Format

Send to:

Choose Destination

GNB1 G protein subunit beta 1 [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

Gene ID: 2782, updated on 6-Sep-2017
Official Symbol
GNB1provided by HGNC
Official Full Name
G protein subunit beta 1provided by HGNC
Primary source
HGNC:HGNC:4396
See related
Ensembl:ENSG00000078369 MIM:139380; Vega:OTTHUMG00000000940
Gene type
protein coding
RefSeq status
REVIEWED
Organism
Homo sapiens
Lineage
Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
Also known as
MRD42
Summary
Heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins), which integrate signals between receptors and effector proteins, are composed of an alpha, a beta, and a gamma subunit. These subunits are encoded by families of related genes. This gene encodes a beta subunit. Beta subunits are important regulators of alpha subunits, as well as of certain signal transduction receptors and effectors. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2013]
Orthologs
Location:
1p36.33
Exon count:
13
Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
108 current GRCh38.p7 (GCF_000001405.33) 1 NC_000001.11 (1785285..1891117, complement)
105 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 1 NC_000001.10 (1716725..1822552, complement)

Chromosome 1 - NC_000001.11Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene ribosomal protein S7 pseudogene Neighboring gene solute carrier family 35 member E2 Neighboring gene NAD kinase Neighboring gene collagen alpha-2(VIII) chain-like Neighboring gene calmodulin like 6 Neighboring gene transmembrane protein 52

  • Project title: HPA RNA-seq normal tissues
  • Description: RNA-seq was performed of tissue samples from 95 human individuals representing 27 different tissues in order to determine tissue-specificity of all protein-coding genes
  • BioProject: PRJEB4337
  • Publication: PMID 24309898
  • Analysis date: Wed Jun 15 11:32:44 2016

GeneRIFs: Gene References Into FunctionsWhat's a GeneRIF?

Protein interactions

Protein Gene Interaction Pubs
Tat tat Expression of HIV-1 Tat upregulates the abundance of guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), beta polypeptide 1 (GNB1) in the nucleoli of Jurkat T-cells PubMed
Vpr vpr A stable-isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture coupled with mass spectrometry-based proteomics identifies upregulation of guanine nucleotide binding protein, beta polypeptide 1 (GNB1) expression by HIV-1 Vpr in Vpr transduced macrophages PubMed

