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GNAI2 G protein subunit alpha i2 [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

Gene ID: 2771, updated on 7-Jun-2020

Summary

Official Symbol
GNAI2provided by HGNC
Official Full Name
G protein subunit alpha i2provided by HGNC
Primary source
HGNC:HGNC:4385
See related
Ensembl:ENSG00000114353 MIM:139360
Gene type
protein coding
RefSeq status
REVIEWED
Organism
Homo sapiens
Lineage
Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
Also known as
GIP; GNAI2B; H_LUCA15.1; H_LUCA16.1
Summary
The protein encoded by this gene is an alpha subunit of guanine nucleotide binding proteins (G proteins). The encoded protein contains the guanine nucleotide binding site and is involved in the hormonal regulation of adenylate cyclase. Several transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2013]
Expression
Ubiquitous expression in spleen (RPKM 106.7), bone marrow (RPKM 93.2) and 25 other tissues See more
Orthologs

Genomic context

See GNAI2 in Genome Data Viewer
Location:
3p21.31
Exon count:
13
Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
109.20200522 current GRCh38.p13 (GCF_000001405.39) 3 NC_000003.12 (50227068..50259362)
105 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 3 NC_000003.11 (50264120..50296786)

Chromosome 3 - NC_000003.12Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene G protein subunit alpha transducin 1 Neighboring gene solute carrier family 38 member 3 Neighboring gene microRNA 5787 Neighboring gene SEMA3B antisense RNA 1 (head to head) Neighboring gene semaphorin 3B Neighboring gene microRNA 6872

Genomic regions, transcripts, and products

Expression

  • Project title: HPA RNA-seq normal tissues
  • Description: RNA-seq was performed of tissue samples from 95 human individuals representing 27 different tissues in order to determine tissue-specificity of all protein-coding genes
  • BioProject: PRJEB4337
  • Publication: PMID 24309898
  • Analysis date: Wed Apr 4 07:08:55 2018

Bibliography

GeneRIFs: Gene References Into Functions

What's a GeneRIF?

HIV-1 interactions

Protein interactions

Protein Gene Interaction Pubs
Envelope surface glycoprotein gp120 env HIV-1 gp120-mediated phosphorylation of WAVE2 requires both G(alpha)i-dependent and -independent pathways, and is conserved both in X4 and R5 viral infection of resting CD4 T cells and primary macrophages PubMed
env HIV-1 gp120 induces IL-1beta release from macrophages in a time- and concentration-dependent manner through binding to the chemokine receptor CCR5 and coupling to G(i)alpha protein PubMed
env CXCR4-tropic and CXCR4/CCR5 dual-tropic HIV-1 gp120 induce the cleavage of CD62 ligand by a mechanism dependent on matrix metalloproteinases 1 and 3, CD4, CXCR4, Galpha(i), and p38 MAPK, whereas CCR5-tropic gp120 does not PubMed
Nef nef HIV-1 Nef induced degradation of GNAI2 involves E3 ubiquitin ligases AIP4 and NEDD4 through recruitment of AIP4 and NEDD4 by Nef PubMed
nef HIV-1 Nef interacts with GNAI2 and induces lysosomal degradation of GNAI2 by ubiquitinylating GNAI2 at position Lys-296. The N-terminal myristoyl group, 62EEEE65 motif, and 72PXXP75 motif of Nef are critical for this effect to occur PubMed

Go to the HIV-1, Human Interaction Database

Pathways from PubChem

Interactions

Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

General gene information

Markers

Homology

Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

Function Evidence Code Pubs
G protein-coupled receptor binding IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
G-protein beta/gamma-subunit complex binding IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
GTP binding IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
GTPase activity IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
metal ion binding IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
protein binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
Process Evidence Code Pubs
G protein-coupled acetylcholine receptor signaling pathway IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
adenosine receptor signaling pathway IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
adenylate cyclase-activating G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
adenylate cyclase-inhibiting G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
adenylate cyclase-inhibiting G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
adenylate cyclase-modulating G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
cell cycle IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
cell division IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
cell proliferation IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
gamma-aminobutyric acid signaling pathway IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of adenylate cyclase activity TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of adenylate cyclase-activating adrenergic receptor signaling pathway involved in heart process IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
negative regulation of apoptotic signaling pathway IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
negative regulation of calcium ion-dependent exocytosis IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
negative regulation of protein tyrosine phosphatase activity IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
negative regulation of synaptic transmission IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
positive regulation of ERK1 and ERK2 cascade IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
positive regulation of NAD(P)H oxidase activity IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
positive regulation of cell migration IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
positive regulation of cell proliferation IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of insulin receptor signaling pathway IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
positive regulation of neural precursor cell proliferation IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
positive regulation of renal sodium excretion IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
positive regulation of superoxide anion generation IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
positive regulation of urine volume IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
positive regulation of vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
protein folding TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
regulation of calcium ion transport IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
response to nutrient TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
signal transduction TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
Component Evidence Code Pubs
cell body IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
centrosome IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
cytoplasm IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
cytosol IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
 
dendrite IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
extracellular exosome HDA PubMed 
extracellular vesicle HDA PubMed 
heterotrimeric G-protein complex IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
PubMed 
membrane HDA PubMed 
membrane raft IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
midbody IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
nucleoplasm IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
 
plasma membrane IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
plasma membrane TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
synapse IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 

