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FGF21 fibroblast growth factor 21 [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

Gene ID: 26291, updated on 12-Oct-2019

Summary

Official Symbol
FGF21provided by HGNC
Official Full Name
fibroblast growth factor 21provided by HGNC
Primary source
HGNC:HGNC:3678
See related
Ensembl:ENSG00000105550 MIM:609436
Gene type
protein coding
RefSeq status
REVIEWED
Organism
Homo sapiens
Lineage
Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
Summary
Theis gene encodes a member of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family. FGF family members possess broad mitogenic and cell survival activities and are involved in a variety of biological processes. This protein is a secreted endocrine factor that functions as a major metabolic regulator. The encoded protein stimulates the uptake of glucose in adipose tissue. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2016]
Expression
Restricted expression toward liver (RPKM 3.0) See more
Orthologs

Genomic context

See FGF21 in Genome Data Viewer
Location:
19q13.33
Exon count:
4
Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
109.20190905 current GRCh38.p13 (GCF_000001405.39) 19 NC_000019.10 (48755524..48758330)
105 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 19 NC_000019.9 (49258816..49261587)

Chromosome 19 - NC_000019.10Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene izumo sperm-egg fusion 1 Neighboring gene FGF21/FUT1 promoter region Neighboring gene fucosyltransferase 1 (H blood group) Neighboring gene RNA, U6 small nuclear 317, pseudogene Neighboring gene branched chain amino acid transaminase 2 Neighboring gene uncharacterized LOC105372432

Genomic regions, transcripts, and products

Expression

  • Project title: HPA RNA-seq normal tissues
  • Description: RNA-seq was performed of tissue samples from 95 human individuals representing 27 different tissues in order to determine tissue-specificity of all protein-coding genes
  • BioProject: PRJEB4337
  • Publication: PMID 24309898
  • Analysis date: Wed Apr 4 07:08:55 2018

Bibliography

GeneRIFs: Gene References Into Functions

What's a GeneRIF?

Phenotypes

NHGRI GWAS Catalog

Description
Common genetic loci influencing plasma homocysteine concentrations and their effect on risk of coronary artery disease.
NHGRI GWA Catalog
Four novel Loci (19q13, 6q24, 12q24, and 5q14) influence the microcirculation in vivo.
NHGRI GWA Catalog
Genome-wide meta-analysis of observational studies shows common genetic variants associated with macronutrient intake.
NHGRI GWA Catalog
Large-scale genome-wide association analysis of bipolar disorder identifies a new susceptibility locus near ODZ4.
NHGRI GWA Catalog
Novel locus including FGF21 is associated with dietary macronutrient intake.
NHGRI GWA Catalog