Go to the HIV-1, Human Interaction Database

  • ADP signalling through P2Y purinoceptor 1, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    ADP signalling through P2Y purinoceptor 1, organism-specific biosystemCo-activation of P2Y1 and P2Y12 is necessary for complete platelet activation. P2Y1 is coupled to Gq and helps trigger the release of calcium from internal stores, leading to weak and reversible plat...
  • ADP signalling through P2Y purinoceptor 12, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    ADP signalling through P2Y purinoceptor 12, organism-specific biosystemCo-activation of P2Y1 and P2Y12 is necessary for complete platelet activation. P2Y1 is coupled to Gq and helps trigger the release of calcium from internal stores, leading to weak and reversible plat...
  • Activation of G protein gated Potassium channels, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Activation of G protein gated Potassium channels, organism-specific biosystemActivation of Kir 3 channels occurs after binding of G beta gamma subunits of GPCR. Activation of Kir3/GIRK leads to K+ efflux. The dissociation of GPCR into G alpha and G beta gamma subunits is acti...
  • Activation of GABAB receptors, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Activation of GABAB receptors, organism-specific biosystemGABA B receptors are metabotropic receptors that are functionally linked to C type G protein coupled receptors.? GABA B receptors are activated upon ligand binding. The GABA B1 subunit binds ligand a...
  • Activation of Kainate Receptors upon glutamate binding, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Activation of Kainate Receptors upon glutamate binding, organism-specific biosystemKainate receptors are found both in the presynaptc terminals and the postsynaptic neurons. Kainate receptor activation could lead to either ionotropic activity (influx of Ca2+ or Na+ and K+) in the ...
  • Activation of the phototransduction cascade, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Activation of the phototransduction cascade, organism-specific biosystemThe photoreceptor cascade starts with light isomerization of 11-cis-retinal (11cRAL) of rhodopsin (RHO) to all-trans-retinal (atRAL), inducing a conformational change in RHO to the active, metarhodop...
  • Adrenaline,noradrenaline inhibits insulin secretion, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Adrenaline,noradrenaline inhibits insulin secretion, organism-specific biosystemThe catecholamines adrenaline (epinephrine) and noradrenaline (norepinephrine) inhibit insulin secretion from pancreatic beta cells. Four effects are seen in the cells:1. Inhibition of exocytosis of ...
  • Alcoholism, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Alcoholism, organism-specific biosystemAlcoholism, also called dependence on alcohol (ethanol), is a chronic relapsing disorder that is progressive and has serious detrimental health outcomes. As one of the primary mediators of the reward...
  • Alcoholism, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Alcoholism, conserved biosystemAlcoholism, also called dependence on alcohol (ethanol), is a chronic relapsing disorder that is progressive and has serious detrimental health outcomes. As one of the primary mediators of the reward...
  • Apelin signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Apelin signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemApelin is an endogenous peptide capable of binding the apelin receptor (APJ), which was originally described as an orphan G-protein-coupled receptor. Apelin and APJ are widely expressed in various ti...
  • Aquaporin-mediated transport, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Aquaporin-mediated transport, organism-specific biosystemAquaporins (AQP's) are six-pass transmembrane proteins that form channels in membranes. Each monomer contains a central channel formed in part by two asparagine-proline-alanine motifs (NPA boxes) tha...
  • Beta-catenin independent WNT signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Beta-catenin independent WNT signaling, organism-specific biosystemHumans and mice have 19 identified WNT proteins that were originally classified as either 'canonical' or 'non-canonical' depending upon whether they were able to transform the mouse mammary epithelia...
  • CXCR3-mediated signaling events, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    CXCR3-mediated signaling events, organism-specific biosystem
    CXCR3-mediated signaling events
  • CXCR4-mediated signaling events, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    CXCR4-mediated signaling events, organism-specific biosystem
    CXCR4-mediated signaling events
  • Ca2+ pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Ca2+ pathway, organism-specific biosystemA number of so called non-canonical WNT ligands have been shown to promote intracellular calcium release upon FZD binding. This beta-catenin-independent WNT pathway acts through heterotrimeric G pro...
  • Calcium Regulation in the Cardiac Cell, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Calcium Regulation in the Cardiac Cell, organism-specific biosystemCalcium is a common signaling mechanism, as once it enters the cytoplasm it exerts allosteric regulatory affects on many enzymes and proteins. Calcium can act in signal transduction after influx resu...
  • Chaperonin-mediated protein folding, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Chaperonin-mediated protein folding, organism-specific biosystemThe eukaryotic chaperonin TCP-1 ring complex (TRiC/ CCT) plays an essential role in the folding of a subset of proteins prominent among which are the actins and tubulins (reviewed in Altschuler and...
  • Chemokine signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Chemokine signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemInflammatory immune response requires the recruitment of leukocytes to the site of inflammation upon foreign insult. Chemokines are small chemoattractant peptides that provide directional cues for th...
  • Chemokine signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Chemokine signaling pathway, conserved biosystemInflammatory immune response requires the recruitment of leukocytes to the site of inflammation upon foreign insult. Chemokines are small chemoattractant peptides that provide directional cues for th...
  • Cholinergic synapse, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Cholinergic synapse, organism-specific biosystemAcetylcholine (ACh) is a neurotransmitter widely distributed in the central (and also peripheral, autonomic and enteric) nervous system (CNS). In the CNS, ACh facilitates many functions, such as lear...
  • Circadian entrainment, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Circadian entrainment, organism-specific biosystemCircadian entrainment is a fundamental property by which the period of the internal biological clock is entrained by recurring exogenous signals, such that the organism's endocrine and behavioral rhy...