General protein information

Preferred Names
guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(i) subunit alpha-2
Names
GTP-binding regulatory protein Gi alpha-2 chain
adenylate cyclase-inhibiting G alpha protein
guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), alpha inhibiting activity polypeptide 2
guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(i), alpha-2 subunit

NCBI Reference Sequences (RefSeq)

RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

Genomic

  1. NG_016002.2 RefSeqGene

    Range
    14517..37675
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. NM_001166425.2NP_001159897.1  guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(i) subunit alpha-2 isoform 2

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001159897.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (2) differs in the 5' UTR and coding sequence compared to variant 1. The resulting isoform (2) has a shorter and distinct N-terminus compared to isoform 1.
    Source sequence(s)
    AK055574, AK126708, AK302330, DB044421, U73166
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS54587.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P04899
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    B3KP24, B3KX51
    Related
    ENSP00000406369.1, ENST00000451956.1
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    cd00066
    Location:3312
    G-alpha; Alpha subunit of G proteins (guanine nucleotide binding)
  2. NM_001282617.1NP_001269546.1  guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(i) subunit alpha-2 isoform 3

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001269546.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (3) differs in the 5' UTR and coding sequence compared to variant 1. The resulting isoform (3) is shorter at the N-terminus compared to isoform 1.
    Source sequence(s)
    AK055574, AK096595, AK126708
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS63644.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P04899
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    B3KP24, B3KX51
    Related
    ENSP00000266027.6, ENST00000266027.9
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    cd00066
    Location:1297
    G-alpha; Alpha subunit of G proteins (guanine nucleotide binding)
  3. NM_001282618.2NP_001269547.1  guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(i) subunit alpha-2 isoform 4

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001269547.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (4) differs in the 5' UTR and coding sequence compared to variant 1. The resulting isoform (4) is shorter at the N-terminus compared to isoform 1.
    Source sequence(s)
    AK055574, AK096595, U73166
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P04899
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    B3KP24
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    cd00066
    Location:2268
    G-alpha; Alpha subunit of G proteins (guanine nucleotide binding)
  4. NM_001282619.2NP_001269548.1  guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(i) subunit alpha-2 isoform 5

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001269548.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (5) differs in the 5' UTR and coding sequence compared to variant 1. The resulting isoform (5) has a shorter and distinct N-terminus compared to isoform 1.
    Source sequence(s)
    AK055574, BC016995, U73166
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P04899
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    B3KP24
    Conserved Domains (2) summary
    cd00066
    Location:24333
    G-alpha; Alpha subunit of G proteins (guanine nucleotide binding)
    smart00275
    Location:24337
    G_alpha; G protein alpha subunit
  5. NM_001282620.2NP_001269549.1  guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(i) subunit alpha-2 isoform 6

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001269549.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (6) differs in the 5' UTR and coding sequence compared to variant 1. The resulting isoform (6) has a shorter and distinct N-terminus compared to isoform 1.
    Source sequence(s)
    AK055574, AK096595, U73166
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS63642.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P04899
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    B3KP24
    Related
    ENSP00000406871.1, ENST00000422163.5
    Conserved Domains (2) summary
    cd00066
    Location:24333
    G-alpha; Alpha subunit of G proteins (guanine nucleotide binding)
    smart00275
    Location:24337
    G_alpha; G protein alpha subunit
  6. NM_002070.4NP_002061.1  guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(i) subunit alpha-2 isoform 1

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_002061.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (1) encodes the longest isoform (1).
    Source sequence(s)
    AK055574, BC012138, U73166
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS2813.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P04899
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    B3KP24
    Related
    ENSP00000312999.6, ENST00000313601.11
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    cd00066
    Location:34349
    G-alpha; Alpha subunit of G proteins (guanine nucleotide binding)

RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: Homo sapiens Updated Annotation Release 109.

The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

Reference GRCh38.p13 Primary Assembly

Genomic

  1. NC_000003.12 Reference GRCh38.p13 Primary Assembly

    Range
    50227068..50259362
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)
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