Pathways from BioSystems

  • Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor, organism-specific biosystemThe Aryl Hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is ligand activated transcription factor that regulates wide spectrum of gene expression. The main mediator of AhR is 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) or...
  • Breast cancer, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Breast cancer, organism-specific biosystemBreast cancer is the leading cause of cancer death among women worldwide. The vast majority of breast cancers are carcinomas that originate from cells lining the milk-forming ducts of the mammary gla...
  • Breast cancer, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Breast cancer, conserved biosystemBreast cancer is the leading cause of cancer death among women worldwide. The vast majority of breast cancers are carcinomas that originate from cells lining the milk-forming ducts of the mammary gla...
  • Chylomicron-mediated lipid transport, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Chylomicron-mediated lipid transport, organism-specific biosystemChylomicrons transport triacylglycerol, phospholipid, and cholesterol derived from dietary lipid from the small intestine to other tissues of the body. Each chylomicron assembles around a single mole...
  • Facilitative Na+-independent glucose transporters, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Facilitative Na+-independent glucose transporters, organism-specific biosystemTwo gene families are responsible for glucose transport in humans. SLC2 (encoding GLUTs) and SLC5 (encoding SGLTs) families mediate glucose absorption in the small intestine, glucose reabsorption in ...
  • Glucose transport, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Glucose transport, organism-specific biosystemCells take up glucose by facilitated diffusion, via glucose transporters (GLUTs) associated with the plasma membrane, a reversible reaction (Joost and Thorens 2001). Four tissue-specific GLUT isoform...
  • Hexose transport, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Hexose transport, organism-specific biosystemHexoses, notably fructose, glucose, and galactose, generated in the lumen of the small intestine by breakdown of dietary carbohydrate are taken up by enterocytes lining the microvilli of the small in...
  • Lipid digestion, mobilization, and transport, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Lipid digestion, mobilization, and transport, organism-specific biosystemProcesses annotated here include the digestion of dietary lipids, sterol uptake, the formation and turnover of lipoproteins (chylomicrons, VLDL, LDL, and HDL), and the mobilization of fatty acids thr...
  • Lipoprotein metabolism, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Lipoprotein metabolism, organism-specific biosystemBecause of their hydrophobicity, lipids are found in the extracellular spaces of the human body primarily in the form of lipoprotein complexes. Chylomicrons form in the small intestine and transport ...
  • MAPK signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    MAPK signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemThe mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade is a highly conserved module that is involved in various cellular functions, including cell proliferation, differentiation and migration. Mammals e...
  • MAPK signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    MAPK signaling pathway, conserved biosystemThe mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade is a highly conserved module that is involved in various cellular functions, including cell proliferation, differentiation and migration. Mammals e...
  • Melanoma, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Melanoma, organism-specific biosystemMelanoma is a form of skin cancer that has a poor prognosis and which is on the rise in Western populations. Melanoma arises from the malignant transformation of pigment-producing cells, melanocytes...
  • Melanoma, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Melanoma, conserved biosystemMelanoma is a form of skin cancer that has a poor prognosis and which is on the rise in Western populations. Melanoma arises from the malignant transformation of pigment-producing cells, melanocytes...
  • Metabolism, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Metabolism, organism-specific biosystemMetabolic processes in human cells generate energy through the oxidation of molecules consumed in the diet and mediate the synthesis of diverse essential molecules not taken in the diet as well as th...
  • Metabolism of carbohydrates, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Metabolism of carbohydrates, organism-specific biosystemThese pathways together are responsible for: 1) the extraction of energy and carbon skeletons for biosyntheses from dietary sugars and related molecules; 2) the short-term storage of glucose in the b...
  • Metabolism of lipids and lipoproteins, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Metabolism of lipids and lipoproteins, organism-specific biosystemLipids are hydrophobic but otherwise chemically diverse molecules that play a wide variety of roles in human biology. They include ketone bodies, fatty acids, triacylglycerols, phospholipids and sphi...
  • PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemThe phosphatidylinositol 3' -kinase(PI3K)-Akt signaling pathway is activated by many types of cellular stimuli or toxic insults and regulates fundamental cellular functions such as transcription, tra...
  • PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, conserved biosystemThe phosphatidylinositol 3' -kinase(PI3K)-Akt signaling pathway is activated by many types of cellular stimuli or toxic insults and regulates fundamental cellular functions such as transcription, tra...
  • Pathways in cancer, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Pathways in cancer, organism-specific biosystem
    Pathways in cancer
  • Rap1 signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Rap1 signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemRap1 is a small GTPase that controls diverse processes, such as cell adhesion, cell-cell junction formation and cell polarity. Like all G proteins, Rap1 cycles between an inactive GDP-bound and an ac...
  • Rap1 signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Rap1 signaling pathway, conserved biosystemRap1 is a small GTPase that controls diverse processes, such as cell adhesion, cell-cell junction formation and cell polarity. Like all G proteins, Rap1 cycles between an inactive GDP-bound and an ac...
  • Ras signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Ras signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemThe Ras proteins are GTPases that function as molecular switches for signaling pathways regulating cell proliferation, survival, growth, migration, differentiation or cytoskeletal dynamism. Ras prote...
  • Regulation of Actin Cytoskeleton, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Regulation of Actin Cytoskeleton, organism-specific biosystemhttp://www.genome.jp/kegg/pathway/hsa/hsa04810.html
  • Regulation of actin cytoskeleton, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Regulation of actin cytoskeleton, organism-specific biosystem
    Regulation of actin cytoskeleton
  • Regulation of actin cytoskeleton, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Regulation of actin cytoskeleton, conserved biosystem
    Regulation of actin cytoskeleton
  • SLC-mediated transmembrane transport, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    SLC-mediated transmembrane transport, organism-specific biosystemProteins with transporting functions can be roughly classified into 3 categories: ATP-powered pumps, ion channels, and transporters. Pumps utilize the energy released by ATP hydrolysis to power the m...
  • Sterol Regulatory Element-Binding Proteins (SREBP) signalling, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Sterol Regulatory Element-Binding Proteins (SREBP) signalling, organism-specific biosystemSterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBPs) are membrane-bound proteins that act as transcription factors. They regulate lipid, especially cholesterol, biosynthesis and uptake at a transcript...
  • Transmembrane transport of small molecules, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Transmembrane transport of small molecules, organism-specific biosystem
    Transmembrane transport of small molecules
  • Transport of glucose and other sugars, bile salts and organic acids, metal ions and amine compounds, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Transport of glucose and other sugars, bile salts and organic acids, metal ions and amine compounds, organism-specific biosystemHexoses like glucose, galactose and fructose serve as basic fuel molecules for eukaryotic cells. Indeed, glucose is the main energy source for mammalian cells. These sugars are unable to diffuse acro...