  • Circadian entrainment, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Circadian entrainment, conserved biosystemCircadian entrainment is a fundamental property by which the period of the internal biological clock is entrained by recurring exogenous signals, such that the organism's endocrine and behavioral rhy...
  • Class B/2 (Secretin family receptors), organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Class B/2 (Secretin family receptors), organism-specific biosystemThis family is known as Family B (secretin-receptor family, family 2) G-protein-coupled receptors. Family B GPCRs include secretin, calcitonin, parathyroid hormone/parathyroid hormone-related peptide...
  • Cooperation of PDCL (PhLP1) and TRiC/CCT in G-protein beta folding, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Cooperation of PDCL (PhLP1) and TRiC/CCT in G-protein beta folding, organism-specific biosystemThe chaperonin complex TRiC/CCT is needed for the proper folding of all five G-protein beta subunits (Wells et al. 2006). TRiC/CCT cooperates with the phosducin-like protein PDCL (commonly known as P...
  • Corticotropin-releasing hormone signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Corticotropin-releasing hormone signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemCorticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) is a neuropeptide secreted abundantly in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, amygdala, cerebral cortex and cerebellum in the central nervous system ...
  • Dopaminergic synapse, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Dopaminergic synapse, organism-specific biosystemDopamine (DA) is an important and prototypical slow neurotransmitter in the mammalian brain, where it controls a variety of functions including locomotor activity, motivation and reward, learning an...
  • Dopaminergic synapse, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Dopaminergic synapse, conserved biosystemDopamine (DA) is an important and prototypical slow neurotransmitter in the mammalian brain, where it controls a variety of functions including locomotor activity, motivation and reward, learning an...
  • Estrogen signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Estrogen signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemEstrogen receptor refers to a group of receptors which are activated by the hormone 17-beta-estradiol (estrogen). Two types of estrogen receptor exist: ER which is a member of the nuclear hormone fam...
  • G Protein Signaling Pathways, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    G Protein Signaling Pathways, organism-specific biosystemG proteins, short for guanine nucleotide-binding proteins, are a family of proteins involved in second messenger cascades. G proteins are so called because they function as "molecular switches". They...
  • G alpha (12/13) signalling events, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    G alpha (12/13) signalling events, organism-specific biosystemThe G12/13 family is probably the least well characterized subtype, partly because G12/13 coupling is difficult to determine when compared with the other subtypes which predominantly rely on assay te...
  • G alpha (i) signalling events, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    G alpha (i) signalling events, organism-specific biosystemThe classical signalling mechanism for G alpha (i) is inhibition of the cAMP dependent pathway through inhibition of adenylate cyclase. Decreased production of cAMP from ATP results in decreased act...
  • G alpha (q) signalling events, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    G alpha (q) signalling events, organism-specific biosystemThe classic signalling route for G alpha (q) is activation of phospholipase C beta thereby triggering phosphoinositide hydrolysis, calcium mobilization and protein kinase C activation. This provides ...
  • G alpha (s) signalling events, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    G alpha (s) signalling events, organism-specific biosystemThe general function of the G alpha (s) subunit (Gs) is to activate adenylate cyclase, which in turn produces cAMP, leading to the activation of cAMP-dependent protein kinases (often referred to col...
  • G alpha (z) signalling events, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    G alpha (z) signalling events, organism-specific biosystemThe heterotrimeric G protein Gz, is a member of the Gi family. Unlike other Gi family members it lacks an ADP ribosylation site cysteine four residues from the carboxyl terminus and is thus pertussis...
  • G beta:gamma signalling through PI3Kgamma, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    G beta:gamma signalling through PI3Kgamma, organism-specific biosystemPI3K gamma (PI3KG) is a heterodimer consisting of a p110 catalytic subunit associated with a regulatory p101 or p84 subunit. PI3KG is most highly expressed in neutrophils, where the p101 form predomi...
  • G beta:gamma signalling through PLC beta, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    G beta:gamma signalling through PLC beta, organism-specific biosystemPhospholipase C beta (PLCbeta) isoforms are activated by G-protein beta:gamma in the order PLCB3 > PLCB2 > PLCB1. Gbeta:gamma binds to the pleckstrin homology domain of PLC beta, increasing phosphol...
  • G protein gated Potassium channels, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    G protein gated Potassium channels, organism-specific biosystemInwardly rectifying G protein activated K+ channels (GIRK) are tetrameric assemblies of Ki3 3 family subunits (Kir 3.1, 3.2 3.3 and 3.4). The activation of G protein coupled receptor by ligand result...
  • G-protein activation, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    G-protein activation, organism-specific biosystemReceptor activated heterotrimeric G proteins consist of the Galpha and the tightly associated Gbeta-gamma subunits. When a ligand binds to a G protein-coupled receptor, it stabilises a conformation ...
  • G-protein beta:gamma signalling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    G-protein beta:gamma signalling, organism-specific biosystemThe classical role of the G-protein beta/gamma dimer was believed to be the inactivation of the alpha subunit, Gbeta/gamma was viewed as a negative regulator of Galpha signalling. It is now known tha...
  • GABA B receptor activation, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    GABA B receptor activation, organism-specific biosystemFunctional GABA B receptors are heteromers of GABA B1 and B2 subunits, complexed with G protein alpha-i, 0, beta, and gamma subunits. They function as metabotropic receptors. When GABA is bound to th...
