseprovided by HGNC
Primary source
HGNC:HGNC:4458
See related
Ensembl:ENSG00000105220 MIM:172400
Gene type
protein coding
RefSeq status
REVIEWED
Organism
Homo sapiens
Lineage
Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
Also known as
AMF; NLK; PGI; PHI; GNPI; SA36; SA-36
Summary
This gene encodes a member of the glucose phosphate isomerase protein family. The encoded protein has been identified as a moonlighting protein based on its ability to perform mechanistically distinct functions. In the cytoplasm, the gene product functions as a glycolytic enzyme (glucose-6-phosphate isomerase) that interconverts glucose-6-phosphate and fructose-6-phosphate. Extracellularly, the encoded protein (also referred to as neuroleukin) functions as a neurotrophic factor that promotes survival of skeletal motor neurons and sensory neurons, and as a lymphokine that induces immunoglobulin secretion. The encoded protein is also referred to as autocrine motility factor based on an additional function as a tumor-secreted cytokine and angiogenic factor. Defects in this gene are the cause of nonspherocytic hemolytic anemia and a severe enzyme deficiency can be associated with hydrops fetalis, immediate neonatal death and neurological impairment. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2016]
Expression
Ubiquitous expression in heart (RPKM 54.9), fat (RPKM 52.6) and 25 other tissues See more
Orthologs
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Genomic context

See GPI in Genome Data Viewer
Location:
19q13.11
Exon count:
20
Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
109.20210514 current GRCh38.p13 (GCF_000001405.39) 19 NC_000019.10 (34353330..34402413)
105.20201022 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 19 NC_000019.9 (34855645..34893318)

Chromosome 19 - NC_000019.10Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene granule associated Rac and RHOG effector 1 Neighboring gene ribosomal protein L29 pseudogene 33 Neighboring gene Sharpr-MPRA regulatory region 14193 Neighboring gene programmed cell death 2 like Neighboring gene RNA, 7SL, cytoplasmic 154, pseudogene Neighboring gene ubiquitin like modifier activating enzyme 2

Genomic regions, transcripts, and products

Expression

  • Project title: HPA RNA-seq normal tissues
  • Description: RNA-seq was performed of tissue samples from 95 human individuals representing 27 different tissues in order to determine tissue-specificity of all protein-coding genes
  • BioProject: PRJEB4337
  • Publication: PMID 24309898
  • Analysis date: Wed Apr 4 07:08:55 2018

Bibliography

GeneRIFs: Gene References Into Functions

What's a GeneRIF?

HIV-1 interactions

Protein interactions

Protein Gene Interaction Pubs
Envelope surface glycoprotein gp120 env Glucophosphoisomerase (GPI) can be antagonized by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) gp120 protein in human and rat neuroblastoma cell lines PubMed
Tat tat Expression of HIV-1 Tat upregulates the abundance of glucose-6-phosphate isomerase (GPI) in the nucleoli of Jurkat T-cells PubMed
Vpr vpr A stable-isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture coupled with mass spectrometry-based proteomics identifies downregulation of glucose-6-phosphate isomerase (GPI) expression by HIV-1 Vpr in Vpr transduced macrophages PubMed

Go to the HIV-1, Human Interaction Database

Pathways from PubChem

Interactions

Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

General gene information

Markers

Homology

Clone Names

  • DKFZp686C13233

Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

Function Evidence Code Pubs
enables cytokine activity IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
enables glucose-6-phosphate isomerase activity IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
enables glucose-6-phosphate isomerase activity IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
enables growth factor activity IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
enables monosaccharide binding IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
enables protein binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
enables ubiquitin protein ligase binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
Process Evidence Code Pubs
involved_in canonical glycolysis TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
involved_in carbohydrate metabolic process NAS
Non-traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
involved_in erythrocyte homeostasis IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
involved_in gluconeogenesis IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
involved_in gluconeogenesis TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
involved_in glucose 6-phosphate metabolic process IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
involved_in glucose 6-phosphate metabolic process IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
involved_in glucose homeostasis IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
involved_in glycolytic process IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
involved_in hemostasis TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
involved_in humoral immune response TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
involved_in in utero embryonic development IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
involved_in learning or memory IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
involved_in mesoderm formation IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
involved_in negative regulation of cysteine-type endopeptidase activity involved in apoptotic process IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
involved_in negative regulation of neuron apoptotic process IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
involved_in neutrophil degranulation TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
involved_in positive regulation of endothelial cell migration IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
involved_in positive regulation of immunoglobulin production IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
involved_in response to cadmium ion IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
involved_in response to estradiol IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
involved_in response to immobilization stress IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
involved_in response to morphine IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
involved_in response to muscle stretch IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
involved_in response to progesterone IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
involved_in response to testosterone IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
involved_in signal transduction IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
Component Evidence Code Pubs
located_in ciliary membrane IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
is_active_in cytosol IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
located_in cytosol IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
 
located_in cytosol TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
located_in extracellular exosome HDA PubMed 
located_in extracellular region TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
located_in ficolin-1-rich granule lumen TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
located_in membrane HDA PubMed 
located_in neuron projection IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
located_in nucleoplasm IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
 
located_in plasma membrane IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
 
located_in secretory granule lumen TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 

