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GNRHR gonadotropin releasing hormone receptor [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

Gene ID: 2798, updated on 17-Jun-2019

Summary

Official Symbol
GNRHRprovided by HGNC
Official Full Name
gonadotropin releasing hormone receptorprovided by HGNC
Primary source
HGNC:HGNC:4421
See related
Ensembl:ENSG00000109163 MIM:138850
Gene type
protein coding
RefSeq status
REVIEWED
Organism
Homo sapiens
Lineage
Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
Also known as
HH7; GRHR; LRHR; LHRHR; GNRHR1
Summary
This gene encodes the receptor for type 1 gonadotropin-releasing hormone. This receptor is a member of the seven-transmembrane, G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) family. It is expressed on the surface of pituitary gonadotrope cells as well as lymphocytes, breast, ovary, and prostate. Following binding of gonadotropin-releasing hormone, the receptor associates with G-proteins that activate a phosphatidylinositol-calcium second messenger system. Activation of the receptor ultimately causes the release of gonadotropic luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH). Defects in this gene are a cause of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (HH). Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. More than 18 transcription initiation sites in the 5' region and multiple polyA signals in the 3' region have been identified for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Expression
Low expression observed in reference dataset See more
Orthologs

Genomic context

See GNRHR in Genome Data Viewer
Location:
4q13.2
Exon count:
3
Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
109.20190607 current GRCh38.p13 (GCF_000001405.39) 4 NC_000004.12 (67737375..67756086, complement)
105 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 4 NC_000004.11 (68603093..68621804, complement)

Chromosome 4 - NC_000004.12Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene UBA6 antisense RNA 1 (head to head) Neighboring gene dynein, axonemal, assembly factor 5 pseudodgene Neighboring gene tubulin alpha 4a pseudogene Neighboring gene transmembrane serine protease 11C, pseudogene Neighboring gene uncharacterized LOC102724780

Genomic regions, transcripts, and products

Expression

  • Project title: HPA RNA-seq normal tissues
  • Description: RNA-seq was performed of tissue samples from 95 human individuals representing 27 different tissues in order to determine tissue-specificity of all protein-coding genes
  • BioProject: PRJEB4337
  • Publication: PMID 24309898
  • Analysis date: Wed Apr 4 07:08:55 2018

Bibliography

GeneRIFs: Gene References Into FunctionsWhat's a GeneRIF?

Pathways from BioSystems

  • Class A/1 (Rhodopsin-like receptors), organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Class A/1 (Rhodopsin-like receptors), organism-specific biosystemRhodopsin-like receptors (class A/1) are the largest group of GPCRs and are the best studied group from a functional and structural point of view. They show great diversity at the sequence level and ...
  • G alpha (q) signalling events, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    G alpha (q) signalling events, organism-specific biosystemThe classic signalling route for G alpha (q) is activation of phospholipase C beta thereby triggering phosphoinositide hydrolysis, calcium mobilization and protein kinase C activation. This provides ...
  • GPCR downstream signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    GPCR downstream signaling, organism-specific biosystemG protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are classically defined as the receptor, G-protein and downstream effectors, the alpha subunit of the G-protein being the primary signaling molecule. However, it h...
  • GPCR ligand binding, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    GPCR ligand binding, organism-specific biosystemThere are more than 800 G-protein coupled receptor (GPCRs) in the human genome, making it the largest receptor superfamily. GPCRs are also the largest class of drug targets, involved in virtually all...
  • GPCRs, Other, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    GPCRs, Other, organism-specific biosystemThis pathway was created using the GPCRDB (Horn et al., 1998), http://www.gpcr.org/7tm/ (originally at http://www.cmbi.kun.nl/7tm/). The groupings are based on the GPCR phylogenetic tree available fr...
  • Gastrin-CREB signalling pathway via PKC and MAPK, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Gastrin-CREB signalling pathway via PKC and MAPK, organism-specific biosystemGastrin is a hormone whose main function is to stimulate secretion of hydrochloric acid by the gastric mucosa, which results in gastrin formation inhibition. This hormone also acts as a mitogenic fac...
  • GnRH signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    GnRH signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemGonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion from the hypothalamus acts upon its receptor in the anterior pituitary to regulate the production and release of the gonadotropins, LH and FSH. The GnR...
  • GnRH signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    GnRH signaling pathway, conserved biosystemGonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion from the hypothalamus acts upon its receptor in the anterior pituitary to regulate the production and release of the gonadotropins, LH and FSH. The GnR...
  • Hormone ligand-binding receptors, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Hormone ligand-binding receptors, organism-specific biosystemThe class A (rhodopsin-like) GPCRs that bind to hormone ligands are annotated here. The hormones follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and hu...
  • Neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction, organism-specific biosystem
    Neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction
  • Neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction, conserved biosystem
    Neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction
  • Peptide GPCRs, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Peptide GPCRs, organism-specific biosystem
    Peptide GPCRs
  • Signal Transduction, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signal Transduction, organism-specific biosystemSignal transduction is a process in which extracellular signals elicit changes in cell state and activity. Transmembrane receptors sense changes in the cellular environment by binding ligands, such a...
  • Signaling by GPCR, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signaling by GPCR, organism-specific biosystemG protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs; 7TM receptors; seven transmembrane domain receptors; heptahelical receptors; G protein-linked receptors [GPLR]) are the largest family of transmembrane receptors i...

Interactions

Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

General gene information

Markers

Homology

Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

Function Evidence Code Pubs
gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor activity IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
Process Evidence Code Pubs
G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
cellular response to gonadotropin-releasing hormone IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
cellular response to hormone stimulus IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
multicellular organism development TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
Component Evidence Code Pubs
integral component of plasma membrane IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
integral component of plasma membrane TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
membrane TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
plasma membrane TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 

General protein information

Preferred Names
gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor
Names
gnRH receptor
gnRH-R
gonadotropin-releasing hormone (type 1) receptor 1
leutinizing hormone releasing horomone receptor
leutinizing-releasing hormone receptor
luliberin receptor
type I GnRH receptor

NCBI Reference Sequences (RefSeq)

RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

Genomic

  1. NG_009293.1 RefSeqGene

    Range
    5001..23712
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. NM_000406.2NP_000397.1  gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor isoform 1

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_000397.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (1) represents the longer transcript and encodes the longer isoform (1).
    Source sequence(s)
    AC079880, L03380
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS3517.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P30968
    Related
    ENSP00000226413.4, ENST00000226413.4
    Conserved Domains (2) summary
    cd14964
    Location:3867
    7tm_GPCRs; TM helix 1 [structural motif]
    cl28897
    Location:36328
    7tm_GPCRs; seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptor superfamily
  2. NM_001012763.1NP_001012781.1  gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor isoform 2

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001012781.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (2) uses an alternate splice site in the coding region, compared to variant 1, that results in a frameshift. It encodes isoform 2 which has a shorter and distinct C-terminus compared to isoform 1. Isoform 2 may act as an inhibitor of gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor signaling.
    Source sequence(s)
    AC079880, L03380, Z81148
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS47064.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P30968
    Related
    ENSP00000397561.2, ENST00000420975.2
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    pfam00001
    Location:76175
    7tm_1; 7 transmembrane receptor (rhodopsin family)

RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: Homo sapiens Annotation Release 109

The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

Reference GRCh38.p13 Primary Assembly

Genomic

  1. NC_000004.12 Reference GRCh38.p13 Primary Assembly

    Range
    67737375..67756086 complement
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)
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