  • GABA receptor activation, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    GABA receptor activation, organism-specific biosystemGamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors are the major inhibitory receptors in human synapses. They are of two types. GABA A receptors are fast-acting ligand gated chloride ion channels that mediate ...
  • GABAergic synapse, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    GABAergic synapse, organism-specific biosystemGamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the most abundant inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS). When released in the synaptic cleft, GABA binds to three major classes o...
  • GABAergic synapse, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    GABAergic synapse, conserved biosystemGamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the most abundant inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS). When released in the synaptic cleft, GABA binds to three major classes o...
  • GPCR downstream signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    GPCR downstream signaling, organism-specific biosystemG protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are classically defined as the receptor, G-protein and downstream effectors, the alpha subunit of the G-protein being the primary signaling molecule. However, it h...
  • GPCR ligand binding, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    GPCR ligand binding, organism-specific biosystemThere are more than 800 G-protein coupled receptor (GPCRs) in the human genome, making it the largest receptor superfamily. GPCRs are also the largest class of drug targets, involved in virtually all...
  • Gastrin-CREB signalling pathway via PKC and MAPK, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Gastrin-CREB signalling pathway via PKC and MAPK, organism-specific biosystemGastrin is a hormone whose main function is to stimulate secretion of hydrochloric acid by the gastric mucosa, which results in gastrin formation inhibition. This hormone also acts as a mitogenic fac...
  • Glucagon signaling in metabolic regulation, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Glucagon signaling in metabolic regulation, organism-specific biosystemGlucagon and insulin are peptide hormones released from the pancreas into the blood, that normally act in complementary fashion to stabilize blood glucose concentration. When blood glucose levels ris...
  • Glucagon-like Peptide-1 (GLP1) regulates insulin secretion, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Glucagon-like Peptide-1 (GLP1) regulates insulin secretion, organism-specific biosystemGlucagon-like Peptide-1 (GLP-1) is secreted by L-cells in the intestine in response to glucose and fatty acids. GLP-1 circulates to the beta cells of the pancreas where it binds a G-protein coupled r...
  • Glucagon-type ligand receptors, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Glucagon-type ligand receptors, organism-specific biosystemThe glucagon hormone family regulates the activity of GPCRs from the secretin receptor subfamily in Class II/B (Mayo KE et al, 2003).
  • Glutamatergic synapse, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Glutamatergic synapse, organism-specific biosystemGlutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system(CNS). Glutamate is packaged into synaptic vesicles in the presynaptic terminal. Once released into the synap...
  • Glutamatergic synapse, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Glutamatergic synapse, conserved biosystemGlutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system(CNS). Glutamate is packaged into synaptic vesicles in the presynaptic terminal. Once released into the synap...
  • Hedgehog signaling events mediated by Gli proteins, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    Hedgehog signaling events mediated by Gli proteins, organism-specific biosystem
    Hedgehog signaling events mediated by Gli proteins
  • Hemostasis, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Hemostasis, organism-specific biosystemHemostasis is a physiological response that culminates in the arrest of bleeding from an injured vessel. Under normal conditions the vascular endothelium supports vasodilation, inhibits platelet adhe...
  • Human Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Human Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemHuman thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) is a glycoprotein hormone secreted from the anterior pituitary lobe, which plays an important physiological role in regulation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-th...
  • Inactivation, recovery and regulation of the phototransduction cascade, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Inactivation, recovery and regulation of the phototransduction cascade, organism-specific biosystemTo terminate the single photon response and restore the system to its basal state, the three activated intermediates in phototransduction, rhodopsin (MII), transducin alpha subunit with GTP bound (GN...
  • Inhibition of voltage gated Ca2+ channels via Gbeta/gamma subunits, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Inhibition of voltage gated Ca2+ channels via Gbeta/gamma subunits, organism-specific biosystemGABA B receptors are coupled to Gproteins and function by increasing the K+ and decreasing the Ca2+ inside the cell. The increase in K+ increases the negative membrane potential of the cell thereby h...
  • Integration of energy metabolism, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Integration of energy metabolism, organism-specific biosystemMany hormones that affect individual physiological processes including the regulation of appetite, absorption, transport, and oxidation of foodstuffs influence energy metabolism pathways. While insul...
  • Inwardly rectifying K+ channels, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Inwardly rectifying K+ channels, organism-specific biosystemInwardly rectifying K+ channels (Kir channels) show an inward rather than outward (like the voltage gated K+ channels) flow of K+ thereby contributing to maintenance of resting membrane potential an...
  • LPA receptor mediated events, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    LPA receptor mediated events, organism-specific biosystem
    LPA receptor mediated events
  • Metabolism, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Metabolism, organism-specific biosystemMetabolic processes in human cells generate energy through the oxidation of molecules consumed in the diet and mediate the synthesis of diverse essential molecules not taken in the diet as well as th...
  • Metabolism of proteins, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Metabolism of proteins, organism-specific biosystemProtein metabolism comprises the pathways of translation, post-translational modification and protein folding.