General protein information

Preferred Names
glucose-6-phosphate isomerase
Names
autocrine motility factor
hexose monophosphate isomerase
hexosephosphate isomerase
neuroleukin
oxoisomerase
phosphoglucose isomerase
phosphohexomutase
phosphohexose isomerase
phosphosaccharomutase
sperm antigen-36
NP_000166.2
NP_001171651.1
NP_001276718.1
NP_001276719.1
NP_001316838.1
NP_001316839.1
NP_001316840.1
XP_011525056.1

NCBI Reference Sequences (RefSeq)

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RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

Genomic

  1. NG_012838.3 RefSeqGene

    Range
    10605..47822
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics), LRG_1178

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. NM_000175.5NP_000166.2  glucose-6-phosphate isomerase isoform 2

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_000166.2

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (2) differs in the 5' UTR and uses a downstream start codon, compared to variant 3. The encoded isoform (2) has a shorter N-terminus, compared to isoform 3.
    Source sequence(s)
    AC092073, BC004982, BM664761, DC299841
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS12437.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P06744
    Related
    ENSP00000348877.3, ENST00000356487.11
    Conserved Domains (3) summary
    PRK00179
    Location:1554
    pgi; glucose-6-phosphate isomerase; Reviewed
    cd05015
    Location:123286
    SIS_PGI_1; Phosphoglucose isomerase (PGI) contains two SIS (Sugar ISomerase) domains. This classification is based on the alignment of the first SIS domain. PGI is a multifunctional enzyme which as an intracellular dimer catalyzes the reversible isomerization of ...
    cd05016
    Location:334525
    SIS_PGI_2; Phosphoglucose isomerase (PGI) contains two SIS (Sugar ISomerase) domains. This classification is based on the alignment of the second SIS domain. PGI is a multifunctional enzyme which as an intracellular dimer catalyzes the reversible isomerization of ...
  2. NM_001184722.1NP_001171651.1  glucose-6-phosphate isomerase isoform 1

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001171651.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (1) lacks an in-frame exon in the central coding region, compared to variant 3. The encoded isoform (1) is shorter, compared to isoform 3.
    Source sequence(s)
    AC010504, AC092073, AK294396, BM664761, DC342043
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS54246.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P06744
    Related
    ENSP00000465858.3, ENST00000588991.7
    Conserved Domains (3) summary
    PRK00179
    Location:40565
    pgi; glucose-6-phosphate isomerase; Reviewed
    cd05015
    Location:162297
    SIS_PGI_1; Phosphoglucose isomerase (PGI) contains two SIS (Sugar ISomerase) domains. This classification is based on the alignment of the first SIS domain. PGI is a multifunctional enzyme which as an intracellular dimer catalyzes the reversible isomerization of ...
    cd05016
    Location:345536
    SIS_PGI_2; Phosphoglucose isomerase (PGI) contains two SIS (Sugar ISomerase) domains. This classification is based on the alignment of the second SIS domain. PGI is a multifunctional enzyme which as an intracellular dimer catalyzes the reversible isomerization of ...
  3. NM_001289789.1NP_001276718.1  glucose-6-phosphate isomerase isoform 3

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001276718.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (3) represents the longest transcript and encodes the longest isoform (3).
    Source sequence(s)
    AK129884, BC006342, CR745343, DC342043, FY213211
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS86742.1
    Related
    ENSP00000405573.3, ENST00000415930.8
    Conserved Domains (3) summary
    PRK00179
    Location:40593
    pgi; glucose-6-phosphate isomerase; Reviewed
    cd05015
    Location:162325
    SIS_PGI_1; Phosphoglucose isomerase (PGI) contains two SIS (Sugar ISomerase) domains. This classification is based on the alignment of the first SIS domain. PGI is a multifunctional enzyme which as an intracellular dimer catalyzes the reversible isomerization of ...
    cd05016
    Location:373564
    SIS_PGI_2; Phosphoglucose isomerase (PGI) contains two SIS (Sugar ISomerase) domains. This classification is based on the alignment of the second SIS domain. PGI is a multifunctional enzyme which as an intracellular dimer catalyzes the reversible isomerization of ...
  4. NM_001289790.3NP_001276719.1  glucose-6-phosphate isomerase isoform 4