Interactions

Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

General gene information

Homology

Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

Function Evidence Code Pubs
fibroblast growth factor receptor binding IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
growth factor activity IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
protein binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
Process Evidence Code Pubs
cell-cell signaling TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
cellular response to drug IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
cellular response to glucagon stimulus IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
cellular response to glucose stimulus IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
cellular response to low-density lipoprotein particle stimulus IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
endoplasmic reticulum unfolded protein response IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
endothelial cell apoptotic process IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
negative regulation of endothelial cell apoptotic process IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
negative regulation of neuron death IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
positive regulation of ERK1 and ERK2 cascade IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of MAPKKK cascade by fibroblast growth factor receptor signaling pathway IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
positive regulation of cell proliferation IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
positive regulation of cold-induced thermogenesis ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of glucose import IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of low-density lipoprotein particle receptor biosynthetic process NAS
Non-traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of triglyceride catabolic process IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
regulation of low-density lipoprotein particle clearance NAS
Non-traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
response to activity IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
response to methionine IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
response to nutrient levels IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
signal transduction TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
Component Evidence Code Pubs
cell IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
extracellular region TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
extracellular space IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 

General protein information

Preferred Names
fibroblast growth factor 21

NCBI Reference Sequences (RefSeq)

RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

Genomic

  1. NG_033945.1 RefSeqGene

    Range
    4438..7244
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. NM_019113.4NP_061986.1  fibroblast growth factor 21 precursor

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_061986.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Source sequence(s)
    AC009002, BC018404
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS12734.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    Q9NSA1
    Related
    ENSP00000471477.1, ENST00000593756.6
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    cd00058
    Location:47159
    FGF; Acidic and basic fibroblast growth factor family; FGFs are mitogens, which stimulate growth or differentiation of cells of mesodermal or neuroectodermal origin. The family plays essential roles in patterning and differentiation during vertebrate ...

RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: Homo sapiens Annotation Release 109.20190905

The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

Reference GRCh38.p13 Primary Assembly

Genomic

  1. NC_000019.10 Reference GRCh38.p13 Primary Assembly

    Range
    48755524..48758330
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)
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