  • Morphine addiction, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Morphine addiction, organism-specific biosystemMorphine is an alkaloid from the plant extracts of opium poppy. Although morphine is highly effective for the treatment of pain, it is also known to be intensely addictive. We now know that the most ...
  • Morphine addiction, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Morphine addiction, conserved biosystemMorphine is an alkaloid from the plant extracts of opium poppy. Although morphine is highly effective for the treatment of pain, it is also known to be intensely addictive. We now know that the most ...
  • Myometrial Relaxation and Contraction Pathways, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Myometrial Relaxation and Contraction Pathways, organism-specific biosystemThis pathway illustrates signaling networks implicated in uterine muscle contraction at labor and quiescence throughout gestation (pregnancy). The muscle of the uterus, responsible for contractile ac...
  • Neuronal System, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Neuronal System, organism-specific biosystemThe human brain contains at least 100 billion neurons, each with the ability to influence many other cells. Clearly, highly sophisticated and efficient mechanisms are needed to enable communication a...
  • Neurotransmitter Receptor Binding And Downstream Transmission In The Postsynaptic Cell, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Neurotransmitter Receptor Binding And Downstream Transmission In The Postsynaptic Cell, organism-specific biosystemThe neurotransmitter in the synaptic cleft released by the pre-synaptic neuron binds specific receptors located on the post-synaptic terminal. These receptors are either ion channels or G protein cou...
  • Nicotine Activity on Dopaminergic Neurons, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Nicotine Activity on Dopaminergic Neurons, organism-specific biosystemNicotine is an alkaloid found in tobacco plants. It is a substance that acts as a stimulant in humans and is one of the main factors responsible for tobacco dependence. When nicotine enters the body,...
  • Nongenotropic Androgen signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    Nongenotropic Androgen signaling, organism-specific biosystem
    Nongenotropic Androgen signaling
  • Olfactory Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Olfactory Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystemMammalian Olfactory Receptor (OR) genes were discoved in rats by Linda Buck and Richard Axel, who predicted that odorants would be detected by a large family of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) th...
  • Olfactory transduction, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Olfactory transduction, organism-specific biosystemWithin the compact cilia of the olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) a cascade of enzymatic activity transduces the binding of an odorant molecule to a receptor into an electrical signal that can be tra...
  • Olfactory transduction, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Olfactory transduction, conserved biosystemWithin the compact cilia of the olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) a cascade of enzymatic activity transduces the binding of an odorant molecule to a receptor into an electrical signal that can be tra...
  • Opioid Signalling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Opioid Signalling, organism-specific biosystemOpioids are chemical substances similar to opiates, the active substances found in opium (morphine, codeine etc.). Opioid action is mediated by the receptors for endogenous opioids; peptides such as...
  • PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemThe phosphatidylinositol 3' -kinase(PI3K)-Akt signaling pathway is activated by many types of cellular stimuli or toxic insults and regulates fundamental cellular functions such as transcription, tra...
  • PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, conserved biosystemThe phosphatidylinositol 3' -kinase(PI3K)-Akt signaling pathway is activated by many types of cellular stimuli or toxic insults and regulates fundamental cellular functions such as transcription, tra...
  • Pathways in cancer, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Pathways in cancer, organism-specific biosystem
    Pathways in cancer
  • Phototransduction, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Phototransduction, organism-specific biosystemPhototransduction is a biochemical process by which the photoreceptor cells generate electrical signals in response to captured photons. The vertebrate cascade starts with the absorption of photons b...
  • Phototransduction, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Phototransduction, conserved biosystemPhototransduction is a biochemical process by which the photoreceptor cells generate electrical signals in response to captured photons. The vertebrate cascade starts with the absorption of photons b...
  • Plasma membrane estrogen receptor signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    Plasma membrane estrogen receptor signaling, organism-specific biosystem
    Plasma membrane estrogen receptor signaling
  • Platelet activation, signaling and aggregation, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Platelet activation, signaling and aggregation, organism-specific biosystemPlatelet activation begins with the initial binding of adhesive ligands and of the excitatory platelet agonists (released or generated at the sites of vascular trauma) to cognate receptors on the pla...
  • Platelet homeostasis, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Platelet homeostasis, organism-specific biosystemUnder normal conditions the vascular endothelium supports vasodilation, inhibits platelet adhesion and activation, suppresses coagulation, enhances fibrin cleavage and is anti-inflammatory in charact...
  • Potassium Channels, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Potassium Channels, organism-specific biosystemPotassium channels are tetrameric ion channels that are widely distributed and are found in all cell types. Potassium channels control resting membrane potential in neurons, contribute to regulation ...
  • Presynaptic function of Kainate receptors, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Presynaptic function of Kainate receptors, organism-specific biosystemKainate receptors in the presynaptic neuron are involved in modulating the release of neurotransmitters like glutamate and gamma amino butyric acid (GABA). This activity of Kainate receptors is indep...