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001276719.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (4) differs in the 5' UTR, uses a downstream start codon, and lacks an in-frame exon in the central coding region, compared to variant 3. The encoded isoform (4) is shorter, compared to isoform 3.
    Source sequence(s)
    AK293446, BC006342, CR745343, DC299841, FY213211
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    B4DE36
    Conserved Domains (3) summary
    PRK00179
    Location:1526
    pgi; glucose-6-phosphate isomerase; Reviewed
    cd05015
    Location:123258
    SIS_PGI_1; Phosphoglucose isomerase (PGI) contains two SIS (Sugar ISomerase) domains. This classification is based on the alignment of the first SIS domain. PGI is a multifunctional enzyme which as an intracellular dimer catalyzes the reversible isomerization of ...
    cd05016
    Location:306497
    SIS_PGI_2; Phosphoglucose isomerase (PGI) contains two SIS (Sugar ISomerase) domains. This classification is based on the alignment of the second SIS domain. PGI is a multifunctional enzyme which as an intracellular dimer catalyzes the reversible isomerization of ...
  5. NM_001329909.1NP_001316838.1  glucose-6-phosphate isomerase isoform 2

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (5) differs in the 5' UTR and uses a downstream start codon, compared to variant 3. The encoded isoform (2) is shorter, compared to isoform 3.
    Source sequence(s)
    AK129884, BC004982, BC006342, BM664761, DA158837, DA171856
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS12437.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P06744
    Conserved Domains (3) summary
    PRK00179
    Location:1554
    pgi; glucose-6-phosphate isomerase; Reviewed
    cd05015
    Location:123286
    SIS_PGI_1; Phosphoglucose isomerase (PGI) contains two SIS (Sugar ISomerase) domains. This classification is based on the alignment of the first SIS domain. PGI is a multifunctional enzyme which as an intracellular dimer catalyzes the reversible isomerization of ...
    cd05016
    Location:334525
    SIS_PGI_2; Phosphoglucose isomerase (PGI) contains two SIS (Sugar ISomerase) domains. This classification is based on the alignment of the second SIS domain. PGI is a multifunctional enzyme which as an intracellular dimer catalyzes the reversible isomerization of ...
  6. NM_001329910.1NP_001316839.1  glucose-6-phosphate isomerase isoform 2

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (6) differs in the 5' UTR and uses a downstream start codon, compared to variant 3. The encoded isoform (2) is shorter, compared to isoform 3.
    Source sequence(s)
    BC004982, BC006342, BM664761, DA158837, DA171856, DA909998
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS12437.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P06744
    Conserved Domains (3) summary
    PRK00179
    Location:1554
    pgi; glucose-6-phosphate isomerase; Reviewed
    cd05015
    Location:123286
    SIS_PGI_1; Phosphoglucose isomerase (PGI) contains two SIS (Sugar ISomerase) domains. This classification is based on the alignment of the first SIS domain. PGI is a multifunctional enzyme which as an intracellular dimer catalyzes the reversible isomerization of ...
    cd05016
    Location:334525
    SIS_PGI_2; Phosphoglucose isomerase (PGI) contains two SIS (Sugar ISomerase) domains. This classification is based on the alignment of the second SIS domain. PGI is a multifunctional enzyme which as an intracellular dimer catalyzes the reversible isomerization of ...
  7. NM_001329911.2NP_001316840.1  glucose-6-phosphate isomerase isoform 5

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (7) differs in the 5' UTR, uses a downstream start codon, and uses an alternate in-frame splice site in the 3' coding region, compared to variant 3. The encoded isoform (5) is shorter, compared to isoform 3.
    Source sequence(s)
    AC092073, BC004982, BM664761, DC299841, HY310615
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P06744
    Related
    ENSP00000467670.3, ENST00000586425.2

RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: Homo sapiens Updated Annotation Release 109.20210514

The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

Reference GRCh38.p13 Primary Assembly

Genomic

  1. NC_000019.10 Reference GRCh38.p13 Primary Assembly

    Range
    34353330..34402413
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. XM_011526754.3XP_011525056.1  glucose-6-phosphate isomerase isoform X1

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for XP_011525056.1

    Conserved Domains (3) summary
    PRK00179
    Location:40593
    pgi; glucose-6-phosphate isomerase; Reviewed
    cd05015
    Location:162325
    SIS_PGI_1; Phosphoglucose isomerase (PGI) contains two SIS (Sugar ISomerase) domains. This classification is based on the alignment of the first SIS domain. PGI is a multifunctional enzyme which as an intracellular dimer catalyzes the reversible isomerization of ...
    cd05016
    Location:373564
    SIS_PGI_2; Phosphoglucose isomerase (PGI) contains two SIS (Sugar ISomerase) domains. This classification is based on the alignment of the second SIS domain. PGI is a multifunctional enzyme which as an intracellular dimer catalyzes the reversible isomerization of ...

Reference GRCh38.p13 ALT_REF_LOCI_1

Genomic

  1. NT_187619.1 Reference GRCh38.p13 ALT_REF_LOCI_1

    Range
    13932..30733
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)
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