  • Prostacyclin signalling through prostacyclin receptor, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Prostacyclin signalling through prostacyclin receptor, organism-specific biosystemProstacyclin (PGI2) is continuously produced by healthy vascular endothelial cells. It inhibits platelet activation through interaction with the Gs-coupled receptor PTGIR, leading to increased cAMP, ...
  • Protein folding, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Protein folding, organism-specific biosystemDue to the crowded envirnoment within the cell, many proteins must interact with molecular chaperones to attain their native conformation (reviewed in Young et al., 2004). Chaperones recognize and...
  • Rapid glucocorticoid signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    Rapid glucocorticoid signaling, organism-specific biosystem
    Rapid glucocorticoid signaling
  • Ras signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Ras signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemThe Ras proteins are GTPases that function as molecular switches for signaling pathways regulating cell proliferation, survival, growth, migration, differentiation or cytoskeletal dynamism. Ras prote...
  • Regulation of insulin secretion, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Regulation of insulin secretion, organism-specific biosystemPancreatic beta cells integrate signals from several metabolites and hormones to control the secretion of insulin. In general, glucose triggers insulin secretion while other factors can amplify or in...
  • Retrograde endocannabinoid signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Retrograde endocannabinoid signaling, organism-specific biosystemEndogenous cannabinoids (endocannabinoids) serve as retrograde messengers at synapses in various regions of the brain. The family of endocannabinoids includes at least five derivatives of arachidonic...
  • Retrograde endocannabinoid signaling, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Retrograde endocannabinoid signaling, conserved biosystemEndogenous cannabinoids (endocannabinoids) serve as retrograde messengers at synapses in various regions of the brain. The family of endocannabinoids includes at least five derivatives of arachidonic...
  • Serotonergic synapse, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Serotonergic synapse, organism-specific biosystemSerotonin (5-Hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) is a monoamine neurotransmitter that plays important roles in physiological functions such as learning and memory, emotion, sleep, pain, motor function and endoc...
  • Signal Transduction, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signal Transduction, organism-specific biosystemSignal transduction is a process in which extracellular signals elicit changes in cell state and activity. Transmembrane receptors sense changes in the cellular environment by binding ligands, such a...
  • Signal amplification, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signal amplification, organism-specific biosystemIn the initial response to injury, platelets adhere to damaged blood vessels, responding to the exposure of collagen from the vascular epithelium. Once adhered they degranulate, releasing stored seco...
  • Signaling by GPCR, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signaling by GPCR, organism-specific biosystemG protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs; 7TM receptors; seven transmembrane domain receptors; heptahelical receptors; G protein-linked receptors [GPLR]) are the largest family of transmembrane receptors i...
  • Signaling by Wnt, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signaling by Wnt, organism-specific biosystemWNT signaling pathways control a wide range of developmental and adult process in metozoans including cell proliferation, cell fate decisions, cell polarity and stem cell maintenance (reviewed in Sai...
  • Signaling events mediated by HDAC Class II, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    Signaling events mediated by HDAC Class II, organism-specific biosystem
    Signaling events mediated by HDAC Class II
  • The phototransduction cascade, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    The phototransduction cascade, organism-specific biosystemThe visual pigment (rhodopsin in rods) consists of an 11-cis-retinal (11cRAL) chromophore covalently attached to a GPCR opsin family member via a Schiff base linkage. Upon photon absorption, 11cRAL i...
  • Thrombin signalling through proteinase activated receptors (PARs), organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Thrombin signalling through proteinase activated receptors (PARs), organism-specific biosystemThrombin activates proteinase activated receptors (PARs) that signal through heterotrimeric G proteins of the G12/13 and Gq families, thereby connecting to a host of intracellular signaling pathways....
  • Thromboxane A2 receptor signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    Thromboxane A2 receptor signaling, organism-specific biosystem
    Thromboxane A2 receptor signaling
  • Thromboxane signalling through TP receptor, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Thromboxane signalling through TP receptor, organism-specific biosystemThromboxane (TXA2) binds to the thromboxane receptor (TP). There are 2 splice variant forms of TP, differing in their cytoplasmic carboxyl terminal tails. TP beta was first identified in endothelial ...
  • Transmembrane transport of small molecules, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Transmembrane transport of small molecules, organism-specific biosystem
    Transmembrane transport of small molecules
  • Transmission across Chemical Synapses, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Transmission across Chemical Synapses, organism-specific biosystemChemical synapses are specialized junctions that are used for communication between neurons, neurons and muscle or gland cells. The synapse involves a pre-synaptic neuron and a post-synaptic neuron,...
  • Vasopressin regulates renal water homeostasis via Aquaporins, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Vasopressin regulates renal water homeostasis via Aquaporins, organism-specific biosystemIn the kidney water and solutes are passed out of the bloodstream and into the proximal tubule via the slit-like structure formed by nephrin in the glomerulus. Water is reabsorbed from the filtrate d...
  • Visual phototransduction, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Visual phototransduction, organism-specific biosystemVisual phototransduction is the process by which photon absorption by visual pigment molecules in photoreceptor cells is converted to an electrical cellular response. The events in this process are p...
  • Visual signal transduction: Rods, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    Visual signal transduction: Rods, organism-specific biosystem
    Visual signal transduction: Rods
Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

Markers

Homology

Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

Function Evidence Code Pubs
GTPase activity IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
GTPase binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
alkylglycerophosphoethanolamine phosphodiesterase activity IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
protein binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
protein complex binding IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
signal transducer activity IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
spectrin binding IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
type 1 angiotensin receptor binding IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
Process Evidence Code Pubs
G-protein coupled acetylcholine receptor signaling pathway TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
Ras protein signal transduction TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
Wnt signaling pathway, calcium modulating pathway TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
adenylate cyclase-activating dopamine receptor signaling pathway ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
cardiac muscle cell apoptotic process IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
cell proliferation IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
cellular response to catecholamine stimulus ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
cellular response to glucagon stimulus TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
cellular response to hypoxia IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
cellular response to prostaglandin E stimulus ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
phospholipase C-activating G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
platelet activation TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
positive regulation of cytosolic calcium ion concentration IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
protein folding TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
protein heterotrimerization IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
retina development in camera-type eye IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
rhodopsin mediated signaling pathway TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
sensory perception of taste IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
signal transduction TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
Component Evidence Code Pubs
cell body IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
cytosol TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
dendrite IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
extracellular exosome IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
extracellular vesicle IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
heterotrimeric G-protein complex IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
intracellular ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
lysosomal membrane IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
membrane ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
myelin sheath IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
photoreceptor disc membrane TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
photoreceptor inner segment IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
photoreceptor outer segment membrane IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
plasma membrane TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
Preferred Names
guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(I)/G(S)/G(T) subunit beta-1
Names
beta subunit, signal-transducing proteins GS/GI
guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), beta polypeptide 1
testicular tissue protein Li 72
transducin beta chain 1

RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

Genomic

  1. NG_047052.1 RefSeqGene

    Range
    5001..110833
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. NM_001282538.1NP_001269467.1  guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(I)/G(S)/G(T) subunit beta-1 isoform 2

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001269467.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (3) differs in its 5' UTR and initiates translation at a downstream start codon, compared to variant 1. The encoded isoform (2) has a shorter N-terminus, compared to isoform 1.
    Source sequence(s)
    AI092255, AK122949, BC004186, BQ881467
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS72685.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P62873
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    B3KVK2
    Related
    ENSP00000483532.1, ENST00000615252.4
    Conserved Domains (2) summary
    cd00200
    Location:2240
    WD40; WD40 domain, found in a number of eukaryotic proteins that cover a wide variety of functions including adaptor/regulatory modules in signal transduction, pre-mRNA processing and cytoskeleton assembly; typically contains a GH dipeptide 11-24 residues from ...
    sd00039
    Location:141
    7WD40; WD40 repeat [structural motif]
  2. NM_001282539.1NP_001269468.1  guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(I)/G(S)/G(T) subunit beta-1 isoform 1

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001269468.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (2) differs in the 5' UTR. Both variants 1 and 2 encode the same isoform (1).
    Source sequence(s)
    AI092255, BC004186, BQ881467, BU902364
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS34.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P62873
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    A0A024R056
    Related
    ENSP00000481878.1, ENST00000610897.4
    Conserved Domains (2) summary
    cd00200
    Location:48340
    WD40; WD40 domain, found in a number of eukaryotic proteins that cover a wide variety of functions including adaptor/regulatory modules in signal transduction, pre-mRNA processing and cytoskeleton assembly; typically contains a GH dipeptide 11-24 residues from ...
    sd00039
    Location:5895
    7WD40; WD40 repeat [structural motif]
  3. NM_002074.4NP_002065.1  guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(I)/G(S)/G(T) subunit beta-1 isoform 1

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_002065.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (1) represents the longest transcript and encodes the longer isoform (1). Both variants 1 and 2 encode the same isoform.
    Source sequence(s)
    AI092255, BC004186, BQ881467
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS34.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P62873
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    A0A024R056
    Related
    ENSP00000367872.3, OTTHUMP00000001107, ENST00000378609.8, OTTHUMT00000002762
    Conserved Domains (2) summary
    cd00200
    Location:48340
    WD40; WD40 domain, found in a number of eukaryotic proteins that cover a wide variety of functions including adaptor/regulatory modules in signal transduction, pre-mRNA processing and cytoskeleton assembly; typically contains a GH dipeptide 11-24 residues from ...
    sd00039
    Location:5895
    7WD40; WD40 repeat [structural motif]

RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: Homo sapiens Annotation Release 108 details...Open this link in a new tab

The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

Reference GRCh38.p7 Primary Assembly

Genomic

  1. NC_000001.11 Reference GRCh38.p7 Primary Assembly

    Range
    1785285..1891117 complement
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. XM_017001059.1XP_016856548.1  guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(I)/G(S)/G(T) subunit beta-1 isoform X1

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P62873
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    A0A024R056
    Conserved Domains (2) summary
    cd00200
    Location:48340
    WD40; WD40 domain, found in a number of eukaryotic proteins that cover a wide variety of functions including adaptor/regulatory modules in signal transduction, pre-mRNA processing and cytoskeleton assembly; typically contains a GH dipeptide 11-24 residues from ...
    sd00039
    Location:5895
    7WD40; WD40 repeat [structural motif]
  2. XM_017001061.1XP_016856550.1  guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(I)/G(S)/G(T) subunit beta-1 isoform X1

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P62873
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    A0A024R056
    Conserved Domains (2) summary
    cd00200
    Location:48340
    WD40; WD40 domain, found in a number of eukaryotic proteins that cover a wide variety of functions including adaptor/regulatory modules in signal transduction, pre-mRNA processing and cytoskeleton assembly; typically contains a GH dipeptide 11-24 residues from ...
    sd00039
    Location:5895
    7WD40; WD40 repeat [structural motif]
  3. XM_017001060.1XP_016856549.1  guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(I)/G(S)/G(T) subunit beta-1 isoform X1

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P62873
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    A0A024R056
    Conserved Domains (2) summary
    cd00200
    Location:48340
    WD40; WD40 domain, found in a number of eukaryotic proteins that cover a wide variety of functions including adaptor/regulatory modules in signal transduction, pre-mRNA processing and cytoskeleton assembly; typically contains a GH dipeptide 11-24 residues from ...
    sd00039
    Location:5895
    7WD40; WD40 repeat [structural motif]

Alternate CHM1_1.1

Genomic

  1. NC_018912.2 Alternate CHM1_1.1

    Range
    1703767..1809575 complement
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)
Support Center